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1916. In the next two years, to the close of 1918, the proportion
rose in these industries to 13-9 per cent. A conservative estimate
places the number of women employed in factories (food, textile and
war supplies) by the end of 1918 at 2,139,100 an increase of be-
tween five and six hundred thousand over the number employed in






WOOD



1065



these industries in 1914, the date of the last official census. These
women were trained to perform a variety of skilled and semi-skilled
tasks in the metal trades, in electrical and chemical occupations, in
the making of fine instruments, in wood, rubber and leather work, all
trades which had been considered beyond their capacity. The
substitution of women for men on street railways and subways, in
railway yards, banks, offices, shops and hotels and in agricultural
pursuits, increased steadily until the signing of the Armistice.

This invasion of industry and commerce by women was accom-
panied by an effort to preserve existing legal safeguards and to
ensure suitable living and working conditions. In 1918 Congress
established a women's bureau in the Department of Labor, the aim
of which was to develop the most effective use of women's service in
production for the war, and at the same time to prevent their
employment under injurious conditions. The bureau adopted a set
of standards governing women's employment. Although created
for the war emergency, the woman's bureau in June 1920 was made
a permanent section of the Department of Labor.

No official nation-wide registration of women for war service was
ever made; plans for such registration were completed by the
women's committee of the Council of National Defense and ap-
proved by the Government, and it was left to each state to decide
whether or not there was a need for registration in its territory.
But it is a fact that practically all the women of the United States
were doing volunteer war service at the time of the Armistice. They
served in the food army, in the farm army, in- the chapters of the
Red Cross, in the many drives for funds, and in many other less
conspicuous but essential activities backed by the Government.

(I. M. T.)

WOOD, SIR HENRY EVELYN (1838-1919), British field-
marshal (see 28.789). The field-marshal, who retained his
mental and bodily vigour almost to the end, died at his Essex
home Dec. 2 1919 and was buried at Aldershot. His record in
Zululand indicated unmistakable capacity for command in
presence of the enemy, and he was perhaps unfortunate in that
his presence during the hostilities with the Boers in 1881 and at
Alexandria in 1882 afforded him no further opportunities of a
similar kind. From the period when he was chief at Aldershot
dates the introduction of military training on practical lines into
the British army, and during a prolonged and distinguished
career as a soldier he proved himself a keen reformer and an
untiring worker, wrapped up in the profession which he adorned.

WOOD, SIR HENRY JOSEPH (1860- ), English conductor
and musician, was born in London March 3 1869. His musical
education was largely received at the Royal Academy of Music
and when only ten years old he became deputy organist at St.
Mary's, Aldermanbury. As a conductor, he first appeared in
1889, when he joined the Rousbey opera company, and for some
years he toured with various companies, including the Carl Rosa
(1891). In 1895 the Queen's Hall concerts were started under a
system of guarantees, with Henry Wood as conductor and
Robert Newman as manager. Under his conductorship the
standard of English orchestral playing was notably raised, and
his work for music in London was deservedly honoured by a
knighthood in 1911. He married, first, in 1898, a Russian lady,
Princess Olga Ourousoff (d. 1909); second, in 1911, Muriel,
daughter of Major Greatrex.

WOOD, MRS. JOHN [Matilda Charlotte] (1833-1915), Eng-
lish actress, was born at Liverpool Nov. 6 1833, the daughter
of Henry Vining, and first appeared on the stage at Brighton at
the age of eight. As a young girl she played leading parts in
comedy at the Theatre Royal, Manchester, and in 1852 appeared
there as Ophelia. After her marriage she acted for some years
in America, beginning in 1854 with The Loan of a Lover, followed
by many other parts. She opened a theatre of her own in New
York in 1863 but returned to England in 1866. From that time
until her retirement from the stage in 1905, she was in the first
rank of robust comedy actresses. Her management of the Court
theatre between 1883 and 1891 saw the production of many of
Pinero's best comedies. Later she appeared in elderly r61es in
most of the Drury Lane melodramas, her last appearance
being in Hall Caine's The Prodigal Son in 1905. She died at
Birchington-on-Sea Jan. n 1915.

WOOD, LEONARD (1860- ), American soldier, was born
at Winchester, N.H., Oct. 9 1860. He graduated from the
Harvard Medical School in 1884, was appointed assistant
surgeon with the rank of first-lieu tenant in the U.S. army in



1886, and at once joined Capt. Lawton's expedition against the
Apaches in the southwest, resulting in the capture of Geronimo.
For distinguished services he was awarded the Congressional
Medal of Honor. In 1891 he was promoted captain and full
surgeon, and later, while stationed in Washington, D.C., was
President McKinley's personal physician. Here he became the
close friend of Theodore Roosevelt, then Assistant-Secretary of
the Navy. On the outbreak of the Spanish American War in
1898 Wood was commissioned colonel of volunteers, and to^
gether with Roosevelt, as lieutenant-colonel, raised the famous
regiment of " Rough Riders," composed of western ranchmen
and cowboys as well as members of prominent eastern families
eager to serve under these two strenuous leaders. For conduct
at Las Guasimas and San Juan Hill, Wood was promoted
brigadier-general July 1898 and in Dec. major-general of vol-
unteers. He was military governor of Cuba from 1899 to 1902
when the Cuban Republic was established. Under his guidance
great improvements were made in schools and sanitation.
Meanwhile he had been honourably discharged from voluntary
service and appointed brigadier-general in the regular army
Feb. 1901. In March 1903 he was sent to the Philippines and in
Aug. promoted major-general. For three years he was governor
of the Moro Province and during 1906-8 was commander of the
Philippines Division. In 1908 he returned to America as com-
mander of the Eastern Department for a year. In 1910 he was
special American ambassador to the centenary celebration of
Argentine independence. On his return he was appointed
chief of staff, serving until 1914, when he was again given com-
mand of the Eastern Department. General Wood often had
disapproved the policies of the War Department, and as early
as 1908 had urged preparedness. To him was largely due the
establishment of a summer camp at Plattsburg for training
civilian officers, which, was taken as a model for other camps of
the kind after America's entrance into the World War. In 1915,
when he gave unofficial indorsement to the proposed formation
of the American Legion whose purpose was to establish a body
of some 300,000 men ready for immediate service, he was re-
buked by the Secretary of War. Just before America's entrance
into the World War in 1917 it was announced that the Eastern
Division, then under Gen. Wood's command, had been divided
into three divisions, and Gen. Wood was assigned to the South-
eastern Division, with the alternative of choosing either Hawaii
or the Philippines. As a soldier desiring active service he natur-
ally chose the American post; but the apparent motive of the
War Department to humiliate him aroused criticism. He was
later transferred to Camp Funstpn, where he trained the 8gth
Div., N.A. In Jan. 1918, while in France, presumably prepar-
atory to bringing his troops there, he was painfully wounded by
the explosion of a French mortar. After his return to America
he was on the point of embarking with the 8gth Div., when he
,was suddenly assigned to the Western Department, no reason
being given. It was generally understood that his name was
not on the list of officers submitted by Gen. Pershing as accept-
able for duty overseas. By change of orders he was returned to
Camp Funston, where he trained the loth Div. of the regular
army and other troops. In 1919 he was put in command of the
Central Department, with headquarters at Chicago. In 1920
he was a prominent candidate for the presidential nomination
at the Republican National Convention. He led on the first
four ballots and never fell below second place. When the sup-
porters of Governor Lowden, his chief competitor, were released
after the eighth ballot, they swung to Senator Harding, a " dark
horse," who was nominated on the tenth ballot, with 692^ votes
to 156 for Gen. Wood. In 1921 Gen. Wood was sent on a
special Federal mission to the Philippine Is. to report on con-
ditions there. During his absence he was appointed head of the
university of Pennsylvania. In Oct. 1921 he retired from active
service in the army and was appointed governor-general of the
Philippines. He was granted a year's leave of absence from the
university of Pennsylvania, but it was thought that he might be
able to assume his academic duties in Oct. 1922. He was the author
of The Military Obligation of Citizenship (1915, lectures at Prince-



jo66



WOODGATE WOOL



ton and elsewhere) ; Our Military History, Its Facts and Fallacies
(1916); and Universal Military Training (1917).

See I. F. Marcosson, Leonard Wood, Prophet of Preparedness
( I 9 I 7): Joseph H. Sears, The Career of Leonard Wood (1919); and
Leonard Wood on National Issues (1920), compiled by Evan J. David.

WOODGATE, WALTER BRADFORD (1841-1920), British
oarsman and barrister, was born at Belbroughton, Wore., Sept.
20 1841. He was the eldest son of Canon Henry Arthur Woodgate,
who was a fellow of St. John's College, Oxford, and Hampton
lecturer in 1838. He was educated at Radley College, and
Brasenose College, Oxford, and during his undergraduate course
he founded Vincents' Club. In 1872 he was called to the bar; but
it is as a first-class oarsman and journalistic critic of rowing that
he is remembered. He rowed for his own college, and in 1862 and
1863 in the winning eight for Oxford. In 1864 he won the Dia-
mond sculls after a dead heat two years previously (see 23.784),
and in 1865 he was in the winning eight for the Grand Challenge
Cup at Henley. He contributed the volume on Boating to
the Badminton Library, and also wrote Oars and Sculls, and
how to use them (1889) and the Reminiscences of an Old Sports-
man (1909). He was also the author of A Modern' Layman's
Faith (1893) and of one or two novels. He died at Southampton
Nov. i 1920.

WOODS, HENRY GEORGE (1842-1915), English divine, was
born at Woodend, Northants., June 16 1842. He was educated
at Lancing and at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, where he had
a distinguished career. In 1865 he became a fellow of Trinity,
and in 1866 was ordained. He was a tutor at Trinity from 1866 to
1880, and bursar from 1867 to 1887, in which year he was elected
president of Trinity. He resigned the presidency of Trinity in
1897, and from 1900 to 1004 was rector of Little Gaddesden,
Herts, and chaplain and librarian to Lord Brownlow at Ashridge
Park. In 1905 he succeeded Ainger as Master of the Temple.
He died at the Master's House, Temple, July 19 1915.

His wife, MARGARET LOUISA WOODS (b. Nov. 20 1856), poet
and novelist, was married to him in 1879. Her first novel, A
Village Tragedy, appeared in 1887, and her first volume of verse,
Lyrics and Ballads, in 1889. Later novels included Esther Van-
homrigh (1891); The Vagabonds (1894); Sons of the Sword (1901),
arid The Invader (1907). In The Princess of Hanover (1902)
she essayed historical drama. In 1913 her Collected Poems were
published.

WOODWARD, HENRY (1832-1921), English geologist (see
28.804), died at Bushey, Herts, Sept. 6 1921.

WOODWARD, HORACE BOLINGBROKE (1848-1914), English
geologist (see 28.804), died Feb. 5 1914.

WOOL (see 28.805). The functions of " supply " and "de-
mand," of " free-trade " and " controlled trade " in the wool
industry, during the decade 1910-20, form a very interesting
study for the economist. The situations before, during, and
after the war are best shown separately:

I. BEFORE THE WAR (1911 to 1914)

' (a) Wool Production. The best available statement of the
world's sheep and wool production is given in Table i ; it includes
figures of the pre-war and post-war periods.

TABLE i. The World's Sheep and Wool. 1



From these statistics the following interesting deductions are
to be drawn. It is somewhat surprising to find Europe heading
the list of wool-growing continents. This is largely due to the
flocks of European Russia: 320,000,000 Ib. of wool (pre-war)
are credited under this head, and this probably explains the
source of German wool clothing during the latter days of the
war. What had become of this huge quantity latterly was not
on record in 1921. Incidentally it would certainly appear that
the continent of Europe as a wool-growing continent had not
claimed the attention merited. In most respects Europe com-
pared more than favourably with other continents, and it was
only owing to the diversity of interests, languages, etc., that this
was not more in evidence. If the nations of Europe would all
pull together, that continent would probably have more to
give to the world than to receive.

Europe and North America, being by far the greatest manu-
facturing centres in the world, have practically consumed the
whole of the very large surplus stocks from the other wool-
growing countries, apparently in the proportions of 80% for
Europe and 20% for North America. The marked difference in
the weights of the'fleeces produced as indirectly shown by this
table is obviously worthy of careful consideration.

(b) Wool Distribution. The detailed figures respecting
local supplies, importations and reexportations are very con-
fusing. The figures in Table 2 may be taken with exceptions to
be presently noted as an indication of the wool each impor-
tant manufacturing country received. One or two questions
TABLE 2. Wool-manufacturing Countries.



Country


Imported for
Manufac-
turing


Local
Supplies


Total


I. France (1909)
2. United King-
dom (1911)
3. United States
4. Germany
5. Russia .
6. Belgium.


623,000,000

490,307,000
251,000,000
517,000,000
94,000,000
355,000,000


75,000,000

90,000,000
304,000,000
25,600,000
320,000,000'
i ,000,000


698,000,000

580,307,000
555.ooo,ooo
542,600,000
414,000,000'
356,000,000


Austria, Hungary, Italy and the Netherlands follow in the
order named.


1 These figures require careful consideration. Probably a large
proportion of this wool is usually manufactured in other countriel
notably Germany and Britain.



here arise. The United Kingdom is credited with manufactur-
ing 90,000,000 Ib. approximately of a 120,000,000 Ib. clip. It
must not be forgotten, however, that a very considerable amount
of the world's wool supply passes through the London or Liver-
pool wool sales, as is shown by Table 3:

TABLE 3. United Kingdom Imports and Exports (1911).





Imports


Exports


Retained


Colonial
Foreign
Totals


659,511,000
135,004,000
794,515,000


304,208,000


490,307,000



The colonial (and foreign) wool not accounted for by Table 3
Js no doubt sold direct to the manufacturing countries. This
is indicated by the sales of South African wools for the year
1913 (Table 4).





.Sheep


Wool in Ib.


l ABLE 4. vistnoution 0} South. African Wools.


Pre-war


Post-war


Pre-war


Post-war




1913


1919


Europe
Australasia.
. S. America .
N. America
Asia .
Africa
Central
America
and W.
Indies

; Total


177,981,207
96,189,727
118,638,046

54,053,409
92,3i8, 4 r9

63,432,755
710,380


171,026,261
107,467,005
72,342,762
49-549,458
96,735,546
69,114,685


803,400,043
645,132,880
482,640,707
303,473,000
273,146,000
219,919,000

750,000


751,104,667
852,122,484
487,180,000
327,829,531
326,505,000
219,919,000

750,000


United Kingdom
Germany . . .
Belgium
France .
Italy
United States
Japan


96,028,737
61,123,713
20,695,225
4,898,212
924,852
221,522


96,462,203

12,662,059

9,588,452
43,002
71,502,522 .

?Q,8oO.6d8


An analysis of S. American exports would, no doubt, show by
far the larger porportion of S. American wools passing directly
to Belgium, France, Germany and the United States, a large
quantity, of course, passing through the Antwerp sale-rooms.
(c) Tendencies in Production and Distribution. In wool
production from 1910 to 1914 there is little to note. S. Africa


603,323,943


566,235,717


2,728,461,630


2,965,410,682


1 Chiefly from the Wool Review of the National Association of
Wool Manufacturers, United States.



WOOL



1067



made a valiant attempt to improve both the quality and quan-
tity of her wool, and succeeded in both objects to a certain
extent. In Australia certain developments of sheep-growing
districts are to be noted, but these, with the increase in the
weights of the individual fleeces, probably only just served to
balance losses through drought and in other directions. Falk-
land Island wool (fine crossbred) made a name for itself as a
good hosiery wool, but unfortunately the increase up to 1914
was not great. S. America generally proved disappointing, in
view of the demand for its wools, not only from the European con-
tinent but also from Great Britain, following the decline in the
prejudice against them.

Undoubtedly the greatest wool problem prior to the war was
the provision of a sufficient quantity of fine merino wool. This
TABLE 5. New Zealand Wool.





Total Sheep


Merinos


1910

1917

1920


23,480,707
25,270,386
23,914,506


1,868,805
1,063,491
803,589



is illustrated in Table 5. S. Africa partly met this deficiency,
but Australia pinned her faith on mutton rather than on wool,
so that the tendency to eliminate the pure-bred merino is still
in evidence.

So far as the distribution of the wool manufacturing industry
was concerned there was an undoubted tendency in Britain to
relinquish wool manufacture owing to severe competition. The
continental European competition took the form of efficiency
in manipulation and excellence in the goods produced. How
Yorkshire was going to face the importation of certain conti-
nental goods was a problem and one that had still to be faced
after the war. The competition with the United States was
apparently controlled by the tariff charges, but it is more than
probable that the excellence of American manufactured goods
was already beginning to tell against European importations;
although America still had to start her export trade. York-
shire, however, appeared to be falling between two stools she
was not producing goods of the excellence of the continental
styles and thereby forcing a way into neutral markets; nor was
she organized on such a scale that she could face the United
States' markets indeed the American manufacturers were
surpassing her in scale of organization. It would not be over-
stating the case to say that the year 1914 opened with many
misgivings so far as the British wool manufacturing industry was
concerned. The war came, and temporarily dominated every-
thing. But the conditions of 1914 were likely to reappear
afterwards, and would have to be faced sooner or later.

II. THE WAR PERIOD (1914 to 1918)

The Slump in Trade. Fear of the unknown naturally created
the trade slump observable during the early months of the
World War. Britain, a country whose very life depended upon
the importation of the raw material and exportation of the semi-
manufactured or fully manufactured article, naturally had most
to fear. This fear was further aggravated by the fact that
British manufacturers had huge financial interests involved with
Germany; and, conversely, Germany had financial interests with
Britain. With trade universally in a state of suspended anima-
tion, and the sequence of delivery of goods and payment of
accounts seriously interfered with, many British firms and
especially those in the wool, top and yarn trade were at once
in serious financial difficulties. The Government, however,
tided over the difficulty by the " moratorium," which, by the
" time easement " given, enabled the greater proportion of
firms eventually to meet their liabilities.

A period of suspense followed, during which the exact trend
of many matters was being worked out. By the middle of 1915,
however, the idea that, when the British and French armies
got going, they would sweep the Germans back into the Father-
land, had practically gone. In the meantime Germany had
been swept from the seas. It was now evident that Germany,
from the wool point of view, would have to be self-contained,.



neither importing raw wool * nor exporting manufactured goods;
that France was seriously incapacitated_ as .a manufacturing
country owing to the invasion of much of her manufacturing
territory; that Russia would seriously have to draw upon
British stocks of manufactured goods; in fact, that Britain
must be the mainstay of the Allies and of the world, with the
exception of the United States and Japan so far as wool
manufactured goods were concerned. The extent to which
Germany deliberately crippled France both during the war
period and subsequently will be realized from the following
quotation from the Yorkshire Observer in March 1921:

" The Fourraies District remained practically the whole time
away from actual fighting range and did not suffer from gunfire,
but, this notwithstanding, the destruction by hammer, pick, dyna-
mite and fire was complete, the Fourmies woollen plants having
always proved most serious competitors of those of Germany.
The enemy reached the district on Aug. 26 1914, and left it on
Nov. 9 1918. When they arrived there were 75 textile works in
full activity ; they destroyed all except five worsted spinning plants,
one woollen spinning plant and one combing plant. The steam
engines were broken or otherwise damaged ; the boilers removed and
rendered unserviceable, the safes were broken into and all records
of manufacture, samples, reference data, representing 30 years of
activity, removed to Germany. . . . Immediately the Germans
occupied the northern departments of France, not a single wool-
combing machine was left throughout the country ; there remained
in activity throughout the land only 160,000 worsted spindles out
of 2,400,000; only half the total of 700,000 woollen spindles; only
about 11,000 weaving looms out of 56,000."

By 1916, two other factors had come into play. The drain'
on the man-power of Great Britain was becoming serious. But
it was now fully revealed that in the wool industry there was a
vast surplus of labour ready to maintain output, at least at a
very high rate. By April, scarcity of shipping was threatened.
Thus early in 1916, if the serious limitation of the supply of
raw materials was not actually felt, it was in sight.

The Difficulties Leading to Wool Control. The British War
Office, having in the very early days of the war experienced the
difficulty of clothing in khaki the large army in course of forma-
tion, organized itself to overcome this difficulty, and by the in-
evitable restrictions indirectly placed on the manufacture of
civilian clothing had so far succeeded fairly well in its direct
object. But by the early days of 1916 the War Office was seri-
ously alarmed at the future prospects of supplies of raw mate-
rials and sought outside advice. As illustrating the method of
working the following may be taken as typical. On Feb. i
1916 a War Office official (who, incidentally, knew nothing of
wool) visited the university of Leeds and asked for certain
estimates respecting British combs and spindles, to be' supplied
to him four days later when the Army Council would meet to
discuss supplies. In Table 6 the figures then supplied are given^
and alongside the estimates are given also the actual figures,
kindly supplied some years later by the same official. The
estimate for 1916 was 337,500,000 lb., as against an actual
production of 309,443,185 lb., based on the first half of 1917.

The following figures were also supplied on the same date:

Wool available for use in the United Kingdom . 800,000,000 lb.
Less clothing wools used in the woollen trade . . 200,000,000 lb.



Available for combing .


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 392 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459

Online LibraryJessie FothergillThe Encyclopædia Britannica : a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information (Volume 32) → online text (page 392 of 459)