Jesuits. Letters from missions (North America).

The Jesuit relations and allied documents : travels and explorations of the Jesuit missionaries in New France, 1610-1791 ; the original French, Latin, and Italian texts, with English translations and notes online

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and Jouvancy), Jesuit historian, an eminent litterateur of his time.
Born in Paris, September 14, 1643; died at Rome, May 29, 1719. In
1659, he was admitted to the Society of Jesus, for many years filling
the position of professor of rhetoric at La Fleche, and devoting
much time to historical and classical research. After taking his vows
in 1677, he was sent to Rome, as one of the staff of writers upon
Historia Societatis Jesu.

47. (p. 197) — Count Ernest von Mansfeld, soldier of fortune, con-
spicuous in the Thirty Years War. Bom, 1585; died, 1626, soon
after his defeat by Wallenstein at the bridge of Dessau. His great
army of mercenaries was, according to Motley {John of Barne-
veld, vol. ii., p. 32), " the earliest type, perhaps, of the horrible mili-
tary vermin destined to feed so many years on the unfortunate
dismembered carcass of Germany." Cf. Kohlrausch's History of
Germany (Haas trans.), pp. 320, 326. Concerning the campaign
of Louis XIII., against the Huguenots (1622), and Count von Mans-
feld's part therein, see Kitchin's History of France, pp. 497, 498.

48. (p. 199) — Philip Alegambe, a Jesuit scholar (Flemish). Died
in 1652, while superior of the house of his order at Rome. He was
the leading writer upon Bibliotheca Scriptorum Societatis Jesu


49. (p. 219) — Seven Islands. A group at the mouth of the St.
Lawrence River, near the northerly shore of the gulf.

50. (p. 2ig) — Chicoutimi River, rising in numerous small lakes
near Lake St. John, pursues a picturesque course, frequentl)"- inter-
rupted by rapids, eastward and northeastward into the Saguenay.
At the junction, seventy-five miles above the mouth of the latter, is
now the important lumber-shipping port of Chicoutimi, at whose
wharves ocean-going vessels are laden. The old missionary district
of that name included the rugged country lying south and south-
west of Lake St. John.

51. (p. 221) — The French Jesuits definitely abandoned the Iro-
quois field in 1687, owing to the rising power of the English. In
1701, Bruyas was again on the ground, being joined the year follow-
ing by De Lamberville, Gamier, and Le Valliant, and later by


D'Hue and De Marieul. The entire party was driven out in 1708,
and many of their Iroquois converts retired with them to the mis-
sion of Caughnawaga, near Montreal.

52. (p. 221) — The Iroquois Mission of St. Francis Xavier was
founded in i66g by Iroquois Christians, — emigrants from the
"castles" of the Five Nations. The mission was finally removed
to Sault St. Louis, on the St. Lawrence, and called Caughnawaga,
from the Indian village of that name on the Mohawk, where had also
been a Jesuit mission.

53. (p. 221) — Lake Michigan. Called Lac des Puants on Cham-
plain's map of 1632, in reference to the Winnebago tribe (Puants) on
Green Bay ; in several of the Relations, and on Marquette's map
(1674), it is styled Lac des Illinois, from the Illinois Indians upon its
southern coast; Allouez calls it (1675) Lac St. Joseph, because of
Fort and River St. Josephs on the southeast coast; Coronelli's map
(1688) honors the Dauphin by calling the lake after him; Hennepin
comes the nearest to modem usage, in his name, Michigonong.

54. (p. 221) — Lake Huron, which has figured under many titles,
in the old maps and chronicles. This name has reference to the
Indian family upon its eastern shores. Champlain first named it
La Mer Douce (" The Fresh Sea "), and later Lac des Attigouantan,
after the chief tribe of the Hurons; Sanson's map (1657) names it
Karegnondi; Coronelli's map (1688) christens it Lac d'Orleans;
Colden in one place gives it as Quatoghe, and in another as Cania-
tare. Lac des Hurons first appears in the map accompanying the
Relation for 1670-71.

55. (p. 221) — The mission of St. Ignace was founded by Mar-
quette, in 1670, on Point St. Ignace, on the mainland north of and
opposite the Island of Michillimackinac (now shortened to Macki-
naw or Mackinac, as fancy dictates). The term Michillimackinac,
variously spelled, was applied by the earliest French not only to the
island and straits of that name, but in general to the great peninsula
lying north of the straits.

56. (p. 221)- — The mission of Sault Ste. Marie, at the outlet of
Lake Superior, was founded by Raimbault and Jogues in 1640.
The place was always an important rallying-point for the natives,
and naturally became the center of a wide-spreading fur trade,
which lasted, under French, English, and American dominations in
turn, until about 1840.

57. (p. 221) — The Western mission of St. Francis Xavier was
founded by Allouez in i66g, at the first rapids in the Fox River (of
Green Bay), on the east side of the river, in what is now the city of
Depere, Wis. An important Indian village had from the earliest
historic times been located there.


58. (p. 223) — Outaouaki = Ottawas ; Puteatamis = Pottawatto-
mies; Kikarous =: Kickapoos ; Outagamies = Foxes; Oumiamis= Mi-

5g. ( p. 223 ) — Bayagoulas, one of the Louisiana missions, of which
Father Paul du Ru, S. J., was in charge in 1700. Shea's Cath-
olic Missions, p. 443.

60. (p. 227) — An anonymous writer in The Catholic World,
(vol xii., p. 629) makes the statement that Quentin and Du Thet
were sent out to replace Biard and Mass6 "if they had perished;
otherwise to return to France." Contemporary writers, however,
speak of their coming as a reinforcement.

61. ( p. 227 ) — On what came to be known as Frenchman's Bay, on
the east side of the island of Mount Desert. Parkman says (^Pio-
neers, ed. 1865, p. 276, note): " Probably all of Frenchman's Bay
was included under the name of the Harbor of St. Sauveur. The
landing-place so called seems to have been near the entrance of the
bay, certainly south of Bar Harbor. The Indian name of the Island
of Mount Desert was Penetic. Its present name was given by
Champlain. "

62. (p. 227) — The "Jonas," conspicuous in the annals of Acadia
from the time in which Poutrincourt and Lescarbot sailed in her for
Port Royal, in 1606, to her capture by Argall in 1613. Parkman
aptly calls her "the 'Mayflower' of the Jesuits."

63. (p. 229) — Samuel Argall, born in Bristol, England, 1572; died,
1639. See Cooke's Virginia (Amer. Commonwealths ser. ), pp.
111-113, for a fair estimate of this tempestuous character. Folsom's
"Expedition of Captain Samuel Argal," in N. Y. Hist. Colls, (new
ser.), vol. i., pp. 333-342, goes over that ground quite completely.

64. (p. 231 ) — Sir Thomas Dale, the predecessor of Argall as gov-
ernor of Virginia; he was in the service of the Low Countries,
1588-95, and 1606-10; in i6ii, he entered the service of the Virginia
Company, where he remained five years as governor of the colony ;
and in 1619 he died at Masulipatam, while in command of an expe-
dition to the East Indies.

65. ( p. 233 ) — The charge was freely made at the time, that Biard
and Masse, incensed at Biencourt, who had been unkind to them,
piloted Argall to Port Royal. Poutrincourt and Lescarbot, dislik-
ing the Jesuits, naturally believed it, and the former addressed the
French admiralty court on the subject, under the date of July i8,
1614. — See Lescarbot's Nouv. France, book v., chap. 14. Cham-
plain discredited the charge, saying that Argall compelled an Indian
to serve as pilot. Cf. Parkman's Pioneers, pp. 313 et seq., and
Biard's own statements, post (Letter to T.-R. General, May 6,
1614; and Relation of 1616).


66. (p. 233) — Argall's lieutenant, in command of the captured
"Jonas." According to Parkman (Pioneers, p. 318), he was "an
oflBcer of merit, a scholar, and linguist, ' ' treating his prisoners with

67. (p. 251) — Reference is here made to Lake Champlain, the Mer
des Iroquois and Lacus Irocoisiensis of the early French cartogra-
phers. Richelieu River was at first styled Riviere des Iroquois.
In a letter of John Winthrop to Lord Arlington, dated Boston, Oct.
25, 1666, Lake Champlain is referred to as Lake Hiracoies. — N. Y.
Colon. Docs., iii., p. 138. See also. Palmer's History of Lake
Champlain (Albany, 1866), pp. 12, 13; and Blaeu's maps of 1662 and
1685, in Winsor's N. and C. Hist., vol. iv., p. 391.

68. (p. 253) — The gar-pike {Lepidosteus osseus). A picture of
this "armored fish" is given in Creuxius's Historia Canadensis
(Paris, 1664), p. 50.

69. (p. 253) — Jouvency plainly refers to what is still known as
Bird Island, or Bird Rocks, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, N. W. of
Cabot Strait. Authorities disagree in locating the Bird Island of
Cartier's first voyage. See Hakluyt' s Voyages (Goldsmid ed.),
vol. xiii., pt. I, p. 78; Shea's Charlevoix, vol. i., p. 112, note ; both
indicating that what is now called Funk Island, off the eastern coast
of Newfoundland, was the Bird Island of Cartier. Kingsford, in
History of Canada (Toronto, 1887), vol. i., p. 3, identifies it, how-
ever, with the present Bird Island of the Gulf. Champlain's map
of 1613 has a Bird Island near the mouth of the Bay of Fundy.
Anspach, in History of Newfoundland (ho-oAan, 1819), p. 317, says:
' ' Fogo Island [N. W. of Cape Freels] is described in the old maps
by the name of Aves, or Birds' Island."

70. (p. 269) — The Montagnais, a wretched tribe of nomads, were,
at this time, chiefly centered upon the banks of the Saguenay River.

71. (p. 281) — Venus mercenaria, the round clam, or quahaug.




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Online LibraryJesuits. Letters from missions (North America)The Jesuit relations and allied documents : travels and explorations of the Jesuit missionaries in New France, 1610-1791 ; the original French, Latin, and Italian texts, with English translations and notes → online text (page 21 of 21)