Jessie Fothergill.

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and in the first half of 1913; but German competition was severely
felt both in home and in Japanese, Canadian and Indian markets.
In 1914 both the pig-iron trade and the steel trade were inactive,
but a rapid improvement followed the outbreak of war, and steel and
malleable iron continued to be in great demand throughout the war.
The pig-iron market, on the other hand, suffered in 1915 from an un-
precedented advance in the price of ore and from freight difficulties.
Early in 1916 all the works in which pig-iron was produced were
placed under the Ministry of Munitions, and there was a steady de-
mand in spite of reduced exports. The pressure of work in the steel
and iron trades continued after the decontrol of steel in Jan. 1919
and of iron in the following April, and prices were high. In the
end of the year steel ship-plates were 19 153., boiler ship-plates
24 IDS., and angles 19 53., net per ton delivered on the Clyde,
as compared with 7 2s. 6d., 7 173. 6d., and 6 153., respectively,
the highest prices in 1911. Hematite iron rose to 2ios. per ton as
compared with 723., the highest price in 1911. Prices reached still
higher levels in 1920, demand far exceeding supply in the earlier part
of the year, but prices proved to be too high for remunerative trade,
and reductions were made in November. Imports of pig-iron from
France and Belgium were begun, but in quantities so small that com-
petition with Scottish production had not yet become serious.

Mineral Oil. The Scottish mineral oil trade, the centre of which is
W. Lothian, was suffering severely from foreign competition in the

Imports in
British and Irish Exports
Foreign and Colonial Exports ....
Total in













O4.2OO.OI 2





Coal. The table at the foot of the page shows the output of
Scottish coal in the decade.

The export trade before the war amounted in round numbers to
16,000,000 tons per annum, of which 6,500,000 represented bunker
coal and coal shipped to home ports. The outbreak of war at once
closed markets in Germany, Austria, Russia, and Turkey, and inter-
rupted trade with other countries. The effect was specially felt in

years immediately preceding the war. Low prices and decreased
dividends marked the year 1911 ; there was a revival in 1912, due
partly to the general " boom " in trade and partly to the opening up
of wider markets, and 1913 was also prosperous in spite of the grow-
ing competition of the Mexican oilfields. Production remained
about the average of over 3,000,000 tons of shale in 1914, but prices
fluctuated, and exports decreased from 324,704 tons of oil in 1913 to

No. of mines at work under Coal
Mines Act

No. of persons employed

No. of tons of coal produced








estimated output for 1920 was 31,00

0,000 tons



311,000 tons. Prices were maintained at a high level throughout
the war, and the demand was steady, but, at the beginning of 1919,
the largely increased cost of production rendered it very doubtful
if the industry (which was estimated to employ directly about 10,000
workpeople and indirectly probably about 50,000) could be continued
on a remunerative basis. The problem was solved by an offer from
the Anglo-Persian Oil Co. to form a new consolidated company
known as Scottish Oils Ltd.; its acceptance by the shareholders
of the Scottish companies allied the Scottish oil trade with a strong
group of oil interests under one central management, and the result
has been satisfactory, although demand decreased in the end of 1920
owing to the general uncertainty of trade conditions.

Textiles. The woollen trade in the Borders had a year of great
prosperity in 1911, the output and the export trade (especially with
Germany) being very great. Thread and yarn makers had also a
prosperous year, and the linen trade of Dunfermline was steady,
though not brisk, but the jute trade of Dundee passed through one
of its worst years, with unprecedented curtailment of production,
due chiefly to over-production in Calcutta. The following year saw
a remarkable revival in the jute industry, which enjoyed a period of
unparalleled success, the woollen trade continued to be prosperous
and conditions in the linen trade were normal. Prosperity in textile
industries continued through 1913 and was not checked until the
outbreak of war, when the export of tweeds and linen came suddenly
to an end, and the textile industries as a whole suffered from a de-
crease in the purchase of luxuries and from the cessation of imports
of raw material. Jute, which had been prosperous in the early part
of the year, became unremunerative towards its close. New outlets
were found in the manufacture of khaki cloths, flannel shirtings, and
military blankets, but reorganization took time and was delayed
by lack of dyes and by the circumstance that Scottish flannel was
largely made from Belgian raw materials. Throughout the war, the
Dunfermline linen trade suffered more severely than other textiles,
the looms being unsuitable for the goods which were required. The
jute trade recovered in 1915, largely owing to Government orders.
These conditions continued to the end of the war; prices, in spite
of Government control, were very high, and rose after the Armistice.
The year 1919 was very prosperous for the jute trade, and linen
made a considerable recovery, in spite of difficulties about raw
material, but the woollen trade suffered from a poor clip after a
severe winter and a late spring. The general prosperity in textile
trades continued into the first quarter of 1920, but was followed by
an almost complete cessation of demand for woollen and linen goods,
and similar conditions prevailed in the jute trade. All over, prices,
as determined by cost of production, were too high for the consumer.

Agriculture. Agricultural conditions have undergone a large
number of changes. In 1910, agriculture was an unprofitable occu-
pation for the tenant, and rents were low on the average, about
half what they were in the 'eighties. Agricultural wages were also
comparatively low, although they had recently advanced, and the
average weekly earnings for all classes of agricultural labourers were
higher in Scotland than in England. Farmers were feeling the bur-
den of foreign competition and of the expense of the machinery neces-
sary for scientific farming. The food problem during the war gave
a new impetus to agriculture, the effect of which may be seen from
the following table:

Area under:

Crops and















The largest increase in production was in the years 1917 and 1918.
In 1917, the total produce of wheat was 304,169 quarters (an increase
of 2 1,000 quarters over 1916) and in 1918 it rose 10402,000 quarters.
The figures for barley and bere are 704,788 quarters in 1917 (an
increase of 57,600 quarters over 1916) and 677,000 in 1918; and
for oats 5,446,931 quarters in 1917 and 6,457,oooin 1918. The total
produce of the potato crop was 1,110,085 tons in 1917 (an increase of
579,000 tons on 1916) and 1 , 1 5 1 ,000 tons in 1918. Live stock showed
similar variations; the number of horses rose from 206,474 in 1911
and 198,704 in 1915 to 207,113 in 1916 and 210,048 in 1917, falling
slightly in 1918. Numbers of sheep and pigs declined slightly in
the war years sheep from 7,164,342 in 1911 to 6,878,198 in 1918,
and pigs from 171,115 in 191: to 118,007 in 1918, but cattle rose
from 1,200,017 in 1911 to 1,225,330 in 1916 (1,209,842 in 1918).

The increases in corn crops and potatoes were the result not only
of economic conditions, such as rising prices, but also of administra-
tive and legislative measures. In the summer of 1915 the Secretary
for Scotland appointed a departmental committee to report on the
measures necessary to increase the production of food during the
war; in 1916, the attention of military tribunals was directed to

xxxii. 13

agricultural necessities, and the army lent military labour at certain
seasons of the year. The Corn Production Act of 1917 led to the
division of Scotland into districts with District Wages Committees
to fix wages. The general prosperity of agriculture is shown by the
rise in Fiars Prices average prices ascertained annually by an in-
quiry held by the sheriff of a county in order to fix the amounts pay-
able to parish ministers for each kind of grain. The prices vary
considerably in different counties, but the value of all sorts of grain
and of oatmeal was doubled or trebled between 1911 and 1918, and
remained at its high level through igip with a slight decline in 1920.
The wages of agricultural labourers increased proportionally, and
their standard of living rose, giving impetus to a tendency notable
before the war, to abandon the traditional brose and porridge in
favor of more expensive foods and especially butcher's meat. A
result of agricultural prosperity was a very large number of sales of
land in 1919 and 1920. Scotland, to a large extent, ceased to be a
country of huge estates, and the number of farmers who farm their
own lands greatly increased.

Forestry. Before the war, there was a revival of interest in
forestry, due to the exertions of several Scottish landlords, and
to the action of the Board of Agriculture and the Development
Commission. In 1912, a departmental committee, appointed to
select a suitable locality for a demonstration forest area, issued an
elaborate report on steps for the promotion of sylviculture, some of
their suggestions being adopted by the Development Commission
in 1913. These developments were interrupted by the war, for scar-
city of labour put an end to afforestation, and the extensive demand
for timber brought about a depletion of woodland areas from 1915
onwards. It was estimated in 1916 that more than half of a home
production of 40,000,000 cubic ft. of timber had come from Scottish
forests. The depletion of woodlands was continued owing to the
demand for timber for purposes of reconstruction in 1919 and 1920,
and in June of the latter year there was a series of destructive forest
fires in Ross-shire, Inverness-shire and Aberdeenshire. In 1919, a
Forestry Act, passed for the United Kingdom, transferred to the
Forestry Commission the powers in this respect of the Board of
Agriculture for Scotland. The Commission had acquired, by the
end of 1920, about 60,000 ac., of which about half was plantable.

Fisheries. The character of the Scottish fishing industry was
already undergoing an important development by the year 1910.
It was ceasing to be conducted by small fishing boats, owned by the
fishermen who used them, and was passing into the hands of large
companies whose capital provided the nec'essary fleets of steam drift-
ers. The capitalization of the industry was extending to salmon
fisheries, which were being bought up by wealthy companies. These
conditions have persisted even in the Highlands and Islands, where
the combination of fishing with the cultivation of crofts became
much less common. . In 1910, the Scottish fishing fleet consisted of
9,724 vessels, valued at 4,409,027, of which 1,073 (valued at 2,457,-
586) were propelled by steam; in 1919, there were 6,534 fishing ves-
sels, valued at 7,198,431, of which 3,722 were sailing or rowing
boats; the remainder consisted of 294 steam trawlers (valued at
3,342,255), 767 steam drifters, and 1,751 auxiliary motors. The
number of boats which possessed auxiliary motors in 1910 was 156.
Between 1910 and 1919, the number of sailing and rowing boats de-
creased from 8,175 to 3,722, and the estimated value from 642,902
to 122,823. The sailing and rowing boats were manned by 25,985
men and boys in 1910, and by 9, 830 in 1919; the total number of men
and boys employed as crews decreased from 38,941 in 1910 to 27,408
in 1919. The increase of motor vessels in the western area was a
notable feature of the period. In 1910, 40 motor vessels belonged to
Campbeltown and 1 1 to Ballantrae, and 23 to other W. coast fishing
ports; in 1919, the numbers at Campbeltown and Ballantrae had
increased to 78 and 88 respectively and there were 209 belonging to
other ports, of which Loch Carron and Skye possessed 80 (as com-
pared with 4 in 1910) and Inverary 70 (as compared with 8 in 1910).
Stornoway, where there were no mechanically propelled vessels in
1910, had 1 8 steam liners and drifters and 13 motor-boats in 1919. The
steam trawlers werestill, in 1919, confined to Leith, Montrose, Aber-
deen (which possessed 193 out of 294), and Peterhead, except for 8 be-
longing to Greenock. The large use of motor-boats was partly a result
of the diversion of steam drifters to other purposes during the
war, and the demand for them decreased in 1919, when steam
drifters again became available. In the course of the war, 302 trawl-
ers, 829 drifters, and 133 motor-boats (a total of 1,264 fishing vessels)
were requisitioned by the Admiralty, chiefly as naval auxiliaries.
Of these, about 100 were lost while on war service; of the remainder,
all except 131 were released in 1919 and most of them had been re-
conditioned and were again engaged in the fishing industry by the
end of that year. The number of Scottish fishing vessels sunk while
engaged in fishing in the course of the war was 96, of which 51 were
trawlers. In June 1915, no fewer than 34 vessels were lost, and the
experience of that month led to the enforcement of very severe re-
strictions upon the fishing industry. The effect of war restrictions
is evident from the total quantities of fish (exclusive of shell-fish)
landed in Scotland in successive years by Scottish vessels: 1913,
7,267,328 cwts. ; 1914, 6,926,241 cwts. ; 1915, 2,319,390 cwts. ; 1916,
3,412,030 cwts.; 1917, 3,079,768 cwts.; and 1918, 3,313,228 cwts.
In 1919, the quantity rose to 5,968,866 cwts. The value of the catch
naturally rose in proportion to scarcity; the value of over 7! million



cwts. in 1913 was 3,733,379; of about 2j million cwts. in 1915,
2,051,171 ; and of over 3 million cwts. in 1917, 3,645,015. The most
remarkable rise occurred in 1918, when about 3^ million cwts. were
valued at 5,991,693. In a week of Jan. of that year, the average
price of all white fish sold in Aberdeen was 7 95. 2d. per cwt.
Maximum prices were fixed, but they had necessarily to be fixed at a
high level in view of scarcity of labour and the special dangers attach-
ing to fishing industry. In 1919, the increase in quantity over 1918
was 80 %, but the value was 6,063,739 an increase of only a little
above I %, as compared with 1918 ; but the average price in 1919 was
about double that of 1910, and prices remained high through 1920.
The stress of the outbreak of war was felt specially heavily by the
herring industry, for the chief markets for cured herrings were in
continental Europe and communication was cut off. There was a
large existing stock of unsold herrings, and great quantities had been
sent to German ports. As the war progressed, decreased production
and increased home demand led to a great improvement, and exports
were resumed in 1916, 366,682 barrels of herring were exported
(as compared with 1,385,323 barrels in 1913), and 113,284 barrels in
1917 so that 1914 was the only disastrous war year. Increased
production in 1919 brought about a difficult situation, for political
and economic conditions in Russia and in Central Europe prevented
the resumption of trade, and the industry was saved from disaster
by a Government guarantee, which was renewed for 1920, but was
refused for 1921, which opened with very gloomy prospects for the
herring fishing industry. A committee of the Fishery Board recom-
mended in 1919 that whaling operations should be prohibited in any
part of Shetland, on the ground that the decline of the herring fishing
in Shetland is directjy connected with the introduction and develop-
ment of whaling, an industry carried on almost entirely by foreigners.

Railways and Transport. No new railways have been constructed
since 1911, and the whole railway conditions have been abnormal
since 1914. Serious railway accidents during the decade include a
collision at Burntisland on April 14 1914, in which two railway
employees were killed; collapse of a culvert near Carrbridge on
June 18 1914, involving a disaster to a train and the deaths of five
passengers by drowning; and an accident at Ratho on Jan. 3 1917
resulting in 12 deaths. The gravest railway disaster occurred to a
troop train at Quintin's Hill, near Gretna, on May 22 1915, when227
of the 7th Royal Scots were killed and 246 were injured. The acci-
dent occurred through the carelessness of two signalmen, both of
whom received sentences of imprisonment. There has been a large
increase in motor transport, but agriculture, fishing, mining and
commerce are still handicapped by the lack of transport facilities.
The proportion of mileage of railway to pop. is much smaller in
Scotland than in such a small maritime country as Sweden, the num-
ber of miles of railway per 10,000 pop. being 16-2 in Sweden and 8-2
in Scotland. Transport conditions compare even more unfavourably
with Belgium, which has a great system of canals, in addition to an
elaborate system of railways, light railways and steam tramways.
A committee on Rural Transport, appointed by the Secretary for
Scotland, reported in 1919 that the construction of a considerable
number of railways and light railways is essential for the development
of the country, especially of inland straths and glens in varjous
regions and of the VV. coast and the islands. They gave illustrations
of the results of lack of transport the impossibility of growing early
potatoes on soil specially suitable, the continued use of land for
sheep farming which could be turned into good meadow land, the
closing of a lead mine and the impracticability of working iron stone.
In many districts, land could carry more stock and would be capable
of closer settlement if better transport were available. The system
of water transport could also be extended with advantage. Scottish
canals fell largely into disuse after the introduction of railways, and
some of them were acquired for the construction of their permanent
way by railway companies. The total mileage of canals in Scotland is
183. There has been much discussion of the project of a reconstruc-
tion of the Forth and Clyde Canal, but without any result. The
question of transport is closely associated with the utilization of
water-power, several schemes for which are under consideration,
the most important being schemes for the utilization of water-power
in the districts of Lochaber and Fort William. In the large towns,
there has been a great development of systems of electric tramways
and motor omnibuses, and motor vehicles running in rural districts
have proved formidable competitors to the railways.

Highlands and Islands. The Board of Agriculture issued in 1913
a report on home industries in the Highlands and Islands by Prof.
R. W. Scott, who pointed out that most of the existing home indus-
tries depend upon raw materials derived from the land the hosiery
and tweed industry using wool, and the basket industry, osiers, and
that the encouragenemt of these industries must be closely connected
with general agricultural policy. Shetland industries depend upon an
improvement of the wool of Shetland sheep; in the Hebrides a
deterioration in the quality of home-grown wool has led to large
imports for Harris tweeds, while in Skye little has been done to
encourage the cultivation of osiers. The report recommended the
creation of local committees, under the authority of the Board, to
supervise cottage industries, but the outbreak of war prevented the
carrying out of the suggestions made. The home industries in exist-
ence in the Highlands and Islands in 1911 were hosiery, wool and
worsted manufacture, basket-making, lace-making, silk-spinning,

shirt-making, umbrella manufacture, straw hats and bonnets manu-
facture, small ware and fancy goods, but only one person was re-
ported as engaged in lace-making. The total number of workers in
home industries was 5,649, about 500 of whom were males. An at-
tempt by Lord Leverhulme to establish in Stornoway a large fish-
curing and packing industry and to develop the whole resources of
the island has been hampered by the seizure of land by returned
soldiers, and the future of the project was in 1921 still uncertain.
Lord Leverhulme's proposals included the construction at Storn-
oway of a fishing harbour superior to any existing harbour on the
W. coast or in the western islands and the completion of a canning
factory and of carding and spinning mills, the building of which was
begun before the interruption of the execution of the scheme by the
" raiding " of farms in the spring of 1920. The organization not
'only of the fishing industry but also of the Lewis and Harris hand-
woven tweed industry was thus contemplated, along with the open-
ing up of the common grazing lands in Lewis and Harris and the
provision of some 3,000 allotments of a quarter of an acre in size,
selected so as not to interfere with existing dairy or other farms.

The effects of the World War can readily be traced in Scotland of
the present day. The efforts made, alike for the recruiting of the
fighting armies, for the production of ships and munitions, and for
the maintenance of food supplies, and generally, of the social and
national organization, rendered those years the most strenuous period
in the whole history of the country, and constitute a record of courage
and endurance which cannot but leave its mark upon the national
character. Like other portions of the Empire, Scotland has, since
the end of 1918, suffered from the weariness produced by stupen-
dous effort and from a consequent restlessness and impatience which
has found vent in industrial disputes and in an eager adoption, by
some of the youth, of new social ideals, in which the influence of
Russian Bolshevik experiments and propaganda has been conspic-
uous. Such manifestations can be paralleled from other periods
following the end of a great military struggle, and there is already
evidence that the disturbances in organization and habit produced
by the experiences of the war have reached their climax, and, with
the restoration of commercial and industrial prosperity, will
cease to operate adversely upon the peace of the country.

(R. S. R.)

SCOTT, CYRIL (1870- ), English musical composer, pianist
and author, born at Oxton, Birkenhead, Sept. 27 1879, was musi-
cally educated at the Hoch conservatorium, Frankfurt A/M,
chiefly under Ivan Knorr. While still in the pupil stage Scott
heard his first symphony performed at Darmstadt in 1899. On
Scott's return to England Hans Richter produced an orchestra
suite by him at Liverpool. Subsequently Scott produced a vast
amount of music, more especially of songs, most of which are on
the same high level as that of the Schumacherlieder of his student
days. Violin and pianoforte music also poured from his pen. A
series of early overtures written for plays by Maeterlinck seem to
have been suppressed, but there remain a Christmas overture, the
two fine Passacaglias, the Ballad of Fair Helen, La Belle Dame
sans Merci, and a pianoforte concerto and also two quintets, a
piano quartet and a violin sonata. Scott also published several
volumes of poems, including The Voice of the Ancient (1910);
The Vales of Unity (1912); The Celestial Aftermath (1915) and
the prose book The Philosophy of Modernism (1917). In 1920 his
Nativity Hymn was accepted for publication by the Carnegie
Trust, and in 1921 he paid a visit to the United States.


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Online LibraryJessie FothergillThe Encyclopædia Britannica : a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information (Volume 32) → online text (page 145 of 459)