Jessup Whitehead.

Cooking for profit : a new American cookbook adapted for the use of all who serve meals for a price online

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Third Edition.


JESSUP WHITEHEAD &. Co., Publishers


Entered according- to Act of Congress, in the office of the Librarian at Washington,
by JKSSUP WHITEHEAD, 1882. All rights reserved.

In compliance with current copyright

law, U. C. Library Bindery produced

this replacement volume on paper

that meets ANSI Standard 239.48-

1984 to replace the irreparably

deteriorated original




PART FIRST Some Articles for the Show Case. The Lunch Counter. Restaurant
Breakfast, Lunches and Dinners. Hotel Breakfasts, Dinners and Suppers.
Oyster and Fish House Dishes. The Ice Cream Saloon. Fine Bakery Lunch.
Quaker Dairy Lunch. Confectionery Goods, Homemade Beers, etc.

PART SECOND Eight Weeks at a Summer Resort A Diary. Our daily Bill of
Fare and -what it costs. A Party Supper for Forty Cents per Plate. The Art
of Charging Enough. A School Commencement Supper. Question of How
Many Fires. Seven Fires for fifty persons vs. onefire for fifty. The Round* of
Beef for Steak. A Meat Block and Utensils. Bill of Groceries. A Month's
Supply for a Summer Boarding House, -with Prices. A Refrigerator Wanted.
About keeping Provisions; Restaurant Patterns. A Good Hotel Refrigerator.
Cost of Ice to supply it. Shall we have a Bill of Fare? Reasons -why: a Blank
Form. Is Fish Cheaper than Meat? Trouble with the Coffee. How to Scrub
the Kitchen. Trouble with Steam Chest and Vegetables. Trouble with the
Oatmeal. Building a House with Bread Crusts. Puddings without Eggs. A
Pastry and Store Room Necessary. A Board on a Barrel. First Bill of Fare.
Trouble with Sour Meats. Trouble with the Ice Cream. The Landlord's Birth-
day Supper. Showing how rich and fancy Cakes were made and iced and orna-
mented without using Eggs. The Landlady's Birthday Supper. Trouble in
Planning Dinners. Trouble with Captain Johnson. Trouble in Serving Meals.
Trouble with the Manager. Breakfasts and Suppers for Six Cents per Plate.
Hotel Dinners for Ten Cents per Plate. Hotel Dinners for Seventeen Cents per
Plate. Supper for Forty for Eight Cents per Plate. Breakfast for Forty for
Nine Cents per Plate. An Expensive Wedding Breakfast, for the Colonel and
the Banker's Daughter. Four Thousand Meals. Review. Groceries for 4,000.
Meat, Fish and Poultry for 4,000. Flour, Sugar and Coffee for 4,000. Butter
and Eggs for 4,000. Potatoes, Fresh Vegetables and Fruits for 4,000. Canned
Fruits and Vegetables for 4,000. Milk and Cream for 4,000. Total Cost of
Provisions for 4,000. How to Save Twenty Dollars per Week. How Much we
Eat, How Much we Drink. How Much to Serve. Work and Wages. Laundry
Work. Fuel, Light and Ice. Total Cost of Board. How Much Profit? How
Many Cooks to How Many People? Boarding the Employe's. Boarding
Children. Meals for Ten or Fifteen Cents. Country Board at Five Dollars.
If a Bundle of Suppositions. Keeping Clean Side Towels. How Many Fires
Again. A Proposal to Rent for next Season. Conclusion.



New Dishes ; the Amount and the Cost per Head.
ELEVEN HUNDRED RECIPES. All live matter that every Cook needs both

by Weight and by Cup and Spoon Measure.
A DICTIONARY OF COOKERY Comprised in the Explanations of Terms and

General Information contained in the Directions.
ARTISTIC COOKERY. Instructions in Ornamentation, with Illustrations, and

Notes on the London Cookery Exhibition of 1885.


ihts book is In many respects a continu-
ation of the preceding volumes in the series,
tt fulfills the designs that were intended but
not finished before, more particularly in the
second part which deals with the cost of
keeping up a table. It is not an argument
either for or against high prices, but it
embodies in print for the first time the
methods of close-cutting management
which a million of successful boarding-
house and hotel- keepers are already prac-
tising, in order that another millio'n who
are not successful may learn, if they will,
wherein their competitors have the advant-
age. At the time when the following in-
troduction was written, which was about
four years before the finish, I was just
setting out, while indulging a rambling
propensity, to find out why it was that my
hotel books which were proving admirably
adapted to the use of the ten hotels of a
resort town were voted "too rich for the
blood" of the four hundred boarding-houses ;
also, it was a question how so many of these
houses running at low prices are enabled
to make money as easily as the hotels
which have a much larger income. At the
same time some statistician published a
statement that attracted attention showing
that the vast majority of the people of this
land have to live on an income of less than
fifty cents a day. At the same time also an
English author published a little book,
which, however, I have not seen and did
not need, with the title of "How to live on
sixpence a day,* (twelve cents) which was
presumptive evidence that it could be done.
In quest of information on these points I
went around considerably and found a good
many "Mrs. Tingees" who were not keep-
ing boarding-houses, and I honor them for
the surpassing skill that makes the fifty
rents a day do such wonders ; but the right
rein was not struck until the opportunity
occurred to do both the buying and using
of provisions from the very first meal in a
Summer Boarding House.

In reference to unfinished work I take
the liberty here of saying that the bills of
fare in this book with the quantities and
proportions and relative cost from the con-
tinuation and complete illustration of an
article entitled "The Art of Catering" in
Hotel Meat Cooking. Knowing how much
co cook, how much to charge, ho\r to pre-

vent waste ana an such questions
there are carried out to an answer in thecv
pages. In regard to the use of French name*
for dishes it is necessary that a statement
should be made. A great reform has taken
place in the last ten years in the com-
position of hotel bills of fare, and the subject
matter of these books having been widely
diffused by publication in the hotel news-
papers, has undoubtedly had much to do
with the improvement that is now observ-
able. My own design was, however, to ex-
plain French terms, give their origin and
proper spelling, and to that end I had a
mass of anecdotes, historical mention and
other such material collected to make the
explanations interesting. As a preliminary,
I began exposing the absurdities com-
mitted by ignorant cooks and others trying
to write French, and before this had pro-
ceeded far the newspapers took up and
advocated the idea that French terms should
be abolished altogether. If that was to be
the way the knot of misspelling and mis-
naming dishes was to be cut, there was no
use for my dictionary work and the mate-
rial was thrown away ; I followed the new
path and it proves a plain and sensible one.
At the same time there is an aspect of the
subject which cooks seeking situations
perceive and editors of newspapers may
never think of, and that is that there are
many employers whom the reform has not
reached who will pay a hundred dollars for
a cook who can give his dishes imposing
foreign names more willingly than fifty
dollars to a better cook who can only write
United States. First class hotels which
have all the good things that come to
market avoid French terms. They that
have turkey and lamb, chicken, peas and
asparagus, oysters and turtle and cream
want them shown up in the plainest read-
ing; to cover them up with French names
would be injudicious; but if we have but
the same beef and mutton every day, the
aid that a few ornamental terms can give
is not to be despised. First of all it if
requisite that those who use such terras
should know what they are intended t& in-
dicate and how they should be spelled and
then they can be taken or left according
to the intelligent judgment of those con-
cerned I. W



The pleasing discovery Las recently
been made by the writer, in the pursuit
of a new business, that the interest in the
subject of cookery is universal and only
wants the proper sort of instructors, the
right kind of books and some way ot
making it known that they are the right
kind to set everybody to trying their capa-
bilities in this at once the most useful and
most ornamental art. True, there are
cook books already by the hundreds, but
that is not all that is required, a greater
difficulty than to write and compile a
book on the subject is to get people to
read it, and certain pages or even cer-
tain items that might be veritable jewels
of knowledge at times to the possessors
of the books lie there undiscovered.

We have already tried the conversa-
tional style in writing about cooking, and
have reason to be satisfied with the re-
sults of the experiment as far as it has
gone. We have the satisfaction at least
of finding that what has been written has
been read, and what we have learned of
our subject has in that manner been
made plain to such readers as had need
of the knowledge.

Amongbt all the commendations of om
published hotel book, the "American
Pastry Cook," received from the work-
ers who have tried and know , and some
of whom have even written gratefully for
the help ihey found in it, we have met
no harsher adverse criticism than that of
a fashionable caterer of prominence in his
own city, who said that it was too good ;
that if the author could make the arti-
cles in it, and as good as described, he
ought to be in a certain famous hotel,
"where the best they can get is not good
enough for them."

This though not intended for praise,
certainly was praise of the highest kind,
for the book having the ambitious title
of American Pastry Cook, and the vol-
ume next to come being the American
Cook, ought not to show American cook-
ery and the American table to be in any
repect inferior to that of any other nation
or people whatsoever. That book does,
and the whole work will when comple-
ted contain the cheapest and best articles
as well as the costlier kinds, but cheap-
ness is not put in the foreground.

It is now proposed to run serially in the
HOTEL GAZETTE a book with some original
features, having the cost of each article


carefully counted ami all superfluities that
are eet down as optional in other books left
out of this altogether. It is to be a book
that will show how to make money by
cooking; a book suited to the wants of
an immense number who live by board-
ing others at the lowest rate compatible
with respectability of appearances, and
a book that shall lie on the same plane
of everyday life with the people in the
smaller hotels and in private houses that
the writer meets with every day. They'
do not run bills of fare, nor plan nor
reckon up their- meals at from fifty cents
to one dollar each person.

A book of this character must recog-
nize the great fact that there are infinitely
more women engaged or interested in
cooking than men; it is hardly too much
to Bay that every woman is interested,
and they do not need to be told that they
ought to know how to cook, that ia ac-
knowledged in advance, but, "oh dearl
the toil 1 the dry uninteresting study of
the incomprehensible cook books ! "

Said a lady laughingly, the other day
in a parlor full of friends a lady of
wealth and position, the daughter of a
prominent judge, and the wife of a lead-
ing lawyer of that section ' ' When we
were married my husband said he would
give me a fifty-dollar bill if I would learn
tom;ke good bread. We have been
married five years and I have not learned

nt, but I think I can out of this book,
im going to try to secure that green-
back yetl"

Said another one the same day, and
this one was extremely poor, the only
worker in the family, having a sick hus-
band "Now I find I can make things
from my book that sell well in the win-
dows, we will give up trying to keep
boarders, that is killing us both and pay-
ing nothing, almost."

To meet the wants of thousands such,
it is necessary to adopt the household
cup and spoon measures where measures
are wanted. Curious as it may seem to
workmen these people in small hotels
find one of the greatest difficulties of
life in having to weigh and measure,

very few possess scales and they do not
realize generally that absolute success,
and success every time depends upon
the exact proportions of their ingredi-
ents. As it is impossible for us to give
exact proportions without a better stand-
ard than the variable size of the cups
in use we shall have to give a double
set of measures, one by the cup and the
other by pint and pound.

Persons who practice from this book
can find which cup holds half a pint,
which is half a pound of water, and the
standard, and always using the same
can soon learn to measure as many
ounces as they want in it by observing
the difference of the specific gravity of
each article used. Thus:

No. 1 Cup and Spoon Measure.

A CUP means the common size of
white cup generally used in hotels and
restaurants that holds pint of liquid.

WATER. A pint is a pound, a cup is
\ pint, therefore a ctfp of water is 8 oz.

MTT.TT. A cup of milk is J pint, or '8

EGGS BY MEASURE. A cup of yolks
or whites or of ooth mixed is \ pound,
equal in weight to five large eggs. It
takes 9 whites to fill a cup. It takes
13 yolks to fill a cup. When you have
yolks left over, it is near enough to count
2 yolks equal to one egg, or a cup of
yolks as good as 7 eggs because richer
than whole ones. Water should be
added to them to increase the bulk and
make them capable of being beaten

EGGS BY COUNT. 10 eggs average
a pound : 5 eggs fill a cup. When there
are duck, goose, turkey, bantam or
guinea-fowl eggs to be used, instead of
counting they can be measured after
breaking for cooking purposes by the
above rule i e, a cup of eggs is equal to
5 ordinary hen's eggs.

BUTTER. A cup of cold butter is 7^
ounces, if pressed in quite solid. A cup
of incited butter is J oz lighter. It is


usually near enough for cooking to call
a cup J pound. Butter size of an egg is
1 ounces.

LARD. Same as butter.

SUOAB. A level cup of granulated
sugar is 7 ounces 2 cups is 2 ounces
less than a pound. Although sugar by
the grain is heavier than water, and will
sink instantly the air spaces between the
grains make a cupful weigh less than so
much liquid. \ pound of granulated
sugar is a cup rounded up. The pow-
dered sugar that is known as fine gran-
ulated weighs the same, icing sugar or
flour of sugar is lighter, a cup is but 6
ounces. All that can be scooped up in
a cup out of a barrel of any grade weighs
9 ounces. Brown sugar a level cup is

6 ounces. Up in the mountains the cake
receipts people have been used to, fail.
It is all because of the sugar. So much
sugar cannot be used at great elevations
as at sea-level, hence the reason for be-
ing particular about the weights.

MOLASSES. A cup of thick molasses
weighs 12 ounces that is three-quar-
ters of a pound half as much as water
and 5 ounces more than so much sugar.
Thin syrups, however, do not weigh
quite so much.

FLOUE. A level cup of flour is 4
ounces. A cup heaped up with all that
can be dipped with it out of a barrel is

7 ounces, nearly twice as much as the
level. A quart of flour just rounded
over is a pound.

BREAD-CRUMBS. A cup of bread is 4
ounces pressed in rather solid. A
pound of bread is a pressed-in quart.

CORN-MEAL. A cup of corn-meal is 5
ounces, 3 rounded cups are a pound, or
a pound of corn-meal is a little less than
a level quart.

OATMEAL. A level cup of oatmeal is
6 ounces. All that can be dipped up
with a cup weighs 7 ounces nearly \

COBN STABCH. A level cup of starch
flour or cooking starch is G ounces, the
same as corn-meal. All that can be
heaped in a cup weighs 7 ounces.

FABIKA. The same as starch.

RICE. A level cup weighs 7 ounces
All that can be heaped in a cup weighs
9 ounces.

cup is \ pound.

A BASTING-SPOON means the pressed
iron spoon about half as long as one's
arm. The bowl of most of them of dif-
ferent lengths of handle holds the same.
Six basting-spoons of liquid are \ pint or
a cup. It is the most useful measure for
molasses. A full spoon of molasses is 2
ounces. A basting spoon of melted but-
ter or lard not quite full is 1 ounce, 6
spoons brim-full will be \ pound of

A TABLE-SPOON 14 tunes full is a cup
or pint of water ,'2 tablespoons of mel-
ted butter is 1 ounce. It is near enough
to count a tablespoonful \ ounce of any
fluid except molasses of which a table-
spoon may be made to take, up an ounce.
A heaping tablespoon of sugar is 1 ounce,
6 or 7 wiU fill a cup. A heaping table-
spoon of starch is 1 ounce, 4 will fill a
cup starch can be heaped so much
higher than sugar. A moderately heaped
tablespoon of flour is 1 ounce, three fully
heaped will fill a cup 4 ounces.

Of eggs broken in a cup, 3 tablespoons
are equal to 1 egg.

A teaspoon is \ a table spoon. When
baking powder, cream tartar, sugar,
starch and the like is to be measured a
rounded teaspoon is meant. It is near
enough in most cases to count a tea-
spoonful ^ ounce.

In the absence of such a table as the
foregoing ready prepared we have found
such questions the most perplexing of
any that have been given us to an-
swer. It looks now as if any of those
who are opposed to scales and weights,
might so well acquaint themselves with
the capacities of one cup as to become
accurate cooks, and safe from the dis-
couraging effects of culinary failures.



2 Angel Food or White Sponge Cake


5 whites of eggs or six if small.

5 ounces fine granulated sugar J- cup

ounces flour J cup large.

1 rounded teaspoon cream tartar.

1 teaspoon vanilla or lemon extract.

Mix the cream tartar in tne flour by
sifting them together. Whip the whites
firm, put in the sugar and beat a few
seconds, add the flavoring, then stir in
the flour lightly without beating. As
soon as mixed put the cake in the oven.
It needs careful baking like a meringue,
in a slack oven and should stay in from
20 to 30 minutes. A small, deep, smooth
mold is the best and should not be
greased. When the cake is done turn
it upside down and leave it to get cold
in the mold before trying to take it out.

When you have pure cream tartar
from a drug store use only half as much
as of the common lest the cake taste
of it.

3 Plain Glaze or Icing for the Above.

4 tablespoons powdered sugar.

1 white of an egg.

Put the tmgar in a cup and mix it with
the white ot egg. As soon as the sugar
is fairly wetted it is ready. It dries
pearl white; takes but a minute to make.
Spread it all over the bottom and sides
of ''angelfood."

COST of material 15c., size 1 quart;
weight 15 oz.

The rule for the foregoing in large
quantities is an ounce of sugar to each
ounce of white of eggs and half as much
flour. Those who deal in it largely say
it is, or at least was before they got it

into a regular routine, the most trouble-
some cake they made, the tendency be-
ing always to fall in the middle. They
now use plain deep molds having centre
tubes of unusually large size. There is-
no difficulty with small cakes. But the
whites must be whiipped quite dry in a
cold place.

4 Lady-Fingers.

7 ounces granulated sugar 1 cup.

4 eggs.

3 tablespoons water.

6 ounces flour 1 heaping cup.

1 ounce sugar to dredge.

Separate the eggs, the whites in a
bowl, the yolks in the mixing pan. Put
the sugar to the yolks and stir up, then
add the water and beat with a bunch of
wire 10 minutes. Have the flour ready.
Whip the whites with the wire egg
whisk till they are firm enough to bear
up an egg. Mix the flour in the yolks
and stir in the white of eggs last.

Put the batter into a large paper
comet with the point clipped off, or into
a lady-finger sack and tube, and press
out finger lengths in regular order on a
sheet of manilla paper. When the sheet
is full dredge fine sugar over, catch up
two corners of the sheet and shake off
the surplus, and lay it on a baking-pan.
Bake a light yellow-brown in about 6
minutes. Take off by wetting the paper
under side and stick the two cakes to-
gether while they are still moist.

COST of material 14c. ; number of
cakes 6 dozen pairs, weight 18 oz.

5 Star Kisses.

8 ounces fine granulated sugar round-
ed cup.

4 whites of eggs.

1 teaspoon flavoring.

Whip the whites with a bunch of wire,
n a cold place until they are firm enough
to bear up an egg, add the sugar and
Savor and beat a few seconds longer.
Put the meringue paste thus made into
a sack and star-pointed tube or else into
a stiff paper cornet having the point cut


like saw teeth and press ont portions size
of walnuts ou to pans slightly greased
and then wiped clean. Bake in a very
slack oven about 10 minutes or till the
kisses are of a light fawn color and
swelled partially hollow. They slip off
easily whea cold.

COST of material lOc; number of cakes
5 doz. , or according to size.

6 Fairy Gingerbread, or Ginger

This appears to have originated in
Boston where it is held in high favor and
it is a sort of social duty to know how to
make it. No eggs needed .

1 cup butter 7 oz.

"2 cups light brown sugai 13 oz.

1 cup milk J pint.

4 cups flour 1 pound.

1 teaspoon ground ginger.

Warm the butter and sugar slightly
and rub them together to a cream. Add
the milk, ginger and flour. It makes
a paste like very thick cream. Spread a
thin coating of butter on the baking pans,
let it get quite cold and set, then spread
the paste on it no thicker than a visiting
card, barely covering the pan from sight.
Bake in a slack oven, and when done
cut the sheets immediately into the shape
and size of common cards. This is also
known as euchre gingerbread. Is served
in packs and eaten between games.

Do it up in paper packages to prevent
breakage, with one sheet outside.

COST of material 23c; weight 2J
pounds; cakes innumerable.

7 Jelly Roll.

1 cup sugar 7 ounces.
4 eggs.

1 cup water small.

2 cups flour 9 ounces.

1 large teaspoon baking powder.

cup fruit jelly or thin marmalade.

Separate the eggs, the whites in a
good-sized bowl, the yolks in the mixing
|>an. Put the sugar to the yolks, stir

up, then add the water and beat up till
they are light and thick. Mix the pow-
der in the flour, whip the whites to a
very firm froth. When they are ready
stir the flour into the yolk mixture and
mix in the -whipped whites last.

Cut sheets of blank paper the size of
your baking pans, spread the batter on
them, without previous greasing, as thin
as can be, and bake in a quick oven
about 6 minutes. Brush over the un-
der side of the paper with water, the
cake laid flat on the table, and take it
off. Spread the cake with thin jelly
and roll up.

It makes it rounder and smoother to
roll it in a fresh sheet of paper and keep
it so until wanted, care being taken that
the cake is sufficiently baked not to
stick. It shoul I be observed that this
and number 4 can both be used for the
same purposes, this is the cheaper.'

COST of material 19 or 20c. ; weight
over r| pounds; light and large.

8 Cocoanut Gems, Cakes or Caramels.

These very quickly and easily made
cream candy drops we learned to consid-
er worth having in our show case through
observing how rapidly they sold at two
rival fruit and confectionary stands in a
western city. They were freshly stacked
up hi sight close to the sidewalk every
morning, about a bushel in each place as
it seemed, and were all or nearly all sold
by night. They may be found in most
confectionaries under different names.

1 pound granulated sugar 2 cups.

8 ounces grated cocoanut 2 cups.

J cup of water.

Set the sugar and water over the fire
in a small, bright kettle and boil about
five minntes, or till the syrup bubbles up
and ropes from the spoon, and do not
stir it. Then put in the cocoannt, stir
to mix, and begin at once and drop the
candy by tablespoonfuls on a buttered
baking pan. The dry dessicated cocoa-
nut is the easier kind to work with.
With the moist, fresh graten more time

Online LibraryJessup WhiteheadCooking for profit : a new American cookbook adapted for the use of all who serve meals for a price → online text (page 1 of 50)