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cases to more than double the figures of 1914, and naturally were
unwilling to relinquish their advantages. Whenever there was
an attempt to reduce wages there was a strike. New York and
other ports were several times almost paralysed by strikes of
longshoremen or officers and crews of ships. In Aug. 1919, under
President Wilson's direction, the Government threatened to use
military force to break a railway strike. The police force of Bos-
ton struck Sept. 9 1919 as a protest against an order not to join
the American Federation of Labor. ''The strikers stood by and
saw without protest scenes of riot and pillage. They were all
dismissed and Governor Coolidge of Massachusetts, in replying
to a telegram from Samuel Gompers, declared that " there is no
right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere,
any time." In 1916 there was a strike of 600,000 bituminous
coal-miners in the west. Notwithstanding conferences and

boards and mutual understanding there was no national or state
machinery that could effectively deal with these troubles.

Political Overturn of 1920. As the months passed, dissatisfac-
tion grew. The soldiers received in many states a money bonus
varying in amount, and demanded a similar bonus from Con-
gress. The general public complained bitterly against the " high
cost of living," while many corporations continued to make war
profits in time of peace. Salaried men, people living on investments,
holders of life-insurance policies and depositors in savings banks,!
saw their incomes and expectations reduced by the fall in thej
purchasing power of the dollar. The Democratic party was para-
lysed by internal difficulties over the Peace Treaty and by lack
of the trusted leadership of the President. The Republicans hadl ;
broken the foreign policy of the Administration and were in :
possession of a majority of both Houses, but had no fixed policy] j
of foreign relations or reconstruction.

In the winter and spring of 1920 Presidential candidates began
to develop. General Leonard Wood, formerly chief-of-staff ofl |
the army, who had been refused a foreign command during the
war, was put forward by a large group of Republicans. Gover-
nor Lowden of Illinois had a considerable following. A move-l
ment was made in favour of Hoover, well known for his services
on the Commission for Relief in Belgium and other relief
agencies and also as Federal Food Administrator. When the Con-
vention assembled at Chicago June 9 1920, it proved to be impos-
sible to nominate any of the three, and Senator Harding of Ohio re-
ceived the nomination backed by a strong group of stand-patters
to whom, however, he seems to have made no pledges as to policy J
or appointment. Governor Coolidge of Massachusetts was put i
on the ticket as vice-president.

The Democratic Convention held at San Francisco was con-
fronted with a similar difficulty. Woodrow Wilson had already
served two terms and was known to be physically unable to i
perform the duties of the office. The leading candidates were
McAdoo of New York, formerly Secretary of the Treasury, and
Attorney-General Palmer of Pennsylvania; but after many bal-
lots the nomination went to Governor Cox of Ohio, a man little 1
known in national affairs, with Franklin D. Roosevelt, a cousin
of the former president, as vice-president. The Republicans 1
had the lead in the campaign, in which for the first time women
were eligible to vote in every state. The result was a complete
triumph for the Republicans, who elected Harding by a popular
majority of about seven million and an electoral majority of
404 against 127 for Cox, besides securing solid majorities in
both Houses of Congress.

March 4 1921 Woodrow Wilson accompanied the Presidcnt-
Elect to the Capitol as the last act of his official life. He had been
president for eight years, during six of which he was the undis-
puted leader of his party and of the nation. Except for a few not
very important measures passed over his veto, up to the summer
of 1919 he had his way with Congress and with the people,
was responsible for a group of important revenue, banking and ,
labour laws. He had a great hold on the affections and opin:
of millions of his fellow citizens, and maintained the country's I
dignity in war and peace. He had the people behind him in .
entering the war. He stood behind the measures for organizing i
and transporting millions of American soldiers. For a time in I
Paris he was the foremost man in the world, and he succeeded irj i
inducing foreign statesmen, not much interested in, and ai
heart disliking, the project, to accept a League of Nations. Aj
the height of his career he suddenly lost control as war president
of the whole country, was no longer accepted as unquestioned
head of his party, and ceased to be the one man who could appeaj
from Congress to the people. Before illness disabled him, he had |
already lost his hold upon the minds of the majority of hi:
fellow countrymen.

His work was transferred to a new man less experienced ii
politics, for a short time a quiet member of the U.S. Senate
whose task it was to take over the discordant elements anr
build out of them a national policy. President Harding acceptcc
this new responsibility and began his administration undel
favouring auspices. An excellent impression was created through



out the country by his choice of a Cabinet above the average,
several members being chosen in the face of strong opposition
from the professional politicians. The members were: Charles E.
Hughes, State; Andrew W. Mellon, Treasury; John W. Weeks,
War; Harry M. Daugherty, Attorney-General; Will H. Hays,
Postmaster-General; Edwin Denby, Navy; Albert B. Fall,
Interior; Henry C. Wallace, Agriculture; Herbert C. Hoover,
Commerce; James J. Davis, Labor. The new President early
showed tact and ability in leading his party in favour of con-
structive action. Within four months the epoch-making bill
providing for a Federal budget system was passed by Congress
and approved (June 9 1921). This was in line with the President's
constant appeal for economy, which led him also to urge post-
ponement of legislation for the grant of a Federal bonus to ex-
service men in view of the existing burden of taxation. He dis-
played keen interest in all attempts to restore, business to a
sound basis and urged prompt action in the assistance of the
railways. By nature conservative, he laboured to bring the
country back to a state of " normalcy," to use a favourite word
of his own. Treaties of peace negotiated with Germany, Austria
and Hungary were ratified by the U.S. Senate Oct. 18 1921.

Of world-wide importance was his call for a conference of
the different Powers bordering on and interested in the Pacific
Ocean, to be held in Washington and to discuss both Pacific
questions and the question of limitation of armament.

The conference assembled Nov. u 1921, " Armistice Day,"
and closed Feb. 6 1922. The participants were the United
States, Great Britain, France, Italy, Holland, Belgium, Portugal,
China and Japan. Important agreements were signed: to limit
construction of capital warships; against improper use of sub-
marines, and against gas warfare; for maintenance of Pacific
insular possessions; and on other questions involving relations
with Japan and China (see WASHINGTON CONFERENCE).

AUTHORITIES. I. Bibliographies: For general works and specific
references see: Channing, Hart and Turner, Guide to American
History (1912); and the footnotes and Critical Essay in F. A. Ogg,
National Progress, 1907-17 (1918). For the World War: H. H. B.
Meyer, The United States at War; Organizations and Literature (1917) ;
and A Check List of the Literature and other Material in the Library
of Congress on the European War (1918); A. B. Hart, America at
War (1918); C. M. Dutcher, A Selected Critical Bibliography of
Publications in English Relating to the World War (1918) ; S. B. Hard-
ing, The Study of the Great War (1918) ; A. B. Hart and A. O. Love-
joy, Handbook of the War for Public Speakers (4th ed. 1919); N. M.
Trenholme, A Syllabus of the Historical Background and Issues (1919).

II. General Histories: The New York Times Current History
(1914- ) ; Charles A. Beard, Contemporary American History, 1877
! 9 ! 3 (1914): F. A. Ogg, National Progress, 1907-17 (1918); P. L.
Haworth, The United States in Our Own Time (1920) ; F. L. Paxson,
Recent History of the United States (1921).

III. World War Histories: H. H. Powers, America among the
Nations (1917) ; John S. Bassett, Our War with Germany: A History
(1919); F. W. Halsey, The Literary Digest History of the World War
Compiled from Original and Contemporary Sources (10 vols., 1919
20) ; Frank H. Simonds, History of the World War (5 vols., 1917-20) ;
Harpers' Pictorial Library of the World War (12 vols., 1920); J. B.
McMaster, The United States in the World War (2 vols., 1918-20) ;
Brig-Gen. Charles G. Dawes, A Journal of the Great War (1922).

IV. World War Diplomacy: C. Seymour, The Diplomatic Back-
ground of the War (1916); Munroe Smith, American Diplomacy in
the European War (1916.); Lindsay Rogers, America's Case Against
Germany (1917) and The War Aims of the United States (1918);
James W. Gerard, My Four Years in Germany (1917) and Face to
Face with Kaiserism (1918); E. E. Robinson and V. J. West, The
Foreign Policy of Woodrow Wilson, 1013-1017 (1917); Brand Whit-
lock, Belgium; a Personal Narrative (2 vols., 1918); Elihu Root,
The United States and the War (1918); Henry Morgenthau, Ambas-
sador Morgenthau's Story (1918); James B. Scott, Diplomatic Cor-
respondence Between the United States and Germany 10141017 (1918) ;
Carl R. Fish, American Diplomacy (3rd ed., 1919); David J. Hill,
Present Problems in Foreign Policy (1919); Bernard M. Baruch,
The Making of the Reparation and Economic Sections of the Treaty
(1920) ; Adml. William S. Sims, TheViclory at Sea (1920) ; Johann H.
von Bernstorff, My Three Years in America (1920); Robert Lansing,
The Peace Negotiations (1921) and The Big Four (1921).

V. Biographies: W. R. Thayer, Theodore Roosevelt; an Intimate
Biography (1919); J. B. Bishop, Theodore Roosevelt and His Time
Shown in His Own Letters (2 vols., 1920) ; H. J. Ford, Woodrow Wil-
son: the Man and His Work (1916); W. E. Dodd, Woodrow Wilson
and His Work (1920) ; Joseph Tumulty, Woodrow Wilson as I Know
Him ( 192 1) ; C. Seymour, Woodrow Wilson and the World War ( 192 1 ) .

VI. Works of Public Men:- William H. Taft, Presidential Ad-
dresses and State Papers, 1000-1010 (1910) ; Tom L. Johnson, My
Story (1911); Robert M. La Follette, La Follette's Autobiography
(1913); Woodrow Wilson, The New Freedom (1913); also Selected
Addresses and Public Papers, ed. by A. B. Hart (1918) and State
Papers and Addresses (Review of Reviews, 1918); Theodore Roose-
velt, America and the World War (1915), The Foes of Our Own
Household (1916), Fear God and Take Your Own Part (1916), and
National Strength and International Duty (1917); H. C. Lodge, War
Addresses, 1015-1017 (1917) ; E. J. David, Leonard Wood on National
Issues (1920) ; Champ Clark, My Quarter Century of American Poli-
tics (1920); Warren G. Harding, Rededicating America (1920) and
Our Common Country (1921).

VII. Special Topics: C. R. Van Hise, The Conservation of Natural
Resources in the United States (1910); S. J. Duncan-Clark, The Pro-
gressive Movement; its Principles and its Programme (1913) ; B. P. De
Witt, The Progressive Movement (1915); A. B. Hart, The Monroe
Doctrine: an Interpretation (1916); W. R. Castle, Jr., Wake Up,
America: A Plea for the Recognition of our Individual and National
Responsibilities (1916); Theodore Roosevelt, The Great Adventure:
Present-Day Studies in American Nationalism (1918); F. A. Cleve-
land and J. Shafer, Democracy in Reconstruction (1919); Guy Emer-
son, The New Frontier: A Study of the American Liberal Spirit (1920) ;
J. H. Hammond, and J. W. Jenks, Great American Issues (1921);
Vice-Adml. Cleaves, A History of the Transport-Service (1921).

VIII. Compendiums, Documents and Chronology: American
Year Book (1910-19); New International Year Book (1909- );
New York Times Current History (1914 ) ; Literary Digest (1910 ) ;
McLaughlin and Hart, Cyclopaedia of American Government (3
vols., 1916); Committee on Public Information, War Informa-
tion Series; Political Science Quarterly, Supplements; Record of
Political Events (Annual); American Journal of International Law
(Quarterly). (A. B. H.)

expansion of the Naval Academy in the period 1910-20 began
before the entry of America into the World War. In 1912 the
six-year course (including two years at sea as " midship-
men ") was discontinued, and midshipmen were commissioned
ensigns immediately upon graduation from the Academy. By
Acts of Congress in 1916 and 1917, the number of annual
appointments to the Academy allowed to each senator, repre-
sentative, and delegate in Congress was increased from two to
five; presidential appointments from 10 to 15, and appoint-
ments of qualified enlisted men from 15 to 100. Thus the total
number of authorized appointments reached 3,126; and the
number of midshipmen increased from 758 in 1910 to 1,230 in
1916, and in 1920 to about 2,200. Since 1920, physically qualified
candidates have been allowed to enter either by examination
or by certificate from a recognized school.

As a war measure, the class of 1917 was graduated in March of
that year, and the class of 1918, after a period of intensive study, in
the following June. The course was reduced to three years; but by
cutting down examination periods, holidays, and reviews, and in-
creasing the academic year to nine months, practically the same
work was covered. In 1919 the four-year course was resumed.
Between Sept. 1917 and Jan. 1919, five reserve officer classes, com-
posed chiefly of former enlisted men who were graduates of technical
schools, were quartered at the Academy for periods of about three
months' training. In this way 1,622 officers were added to the
service as temporary ensigns. The post-graduate school for officers,
established in 1912 in the former marine barracks near the Academy,
was suspended during the World War, but reopened in 1919 with
about 50 student-officers. These spend a half-year or year at the
post-graduate school before continuing their studies in civilian
technical institutions. To provide for increased attendance, in 1918
two wings accommodating 1,100 additional midshipmen were added
to Bancroft Hall, an extension to the Marine Engineering Building
was completed in 1919, and a new Seamanship Building in 1920.
In this period, the discipline and the course of studies were modified
progressively to meet changed requirements. In 1919 the civilian
corps of instructors was reorganized with increased pay and system-
atic promotion. The staff of the Academy increased from 146 officers
and civilian instructors in 1910 to nearly 300 in 1921. (A. H. S.)

UNTERMYER, SAMUEL (1858- ), American lawyer, was
born at Lynchburg, Va., March 2 1858. He was educated at the
College of the City of New York and at the Columbia Law
School (LL.B. 1876). He was admitted to the bar in 1879 and
practised thereafter in New York City. Between that time and
the end of 1921 he was counsel in many celebrated cases cover-
ing almost every phase of corporate, civil, criminal and inter-
national law. As counsel for H. Clay Pierce he prevented the
Standard Oil Co., after its dissolution in 1910, from dominating



the Waters-Pierce Co. In the same year he effected the merger
of the Utah Copper Co. with the Boston Consolidated and the
Nevada Consolidated Co.'s involving more than $100,000,000.
In 1912, as counsel to the Kaliwerke Aschersleben and the
Disconte Gesellschaft in the controversy arising out of the con-
trol of the potash industry by the German Government, he
assisted in bringing about a settlement. In 1903 he undertook
the first judicial exposure of " high finance " in connexion with
the failure of the U.S. Shipbuilding Co., organized only a year
before as a consolidation of the larger shipbuilding companies
in America including that subsequently known as the Bethle-
hem Steel Co. As a result of the sensational exposures connected
with that company a reorganization was effected under the name
of the Bethlehem Steel Co., in which Mr. Untermyer became a
large shareholder. After this he conducted a number of similar
exposures. In 1911 he delivered an address, entitled, " Is There
a Money Trust? " which led the following year to an investiga-
tion in which he appeared as counsel, by the Committee on
Banking and Currency of the Federal House of Representatives.
This so-called Pujo Money Trust Investigation resulted in the
passage of a mass of remedial legislation. Mr. Untermyer for
years agitated before Congress and state Legislatures such
measures as the compulsory regulation of stock exchanges. He
for many years conducted agitations and wrote magazine articles
dealing with reforms in the criminal laws, the regulation of
trusts and combinations and other economic subjects. He was
counsel for many reorganization committees, including those of
the Seaboard Air Line, the Rock Island railway, the Central
Fuel Oil Co., and the Southern Iron and Steel Co. In 1915 he
acted as one of the counsel for the U.S. Government in the suit
brought against the Secretary of the Treasury and the Comp-
troller of the Currency by the Riggs National Bank of Washing-
ton, B.C., which charged there was a conspiracy to wreck it;
the defendants were cleared. He took an active part in prepar-
ing the Federal Reserve Bank law, the Clayton bill, the Federal
Trade Commission bill, and other legislation curbing trusts.
He was a delegate to the Democratic National Convention in
1904, 1908, 1912, and delegate-at-large for the state of New
York in 1916. He was a strong supporter of President Wilson's
administration. After America entered the World War he was
adviser to the Treasury Department regarding the interpreta-
tion of the income tax and the excess profits tax laws. He was
appointed by President Wilson to serve on the U.S. section of
the International High Commission, which sat at Buenos Aires,
in 1916, for the purpose of framing uniform laws for the Pan-
American countries. In 1920-1 he was counsel for the Lockwood
Committee, appointed by the state Legislature to investigate
an alleged conspiracy among the building trades of New York
City. It was charged that labour leaders were using their power
by extorting bribes for the prevention of strikes, by preventing
independent bids and by forcing building awards to favourites.
Many illegal acts were disclosed and numerous convictions
secured. Robert P. Brindell, who was at the head of the labour
council of the building trades with a membership of 115,000 was
prosecuted by Mr. Untermyer, who conducted the case in per-
son as a special attorney-general, and convicted of extortion
and sentenced to from five to ten years in state prison. At the
end of 1921, when the prosecutions were being continued, more
than 600 indictments had been found as a result of the investiga-
tion and many more were said to be impending. There were
more than 200 convictions including pleas of guilty by employers,
labour leaders and others and over $500,000 had been collected
in fines. In connexion with the exposure of abuses and acts of
illegality among the labour unions, all unions in the state were
required, under the threat of criminal prosecution and of sub-
mitting to incorporation, to amend their constitutions and by-
laws by eliminating these abuses; this they all agreed to do. It
was shown that in many of the building trades both manufac-
turers and dealers, often with the collusive aid of labour leaders,
had organized to fix prices and prevent competition. Subse-
quent prosecutions established the fact that these and other
unfair practices were an important element in preventing build-

ing operations and increasing rental charges for dwelling property.
Public opinion, especially in view of the housing shortage,
reacted sharply to these revelations, and it was felt that Mr.
Untermyer's work in this connexion had been performed with
admirable public spirit, energy and courage. It was generally
believed, moreover, that the evils brought to light by the com-
mittee were not confined to New York, and a demand for similar
investigations arose in other parts of the country.

Mr. Untermyer was an ardent believer in the Zionist move-
ment and was President of the Koren Hayesod, the agency
through which the movement was conducted in America.

UNWIN, RAYMOND (1863- ), English architect, was born
at Rotherham, Yorks, in 1863, and educated at Magdalen College
school, Oxford. He received his earlier training in an engineer's j
office and later as an architect. He was for many years asso- ,
ciated in practice with Barry Parker in Buxton. Interesting
himself more particularly in housing as a social question he
acquired a reputation as an authority on the laying-out and
designing of " Garden-Cities," being responsible for the first
English example at Letchworth. The planning of many other
garden suburbs, villages and estates was carried out from his
designs. Amongst th'em are the layout and buildings at New
Earswick, Yorks, for the Joseph Rowntree Village Trust, and
the Hampstead Garden Suburb in the N.W. district of London.
In 1914 he was appointed the first chief town-planning inspector
to the Local Government Board, and, immediately on the out-
break of the World War, director of the housing branch under the
Ministry of Munitions. Here he was responsible for the layout
of many buildings for the new township of Gretna, and for
Mancot Village, Queensferry, and much other work. He alsol
during the war served on departmental committees dealing
with small holding buildings, building by-laws, and building j
materials research. After the war he was appointed chief archi-
tect dealing with site planning, and, subsequently, deputy
director of housing, under the Ministry of Health. He published |
Town-planning in Practice (translated into French and German),
and (with Barry Parker) The Art of Building a House.

URUGUAY (see 27.805). The pop. at the end of 1918, the
latest figure available, was 1,429,585. This represented a
growth of 34% since 1908. The average density increased from
12-9 per sq. m. in 1908 to 19-2 in 1918, the latter being greater
than that of any other S. American country.

The administration of President Claudio Williman (1907-11)
marked a definite period of progress and stabilization. Since
no serious armed attempt was made to overthrow the Govern-
ment, its efforts could be largely concentrated on educa-
tional progress and internal development. The first child-labour
legislation was adopted, the death penalty abolished and a
model penitentiary and a tuberculosis sanitarium were estab-
lished. The Agronomical Institute of the university of Monte-
video, which was opened on Sept. 15 1906, developed into a
National Agricultural College modelled on the best European 1
and U.S. institutions, and distracted the attention of the rising'
generation from revolution as a profession. The first chilled
meat plant was opened in 1907, and a large and thoroughly
modern packing and freezing plant at Montevideo in 1912.
In 1920 Uruguay had two freezing plants, 13 salting plants,
three canning and three tongue-preserving factories and a large
factory for liquid extract of meat. Through rail communication
between Montevideo and Rio de Janeiro was completed in 1911
by the connexion of various railways in southern Brazil, and so
increased the points of contact between Brazil and Uruguay.

The social and educational progress of the country continued
during the second administration of Jose Battle y Ordonez ( i ru i~
15), who succeeded Williman. Hours of labour were further
regulated, a National Insurance Bank was established and many
experts were brought from the United States and Europe (o
advance various phases of education, particularly industrial!
and agricultural. The first S. American International Con-
ference of Agricultural Defence was held at Montevideo on
May 2 1913, and $200,000 annually was appropriated for free 1
seeds for farmers. A law of July 12 1911 set aside



Uruguayan gold for encouraging immigration. While only 262
immigrants arrived in 1908, the number reached 2,455 in 191
and 5,358 in 1913, a tribute to the continued stability and pros-

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Online LibraryJessie FothergillThe Encyclopædia Britannica : a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information (Volume 32) → online text (page 331 of 459)