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Jesuits. Letters from missions (North America).

The Jesuit relations and allied documents : travels and explorations of the Jesuit missionaries in New France, 1610-1791 ; the original French, Latin, and Italian texts online

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en ; already a beginning had been made in stealing



304 LES RELATIONS DES J&SUITES [Vol.50

deuenoit de plus en plus nombreufe & inf olente : &
la parole de Dieu n'efloit ^cout6e qu'auec mefpris &
raillerie: ce qui m'obligea de quitter ce pofte, pour
me retirer en noftre demeure ordinaire, ayant [72] eii
cette confolation en les quittant, que lefus-Chrift a
eft6 prefch6, & la Foy annoncee publiquement, & ^
chaque Sauuage en particulier: Car outre ceux qui
remplifloient noflre Chapelle depuis le matin iufqu'au
f oir, les autres qui reftoient dans les Cabannes eftoient
inftruits, par ceux qui m'auoient oiiy.

le les ay entendu moy mefme le foir, apres que
tout le monde eftoit retir6, repeter intelligiblement
en ton de Capitaine, toute I'inftrudtion que ie leur
auois faite pendant le iour. lis aduoiient bien, que
ce que ie leur enfeigne, eft tres-raifonnable ; mais le
libertinage I'emporte pardeffus la raifon, & fi la grace
n'eft bien forte, toutes nos inftrudtions font peu
efficaces

[73] Vn d'entr'eux m'eftant venu trouuer, pour
eftre inftruit ; a la premiere parole que ie luy dis,
fur deux femmes qu'il auoit; Mon frere, me repartit-
il, tu me paries d'vne affaire bien difificile, il fufiit
que mes enfans prient Dieu, enfeigne les.

Apr6s que j'eus quitt6 cette bourgade d'abomina-
tion, Dieu me conduifit k deux lieues de notre
demeure, oil ie trouuay trois malades adultes, que ie
baptifay apres vne fuffifante inftrudtion, dont deux
moururent apres leur Baptefmes. Les f ecrets de Dieu
font admirables, & i'en pourrois rapporter plufieurs
exemples tout femblables, qui montrent les foins
amoureux de la prouidence pour fes Eleus.



1664 - 67] RELA TION OF 1666 - 67 305

from me all my possessions ; the young people were
becoming more and more numerous and insolent;
and the word of God was listened to only with scorn
and mockery. I was therefore compelled to abandon
this post, and withdraw again to our customary abode,
having [72] this consolation upon leaving them, that
Jesus Christ had been preached and the Faith
proclaimed — not only publicly, but to each Savage in
private ; for, besides those who filled our Chapel from
morn till eve, the others, who remained in their
Cabins, were taught by those who had heard me.

" I have myself overheard them in the evening,
after all had retired, repeating audibly and in the
tone of a Captain, all the instruction which I had
given them during the day. They freely acknowl-
edge that what I teach them is very reasonable ; but
license prevails over reason, and, unless grace is very
strong, all our teachings are of slight effect.

[73] " Upon the occasion of a visit from one of them
for the purpose of being instructed, at the first words
I spoke to him, about his having two wives, * My
brother,' he rejoined, ' thou speakest to me on a very
delicate subject; it is enough for my children to
pray; teach them.'

' * After I had left that village of abomination, God
led me two leagues from our dwelling, where I found
three adult sick persons; these I baptized, after
adequate instruction, and two of them died after their
Baptism. God's mysterious ways excite our admira-
tion, and I could cite many very similar illustrations
of them which show the loving care of providence
for its Elect."



306 LES RELATIONS DES /^SUITES [Vol.50



[74] CHAPITRE VII.

DE LA MISSION DES TIONNONTATEHERONNONS.

LES Tionnontateheronnons, d'auiourd'huy, font
les mefmes peuples, qu'on appelloit autrefois,
les Hurons de la nation du pettin. lis ont efl6
contraints, auffi bien que les autres, de quitter leur
pais, pour fuir I'Hyroquois, & fe retirer vers les ex-
tremit6s de ce grand Lac, oil I'^loignement, & le defaut
de challe, leur feruent d'azile contre leurs ennemis.

lis faifoient autrefois, vne partie de I'Eglife fio-
riflante des Hurons, & ont eu le feu Pere Garnier
pour Pafteur, qui a donn6 fi courageufement fa vie
pour fon cher troupeau: [75] auffi conferuent ils pour
fa memoire, vne veneration toute particuliere.

Depuis le debris de leur pais, ils n'ont point efte
cultiuez dans le Chriftianif me ; d'oii vient qu'ils font
pliitoft Chreftiens par eftat, que par profeffion; Ils
fe vantent de ce beau nom, mais le commerce qu'ils
ont depuis fi long- temps, auec les infidelles, a prefque
effac6 de leurs efprits tons les veftiges de la Religion,
& leur a fait reprendre plufieurs de leurs anciennes
coutumes ; lis ont leur bourgade aff ez procbe de noftre
demeure, ce qui m'a donn6 moyen, d'entreprendre
cette Miffion, auec plus d'affiduit6, que les autres
plus 61oign6es.

I'ay done tacli6 de remettre cette Eglife en fon
premier eftat, par [76] la Predication de la parole de
Dieu, & par I'adminiflration des Sacrements; I'ay



1664 - 67] RELA TION OF 1666 - 67 307



[74] CHAPTER VII.

OF THE MISSION TO THE TIONNONTATEIIERONNONS.

4 4 'T^HE Tionnontateheronnons of the present day
1^ are the same people who were formerly
called the Hurons of the tobacco nation.
They, like the rest, were forced to leave their coun-
try to escape from the Hyroquois, and to retire to the
head of this great Lake, where distance and scarcity
of game furnish them an asylum against their foes.

' ' They formerly constituted a part of the flourish-
ing Church of the Hurons, and had as Pastor the late
Father Garnier, who gave his life so courageously
for his dear flock; [75] therefore they cherish his
memory with very marked veneration.

' ' Since their country's downfall, they have received
no Christian nurture ; whence it results that they are
Christians rather by calling than by profession.
They boast of that fair name, but the intercourse
which they have so long had with infidels has nearly
effaced from their minds all vestiges of Religion, and
has made them resume many of their former cus-
toms. Their village is at no great distance from our
abode, which has enabled me to apply myself to this
Mission with greater assiduity than to the other more
distant ones.

" I have, accordingly, tried to restore this Church
to its pristine state by [76] Preaching the word of God,
and administering the Sacraments. I conferred Bap-
tism upon a hundred children during the first winter



308 LES RELATIONS DES jASUITES [Vol.50

confer^ le Baptefme a cent enfans, des le premier
hyuer que i'ay paffe auec eux ; & en fuitte a d'autres,
pendant les deux ann^es que ie les ay pratiques. Les
adultes s'aprochoient du Sacrement de penitence,
affifloient au faint Sacrifice de la Meffe, faifoient les
prieres en public, & en particulier; en vn mot, comme
ils auoient eft6 fort bien inflruits, il ne m'a pas efte
bien difficile de reftablir la piete dans leurs coeurs, &
y faire renaiftre les bons fentiments, qu'ils auoient
eus pour la Foy.

De tous ces enfans baptifez, Dieu n'en a voulu
prendre que deux, qui fe font enuolez dans le Ciel
apr^s leur Baptefme. Pour les adultes, il y en a eu
trois entr'autres, pour le \j']'\ falut defquels, il femble
que Dieu m'a enuoye icy.

Le premier a efte vn vieillard OufaKi de naiffance,
autrefois confiderable parmy ceux de fa nation, &
qui s'eft toufiours conferue dans I'eflimedes Hurons,
par lefquels il auoit efte pris captif en guerre ; Peu
de iours apres mon arriuee en ce pais, i'appris qu'il
eftoit malade k quatre lieues d'icy ; ie le fus voir, ie
I'inftruifis, ie le baptifay, & trois heures apres il
mourut, me laiffant toutes les marques poffibles que
Dieu luy auoit fait mifericorde.

Quant mon voyage depuis Quebec, n'auroit point
eu d'autre fruit que le falut de ce pauure vieillard,
ie trouuerois tous mes pas trop bien recompenf^s,
puifque le Fils de Dieu n'a pas efpargne pour luy
iufques ^ la derniere goutte de fon fang.

[78] La feconde perfonne dont i'ay a parler, eft vne
f emme fort auancee en age ; elle efloit detenue k deux
lieues de noftre demeure par vne dangereufe mala-
die, que luy auoit caufe vn fac de poudre qui auoit



1 664 - 67] RELA TION OF i666 - 67 309

I Spent with them ; and upon others subsequently,
during my two years of intercourse with them. The
adults partook of the Sacrament of penance, attended
the holy Sacrifice of the Mass, prayed in public and
in private; in short, as they had been very well
taught, it was a matter of no great difficulty for me
to restore piety to their hearts, and make them put
forth once more the pious sentiments they formerly
had for the Faith.

" Of all these baptized children, God chose to take
but two, who winged their way to Heaven after their
Baptism. As for the adults, there were three of them
for [yj'] whose salvation God seems to have sent me
hither.

" The first was an old man, Ousaki by birth, for-
merly of importance among his own people, and ever
held in esteem by the Hurons, by whom he had been
taken captive in war. A few days after my arrival
in this country, I learned that he was lying ill four
leagues from here. I went to see him, and instructed
and baptized him; and three hours later he died,
leaving me every possible proof that God had shown
him mercy.

" Even although my journey from Quebec should
bear no further fruits than the saving of this poor old
man, I would deem all the steps that I had taken
only too well rewarded, inasmuch as the Son of God
did not begrudge him even his last drop of blood.

[78] " The second person I have to mention was a
woman, far advanced in years, who was confined, two
leagues from our abode, by a dangerous illness, occa-
sioned by the unexpected ignition of a bag of powder
in her cabin. Father Garnier had promised her bap-
tism more than fifteen years before, and was on the



310 LES RELATIONS DES /^SUITES [Vol.50

pris feu inopin^ment dans fa cabane. Le Pere Gar-
nier, luy auoit promis, il y a plus de quinze ans le
baptefme, & eftoit prefl de le luy conferer, quand il
fut tu6 par les Iroquois. Ce bon Pere, n'a pas voulu
manquer k fa promelTe ; & comme vn bon Pafteur, a
procure par fon interceffion, que ie me trouuaffe icy
auant qu'elle expiraft: ie la fus voir le iour mefme
de tous les Saints, & luy ayant raffraifchi la memoire
de tous nos Myfteres, ie trouuay que les femences de
la parole de Dieu, iett^es en fon ame depuis tant
d'ann^es y auoient produit des fruits [79] qui n'at-
tendoieut que les eaux du Baptefme, pour venir ^
leur perfedtion ; ie luy conferay done ce facrement,
apres I'auoir bien difpofee; & la nuit mefme qu'elle
recent cette grace, elle rendit fon ame ^ fon Createur.
La troifi^me perfonne eft vne fille agee de quatorze
ans, qui fe rendoit tres affidue a tous les catechifmes,
& k toutes les prieres que ie faifois faire, dont elle
auoit appris par coeur vne bonne partie : elle tombe
malade, fa mere qui n'eftoit pas Chreftienne, appelle
les forciers, leur fait exercer toutes les fottifes de
leur infame meflier: i'en entends parler, ie vais
trouuer la fille, & luy fais ouuerture du Baptefme ;
elle eft rauie de le receuoir, apr6s quoy tout enfant
qu'elle eftoit, elle s'oppofe k toutes les iongleries,
[80] qu'on voulut faire autour d'elle, difant que par
fon Baptefme elle auoit renonc6 k toutes les fuperfti-
tions; & dans ce genereux combat, elle mourut en
priant Dieu iufques au dernier foupir.



1664 - 67] RELA TION OF 1666 -67 311

point of conferring it, when he was killed by the
Iroquois. That good Father was unwilling to break
his promise, and like a good Pastor he brought it
about, by his intercession, that I should arrive here
before she died. I visited her on all Saints' day,
and, after refreshing her memory concerning all our
Mysteries, found that the seeds of God's word, im-
planted in her soul so many years before, had there
borne fruits [79] which awaited only the Baptismal
waters in order to attain their perfection. Accord-
ingly I conferred this sacrament upon her, after I had
thoroughly prepared her ; and on the very night of
her receiving this grace she rendered up her soul to
her Creator.

** The third person was a girl, fourteen years of
age, who applied herself very assiduously to all the
catechisms and prayers which I caused to be recited,
and of which she had learned a great portion by
heart. She fell ill ; her mother, who was not a
Christian, called in the sorcerers, and made them go
through all the fooleries of their infamous calling.
I heard about it and went to see the girl, broaching
to her the subject of Baptism. She was overjoyed
to receive it ; and after that, mere child although she
was, she made opposition to all the jugglers' prac-
tices, [80] which they were bent on executing in her
presence. She declared that by her Baptism she had
renounced all superstitions; and in this courageous
contest she died, praying to God until her very last
breath."



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DATA: VOL. L

CXVII

Bibliographical particulars of the Relation of 1664-
65 were given in Vol. XLIX.

CXVIII

In reprinting the Relation of 1665-66 (Paris, 1667),
we follow a copy of the original Cramoisy edition in
the Lenox Library. The prefatory epistle from
Frangois le Mercier to the provincial in France is
dated "A Kebec le 12. de Novembre 1666;" and
the "Privilege" was "Donne &, Paris en lanvier
1667." No printed "Permission" appears in this
annual. The regular text of the Relation is followed
by a " LETTRE | de la | reverende mere | svpe-
RIEVRE I Des Religieufes Hofpitalieres de | Kebec
en la Nouuelle- | France. | Du 3. Odtobre 1666."
This is addressed, like the " Lettre " of the previous
year, " A Monfieur ^ * * * Bourgeois de Paris; "
and is dated " De I'Hoftel Dieu de Kebec le 3.
Oc5tobre 1666." The Relation is not perfect without
the " Lettre," because it is called for in the table of
contents. But, apparently, the " Lettre " was also
circulated separately, where it would do the most
good. Its own pagination, and the fact that it is an
independent sheet in eight, point to such probability.
It is possible, too, that the " Bourgeois de Paris,"
through whom the Mother Superior addressed her



314 LES RE LA TIONS DES j£SUITES

appeal for charity, was none other than Sebastien
Cramoisy himself. Singularly enough, the Quebec
reprint of 1858, which professes to follow the copy in
the Bibliotheque Nationale (then Imperiale), of Paris,
omits the " Privilege," the prefatory epistle of Le
Mercier, and the " Lettre " of the Mother Superior, —
though that copy is, in fact, perfect. This annual
forms no. 126 of Harrisse's Notes, but his title is
somewhat faulty.

Collation: Title, with verso blank, i leaf; Le Mer-
cier's prefatory epistle, pp. (5); "Table des Cha-
pitres," followed by the " Privilege," p. (i); text of
Relation (3 chaps.), pp. 1-47, with verso of p. 47
blank. ' ' Lettre de la Reverende Mere Svperievre, ' '
consisting of: Special title, with verso blank, i leaf;
text of letter, pp. 3-12; address to " Messievrs et
Dames," p. 13 (not numbered); " Memoire des
Choses neceflaires," pp. 14-16. Signatures: a in
four; A-C, plus A in eights. No mispaging.

This annual is very rare, and is lacking in most of
the special collections of which we have knowledge ;
neither O'Callaghan nor Murphy had a copy. Copies
have been sold or priced as follows: Harrassowitz
(1882), no. 44 (a fine large copy with the " Lettre "),
priced at 150 marks; Lenox copy, purchased from
the estate of Dr. George H. Moore in 1893, for $100;
and Dufosse (with the " Lettre"), priced in 1893 at
400 francs. In our opinion, these prices are quite
moderate. Copies are to be found in the following
libraries: Lenox, perfect; Brown (private), without
the ' ' Lettre ; ' ' Kalbfleisch (private), the Harrasso-
witz copy; Laval University (Quebec), perfect; Bibli-
otheque Ste. Genevieve (Paris), perfect; and Bibli-
othfeque Nationale (Paris), perfect.



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DATA: VOL. L 316



CXIX

The first of these three letters by Father Thierry
Beschefer (October i, 1666), was written to his family,
in France; the second (October 4) to his brother
Jesuit, Antoine Chesne; the third (August 25, 1667),
bears no address. The original MSS. are in the
Bibliotheque Nationale, at Paris, their press-mark
being " Fond Fontette 842." We follow apographs
by Father Felix Martin, now in the archives of St.
Mary's College, Montreal.

cxx

For bibliographical particulars of the Journal des
J ^suites, see Vol. XXVII.

CXXI

In reprinting the Relation of 1666 -6^ (Paris, 1668),
we follow a copy of the original Cramoisy edition in
the Lenox Library. The prefatory epistle from Fran-
9ois le Mercier to the provincial in France is dated
" A Kebec le 10. Novembre 1667; " and the " Privi-
lege " was '* Donn6 'k Paris en lanvier 1667; " but
the year should, of course, be 1668. There is no
printed "Permission" to this annual. The title-
page presents a different appearance than its prede-
cessors; for, instead of the regular printer's mark, —
a cut with storks, — we find substituted in its place a
vignette, consisting of a pot of flowers. The volume
is no. 127 of Harrisse's Notes.

There has been some speculation about two issues
of this Relation; because some copies have the letter
of the mother superior bound in at the end. It is not
called for in the table of contents, and, furthermore,
it has a separate pagination and its own signature-



316 LES RELA TIONS DES J ^SUITES

marks. The Relation ends on p. 1 60 with "FIN."
Hence we infer that the volume is not necessarily-
imperfect without the " Lettre," although it cer-
tainly was included by the printers in some copies.
We are of the opinion, too, that the " Lettre " was
also circulated separately, like the one often found
with the annual for 1664-65 (H. 124); and what we
have stated of the latter (q.v.) might as well be
applied to the volume under consideration. Nev-
ertheless, the Relation with the * ' Lettre ' ' is
to be preferred. The additional tract is entitled

"LETTRE I DELA I REVERENDE MERE | SVPERIEVRE |

Des Religieufes Hofpitalieres | de Kebec en la Nou-
uelle I France. | Du 20. Octobre i66yy It was ad-
dressed like the two preceding ones, "A Monfieur
* * * Bourgeois de Paris," and is dated on p. 1 1 as
follows: " De I'Hoftel-Dieu de Kebec, le20. Octobre
1667." It is not included in the Quebec reprint of
1858.

Collation: Title, with verso blank, i leaf; Le Mer-
cier's prefatory epistle, pp. (4); " Table des Cha-
pitres " and "Privilege," pp. (2); text (19 chaps.),
pp. I - 160. Appended the " Lettre de la Reverende
Mere Svperievre," consisting of: Title, with verso
blank, i leaf; text of " Lettre," pp. 3-11 ; notice to
" Messievrs et Dames" on p. 12, not numbered.
Signatures: a in four, A-K in eights, plus A in
eight. Pp. 120 and 132 are mispaged 20 and 32
respectively.

Copies have been sold or priced as follows : Squier
(1876), no. 1962, without the " Lettre," sold for
$10.75; Harrassowitz (1882), no. 45, without the
" Lettre," priced at 100 marks; and Barlow (1890),
no. 1 3 18, with the " Lettre," sold for $27.50. There



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DATA: VOL. L 317

was a copy in the Murphy sale, but none in
O'Callaghan's; and it is also lacking among a lot of
twenty-five of the annuals, offered in April, 1899, by
Dodd, Mead & Co.

Copies can be found in the following libraries:
Lenox, both ; Harvard, with ' ' Lettre ; ' ' New York
State Library, without "Lettre;" Brown (private),
with "Lettre;" Ayer (private), with "Lettre;"
State Historical Society of Wisconsin, without
' * Lettre ; ' ' Laval University (Quebec), both ; Library
of Parliament (Ottawa), without " Lettre; " George-
town College, D. C. (Riggs Library), two copies —
one without " Lettre," the other with the title-page
only thereof; British Museum, without "Lettre;"
and Bibliotheque Nationale (Paris), both.



NOTES TO VOL L

(Figures in parentheses, following number of note, refer to pages
of English text.)

1 (p. 45). — Reference is here made to the church of Ste. Anne du
Petit-Cap, at C6te de Beaupre — celebrated, even to the present
time, for miraculous cures of sick persons. The Relation of 1667
gives (chap, xix.) details of some of these: cf. Faillon's Col. Fran.,
t. ii., p. 562. See also vol. xiv., note 15. Parkman states {Old
Regime, p. 364, note i) that in 1873 the old chapel was yet stand-
ing, and a new one in process of erection.

2 (p. 45). — Laurette: a variant of Lorette, or Loreto (vol. xviii.,
note 4).

3 (P- 53)- — Joachim Girard — born 1642, at Evreux, France — mar-
ried, at the age of eighteen, Marie Halay (Hasle), by whom he had
seven children. In 1676, he married a second wife, Jeanne Chalut;
they had nine children. The date of his death is not recorded.

4 (P- 55)- — Brignac is probably a misprint for Brigeac, the form
used by him in signing the letter given in Relation of 1662 (vol.
xlvii. of this series, p. 179). Claude de Brigeac, a young French
gentleman, then aged thirty years, had come to Montreal as a soldier,
and was private secretary to the governor, Maisonneuve. See
Faillon's Col. Fran., t. ii., p. 505.

5 (p. 59). — Jacques Dufresne was a member of the Montreal militia
organized by Maisonneuve (vol. xlviii., note ii.).

6 (p. 81). — Except the horse sent to Montmagny in 1647, these
were the first horses seen in Canada.

7 (p. 107). — Anne of Austria was regent of France from the death
of her husband, Louis XIII. (May 14, 1643), until their son, Louis
XIV., attained his majority (1651). She died Jan. 20, 1666, aged
sixty-four years.

8 (p. 133). — " Louis le Petit, captain in the regiment of Carignan,
was ordained a priest in 1670, and labored successfully in the
Abenaqui missions; he died in 1709." — Suite's Canad.-Fran.,
t iv., p. 49.

9 (p. 141). — The La Mothe here mentioned was, according to



LES RELA TIONS DES jASUITES



Suite {Canad.-Fran., t. iv., p. 48), Pierre de St. Paul, sieur de la
Motte-Lussiere (Luciere). He was commandant of Fort Ste. Anne
for a time; and, in 1669- 70, held the same post at Montreal. It is
not known how long he remained in the country ; but, in 1678, La
Salle met him in Paris, and brought him to Canada as a sharer in
his Western enterprise. La Motte was for some time commandant
of La Salle's fort at Cataracoui ; and he built for his patron (late in
1678) a small fortified house at Niagara. We find no further men-
tion of him in connection with La Salle; and it is probable that their
association terminated before 1682. In 1683, La Motte obtained
the seigniory of Lussaudiere, where he apparently resided, although
he was connected with the military afiairs of the colony, until his
death. This occurred Sept. 22, 1690; he was slain while repelling
an attack of the Iroquois, near St. Frangois du Lac.

Tanguay {Diet. Gdneal., t. i., p. 169) records the marriage (at
Montreal, in 1680) of Dominique de Lamotte, "sieur de Lutier, de
Lucieres, de St. Paul; " but his death is placed in September, 1700.
This man may have been a brother of Pierre; the latter is not
mentioned by Tanguay.

10 (p. 141). — Alexandre Berthier, born in 1638, a native of Peri-
gueux, married (1672) Marie le Gardeur; they had three children.
In 1672, he was granted the seigniory of Berthier, in Bellechasse
county, Que. The time of his death is not known.

11 (p. 147). — Frangois Dollier de Casson was bora about 1620. In
early life, he was a cavalry captain under Turenne, in which serv-
ice he won a reputation for great bravery. Later, he became a
Sulpitian priest, and belonged to the diocese of Nantes. In Sep-
tember, 1666, he arrived in Canada, with three of his brethren, sent
hither from the Paris seminary ; he was immediately assigned by
Tracy to attendance upon the expedition which the latter was then
about to conduct against the Mohawks. After the return of this
army to Montreal, it was found that Ft. Ste. Anne, at the mouth of
Lake Champlain, had no chaplain; and Dollier was appointed to
that oflBce. He found many of the garrison prostrated with an
infectious disease; but his bravery, resolution, and good judgment
enabled him to save the lives of most of these men. The winter of
1668-69 he spent with the Nipissing Indians. In the following year,
Qaeylus, the Sulpitian superior at Montreal, conceived the idea of
establishing missions among the Western tribes. He accordingly
sent Dollier and another Sulpitian. — Rene de Brehant de Galinee,
who had come with Queylus to Canada in the year preceding, — to
travel with the explorer La Salle, to seek the Mississippi river, and
to open the way, among hitherto unknown tribes, for Sulpitian mis-
sions. In pursuance of this commission, the two priests spent the



NOTES TO VOL. L 321



winter of 1669-70 on the north shore of Lake Erie, — alone, since La
Salle, on account of illness, returned to Montreal in the preceding


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Online LibraryJesuits. Letters from missions (North America)The Jesuit relations and allied documents : travels and explorations of the Jesuit missionaries in New France, 1610-1791 ; the original French, Latin, and Italian texts → online text (page 18 of 19)