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Jesuits. Letters from missions (North America).

The Jesuit relations and allied documents : travels and explorations of the Jesuit missionaries in New France, 1610-1791 ; the original French, Latin, and Italian texts online

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feiour de repos, la ioye, injinie, dont tu nous as tant parU.
II conclut enfin ce difcours, en faifant voir avec
modeftie, tout ce qu'il a fait pour les Francois, &
leur demandant pour toute recopenfe, leurs bonnes



1664-67] RELATION OF 1665-66 129

hearing, Garaconti6 made him a speech, full of good
sense and of an eloquence that had no savor of
barbarism. It contained only civilities and offers of
friendship and service from his whole nation, prayers
for a new Jesuit Mission, and polite expressions
of condolence upon [25] the death of the late Father
le Moine, the news of which he had just learned.
Ondessonk, said he in a loud voice, addressing that
Father, whom the Barbarians called by this name,
hear est thou me from the cou7itry of the dead, whither
thou hast so quickly passed? Thou it was who didst so
many times expose thy life on the scaffolds of the Agnie-
hronnons; who didst go bravely into their very fires, to
snatch so many Frenchmen from the flames; who didst
carry peace and tranquillity whithersoever thou didst go,
and who madest converts wherever thou didst dwell. We
have seen thee on our council-mats decidi?ig questioyis of
peace and war; our cabins were foujtd to be too small when
thou didst enter them, and our villages themselves were
too cramped when thou wast present, — so great was the
crowd of people attracted thither by thy words. [26] But I
disturb thy rest with this importunate address. So often
didst thou teach us that this life of afflictions is followed
by one of eternal happiness; since, then, thou dost now
possess thai life, what reason have we to 7nourn thee?
But we weep for thee because, in losing thee, we have lost
our Father and Protector. Nevertheless we will console
ourselves with the thought that thou still holdest that rela-
tion to us in Heaven, and that thou hast found in that
abode the infinite joy whereof thou hast so often told us.

He finally concluded this speech by rehearsing,
with modesty, all that he had done for the French,
and asking of them, for sole reward, their good graces
and the freedom of three prisoners of his nation.



130 LES RELATIONS DES /^SUITES [Vol.50

graces, & la liberty de trois prifonniers de fa nation.
Sa harangue fut interrompue par la ceremonie ordi-
naire des prefens, [27] & il en mettoit un k chaque
point de fon difconrs, aux pieds de Monlieur de
Tracy, qui repondit k fes demandes avec toute la
bonte qu'il pouvoit fouhaiter. Non feulement il lui
accorda les trois prifonniers, & lui promit la paix, &
la protedtion du Roi pour fa nation ; mais il lui fit
mefme efperer la mef me grace pour les autres nations
Iroquoifes, fi elles aimoient mieux fe porter d'elles-
mefmes k leur devoir, que de s'y laiffer contraindre
par la force des armes.

Cependant comme Ton ne doit attendre aucun
avantage de ces nations, qu'autant qu'on paroift en
eftat de leur pouvoir nuire, on fit les preparatifs pour
une expedition militaire, contre celles avec qui il n'y
avoit point de paix conclue. Monfieur de Courcelles
qui [28] en fut le Chef, y apporta toute la diligence
poffible, de forte qu'il fe trouva preft k partir le 9.
de lanvier de I'annee 1666. accompagne de Monfieur
du Gas, qu'il prit pour fon Lieutenant, de Monfieur
de Salampar Gentilhomme volontaire, du Pere Pierre
Raffeix lefuite, de 300. hommes du Regiment de
Carignan-Salieres, & de 200. volontaires habitans
des Colonies Frangoifes. Cette marche ne pouvoit
eftre que lente, chacun ayant aux pieds des raquettes,
dont ils n'eftoient pas accouftum6s de fe fervir; &
tous, fans en excepter les Chefs, ni Monfieur de
Courcelles mefme, eftant charges chacun de 25. ou
30. livres de bifcuit, de couvertures, & des autres
provifions neceffaires.

A peine pourroit-on trouver [29] dans toutes les
hiftoires une marche plus difficile ni plus longue,



1664 - 67] RELA TION OF i66s - 66 131

His harangue was interrupted by the usual ceremony
of offering presents, [27] of which, at each of the
heads of his speech, he laid one at the feet of Mon-
sieur de Tracy, who replied to his petitions with all
the kindness the other could desire. Not only did
he grant him the three prisoners and promise him
peace and the King's protection for his nation, but
he even led him to hope for the same grace toward the
other Iroquois nations, if they preferred voluntarily
to assume a respectful attitude, rather than suffer
themselves to be constrained thereto by force of arms.

Still, as we must not expect to enjoy any advan-
tage over those nations, except so far as we seem
able to harm them, preparations were made for a
military expedition against such as had not concluded
peace with us. Monsieur de Courcelles, who [28]
was the Leader of the party, used all possible dili-
gence, so that he found himself ready to start on the
9th of January of the year 1666. He was accom-
panied by Monsieur du Gas, whom he took for his
Lieutenant; Monsieur de Salampar, a Gentleman
volunteer; Father Pierre Raffeix, a Jesuit; 300 men
from the Regiment of Carignan-Salieres; and 200
habitans of the French Colonies as volunteers. This
march could only be slow, as every man wore snow-
shoes, with the use of which they were unfamiliar ;
while all, without excepting the Officers, or Monsieur
de Courcelles himself, were burdened each with 25
or 30 livres of biscuit, blankets, and other necessary
supplies.

In all history there can scarcely be found [29] a
march of more difficulty or greater length than that
of this little army ; and it needed French courage and
Monsieur de Courcelles's firmness to undertake it.



132 LES RELA TIONS DES J ^SUITES [Vol. 50

que le fut celle de cette petite armee ; & il falloit ua
courage Frangois, & la conflance de Monfieur de
Courcelles pour I'entreprendre. Outre Tembarras
des raquettes, qui eft une efpece d'entraves fort in-
commodes, & celui des fardeaux que chacun eftoit
oblige de porter, il falloit faire trois cens lieues fur
les neges, traverfer continuellement fur la glace,
des lacs & des rivieres, en danger de faire autant de
chutes que de pas; ne coucher que fur la nege, au
milieu des forefts, & fouffrir un froid qui paffe
de beaucoup la rigueur des plus rudes hivers de
r Europe.

Cependant nos Troupes eftant allees le premier
jour "k Sillery, pour recommander le fuccez de [30]
leur entreprife k I'Ar change faint Michel Patron de
ce lieu-Ik ; plufieurs eurent dez le troifi6me jour le
n6s, les oreilles, les genoux & les doits, ou d'autres
parties entierement gel^es, Bz. le refte du corps con-
vert de cicatrices: & quelques autres, entierement
entrepris & engourdis par le froid, feroient morts
fur la nege, fi Ton ne les avoit portes avec beaucoup
de peine jufqu'au lieu oii Ton devoit paifer la nuit.

Les lieurs de la Foiiille, Maximin & Lobiac Capi-
taines au Regiment de Carignan, ayant joint le 24.
de lanvier aux trois Rivieres cette petite armee avec
chacun 20, foldats de leurs Compagnies, & quelques
habitans du lieu ; le froid les traita des le jour fui-
vant, plus mal qu'il n'avoit fait les jours [31] prece-
dens, & Ton fut contraint de reporter plufieurs
foldats, dont les uns avoient les jambes coupees par
les glaces, & les autres les mains ou les bras, ou
d'autres parties du corps entierement gel6es. Ces
pertes furent reparees par les fieurs de Chambly,



1664 - 67 J RELA 110 N OF ibbs - 66 133

Besides the encumbrance of snowshoes, which are a
very inconvenient kind of fetters, and that of the
packs which all were forced to carry, it was neces-
sary to march three hundred leagues on snow; to
cross repeatedly lakes and rivers on the ice, with the
danger of falling at every step; to make one's bed
on nothing but snow, in the heart of the woods ; and
to endure cold far exceeding the severity of the
harshest winters in Europe.

Nevertheless, our Troops proceeded on the first
day to Sillery, to commend the fortunes of [30] their
undertaking to the Archangel saint Michael, Patron
of that place. On the third day, many had noses,
ears, knees, and fingers, or other parts of the body,
entirely frozen, and the rest of their persons covered
with scars; while some others, being utterly over-
come and benumbed with the cold, would have died
in the snow had they not been carried, with great
difficulty, to the spot where the troops were to pass
the night.

Sieurs de la Fouille, Maximin, and Lobiac, Cap-
tains in the Regiment of Carignan, having joined this
little army at three Rivers on the 24th of January, —
each with 20 soldiers from his Company, and some
of the habitans of the place, — the cold treated them
more harshly on the very next day than it had on
the [31] preceding days. It was necessary to carry
back many soldiers, some of whom had their legs cut
by the ice, and the others their hands, arms, or other
parts of the body completely frozen. These losses
were made good by sieurs de Chambly, Petit,'' and
Rogemont, Captains in the same Regiment, and by
sieur Mignarde, Lieutenant of the Colonel's com-
pany, who were drawn from forts St. Louis and sainte



134 LES RELA TIONS DES /^SUITES [Vol. 50

Petit, & Rogemont Capitaines du mefme Regiment,
& par le fieur Mignarde Lieutenant de la Colonelle,
qui furent tires des forts de S. Louis & de fainte
Therefe, ou eftoit le rendes-vous des Troupes, le 30.
de ce mefme mois: De forte que I'armee eflant
encore de 500. hommes effedtifs, arriva enfin le 14.
de Fevrier avec les mefmes peines & les mefmes
dangers qu'auparavant, dans le pais des ennemis, k
20. lieues de leurs bourgades. Ce cliemin qui reftoit
k [32] faire, dura long temps, k caufe de la prodi-
gieufe hauteur des neges, & du retardement des
guides Algonquins, faute defquels il fallut tenter des
routes inconnues, & s' engager dans des 6garemens
contiuuels.

On appris enfin des prifonniers, qu'on fit dans
quelques cabanes avancees, qui furent prifes, & du
Commandant d'un bameau babite par les HoUandois
de la nouvelle Hollande, que la plufpart des Agnie-
ronnons & Onneiouthronnons eflant alles plus avant
faire la guerre h. d'autres peuples appell6s les faifeurs
de porcelaine, ils n'avoient laiffe dans leurs bourgs que
les enf ans, & les vieillards infirmes : & Ton reconnut
qu'il feroit inutile de poufTer plus loin une expedition,
[33] qui avoit tout I'effet que Ton en avoit pretendu,
par la terreur qu'elle avoit mife parmi toutes ces
Nations; qui n'eftoient fieres & perfides, que parce
qu'elles fe croyoient inaccefiibles ^ nos troupes. On
ne retourna cependant qu'aprez avoir tue pluQeurs
Sauvages, qui paroiffoient de temps en temps k 1' en-
tree des forefts, pour ecarmoucher avec les noftres.
Le fieur d'Aiguemorte & quelques-uns de nos foldats
furent aufli tu6s en les pourfuivant.

On vit k Quebec dez le mois de May fuivant ce



1664 - 67] RELA TION OF 1663 - 66 135

Therese, where the Troops held their rendezvous
on the 30th of the same month. The army, still
having, therefore, an effective strength of 500 men,
arrived at length, on the 14th of February, under
the s;ame hardships and exposed to the same dangers
as before, in the enemy's country, 20 leagues from
the latter's villages. This remaining march [32]
occupied a long time, because of the prodigious
depth of the snow and the delay of the Algonquin
guides, — in default of whom it became necessary to
try unknown routes, and run the risk of constantly
going astray.

Finally it was ascertained — from the prisoners
captured in some frontier cabins which were seized,
and from the Commander of a hamlet inhabited by
the Dutch of new Holland — that most of the Agnie-
ronnons and Onneiouthronnons had pushed on still
farther, to make war on some other peoples, called
" porcelain-makers," and had left only the children
and infirm old men in their villages. And so it was
seen to be useless to proceed farther on an expedi-
tion [33] which had produced all the effect that had
been expected, owing to the alarm it had spread
throughout all those Nations, who were haughty and
perfidious only because they believed themselves in-
accessible to our troops. The latter did not return,
however, until they had killed a number of Savages
who appeared from time to time on the edge of the
woods to skirmish with our forces. Sieur d'Aigue-
morte and some of our soldiers were also killed in
pursuing them.

In the following May, we saw at Quebec what
effect the fear of his Majesty's arms had produced in
the breasts of those Barbarians, from the arrival of



136 LES RELATIONS DES /^SUITES [Vol.50

qu'avoit produit la crainte des armes de fa Majefte
dans les coeurs de ces Barbaras, par I'arrivee des
Ambaffadeurs Sonnontoiiaeronnons, qui demandoient
pour leur Nation, la protedtion [34] du Roy, & la
continuation de la paix, qu'ils pretendoient n'avoir
jamais violee par aucun adte d'hoftilite. Monlieur
de Tracy avoit d'abord refufe 34. prefens qu'ils luy
avoient offerts ; mais voyant que ce refus leur efloit
extremement fenfible, & qu'ils le prenoient pour la
derniere injure qu'on put leur faire ; il accepta enfin
leurs porcelaines, en leur repetant, que ce n' efloit
pas leurs prefens ni leurs biens que le Roi defiroit,
mais leur veritable bon-heur, & leur falut; qu'ils
recevroient toutes fortes d'avantages de la confiance
qu'ils prendroient en fa bonte, & qu'il ne tiendroit
qu'aux autres Nations, d'en relTentir auffi tons les
effets les plus favorables, fi elles avoient le mefme
foin de I'implorer, en envoyat [35] au pluftoft leurs
Ambaffadeurs.

Ceux-ci furent fuivis de prez de ceux des autres
peuples, & entre autres de ceux d'Onneiout, & mefme
de ceux d'Agnie, de forte que les Deputes de cinq
Nations Iroquoifes fe trouverent prefque en mefme
temps k Quebec, comme pour y affermir d'un com-
mun confentement une paix durable avec la France.

Afin d'y mieux parvenir, Ton jugea ^ propos de
deputer quelques Fran9ois avec les Ambaffadeurs
d'Onneyout, qui repondoient auffi de la conduite des
Agnieheronnons, & donnoient mefme pour eux des
oftages. Les Hollandois de la nouvelle Hollande
avoient auffi 6crit en leur faveur, & fe rendoient cau-
tion de la fidelity de tous ces Barbares, k [36] obfer-
ver exadtement les articles de la paix qu'on feroit



1664 - 67 J RELA TION OF ibbs - 66 137

Sonnontouaeronnon Ambassadors with a request, on
behalf of their Nation, for the [34] King's protection,
and a continuance of the peace, which they alleged
they had never \'iolated by a single hostile act.
Monsieur de Tracy had at first refused 34 presents
which they offered him ; but seeing that they felt this
refusal keenly, and that they considered it the great-
est affront that could be offered them, he finally
accepted their porcelain. He again assured them
that it was not their presents or their goods that the
King desired, but their real happiness and their salva-
tion ; that they would receive every kind of advan-
tage from the trust which they reposed in his good-
ness ; and that it rested only with the other Nations
to experience also all the most favorable results from
the same source, if they took like care to make sup-
plication to him by sending [35] their Ambassadors
at the earliest possible moment.

These envoys were closely followed by those from
the remaining tribes, and among others, by those
from Onneiout and even from Agnie ; so that the
Deputies from five Iroquois Nations were present at
Quebec almost at the same time, as if to ratify by
common consent a lasting peace with France.

In order the better to attain this end, it was deemed
advisable to send back some Frenchmen, as deputies,
with the Ambassadors from Onneyout, who answered
also for the Agnieheronnons' conduct, and even gave
hostages for them. The Dutch of new Holland had
likewise written on their behalf, and guaranteed the
good faith of all those Barbarians in [36] observing
exactly the terms of peace that should be made with
them. These French Deputies had orders to inquire
into everything carefully on the spot, and to see if



138 LES RELATIONS DES jASUITES [Vol.50

avec eux. Ces Deputes Frangois avoient ordre de
s'informer foigneufement fur les lieux de toutes
chofes, & de voir s'il y auroit quelque feuret6 k fe
fier encore une fois aux Sauvages, afin que les armes
de fa Majefte ne fuffent point retard6es par une fauffe
efperance de la paix,

Mais S. peine les Ambaffadeurs furent-ils ^loign^s
de deux ou trois journ^es de Quebec, qu'on apprit
que quelques Fran?ois du Fort de fainte Anne, eftant
all6s k la chaffe, avoient efte furpris par les Agnie-
hronnons, & que le fieur de Traverfy Capitaine au
Regiment de Carignan & le fieur de Chufy, en avoiet
eft^ tu^s, & quelques volontaires faits prifonniers.
Cela fit auffi-toft rappeller les Deputes [37] Fran9ois,
& retenir les Sauvages d'Onneiout, qui efloient de-
meures en oftage, aufquels felon les loix de la
guerre de ce pais, on devoit auffi-tofl fendre la tefte
k coups de haches. Mais fans fuivre ces loix bar-
bares, on penfa aux moyens de tirer mieux raif on de
cette perfidie ; & Monfieur Sorel Capitaine au Regi-
ment de Carignan, fit auffi-toft un parti de trois cens
hommes, qu'il mena ^ grandes journees dans le pais
des ennemis, en refolution d'y faire main baffe par
tout. Mais lorfqu'il n'efloit qu'k vingt lieues de leurs
bourgades, il rencontra de nouveaux Ambaffadeurs
qui ramenoient les Fran9ois pris prez du Fort de
fainte Anne, & qui venoient offrir toute forte de fatif-
fadtion pour le meurtre de ceux [38] qui avoient efl6
tu6s, & de nouvelles feuret^s pour la paix. De forte
que ce Capitaine eftant retourne avec fes troupes, on
ne parla plus que de paix, qu'on pretendoit conclure,
par un commun confeil de toutes les Nations, qui
avoient en mefme temps leurs Deputes "k Quebec.



1664-67] RELATION OF 1663-66 139

it was at all safe to trust the Savages once more, in
order that his Majesty's arms might not be checked
by a false hope of peace.

But hardly were the Ambassadors two or three
days' journey from Quebec, when word was received
that some Frenchmen from Fort sainte Anne, who
had gone out hunting, had been surprised by the
Agniehronnons ; and that sieur de Traversy, a Cap-
tain in the Regiment of Carignan, and sieur de
Chusy had been killed by them, and some volunteers
taken prisoners. This intelligence caused the imme-
diate recall of the [37] French Deputies, and the
detention of the Savages from Onneiout who had
remained as hostages, — whose heads, according to
the laws of war in this country, ought to have been
split with a hatchet. But, without following these
barbarous laws, we considered how we might best
obtain satisfaction for this perfidy; and Monsieur
Sorel, a Captain in the Regiment of Carignan, imme-
diately organized an expedition of three hundred
men, whom he led by forced marches into the enemy's
country, resolved to use vigorous measures there
without stint. But when he was still twenty leagues
from their villages, he met a fresh Embassy bring-
ing back the Frenchmen captured near Fort sainte
Anne, and coming to offer all possible satisfaction
for the murder of those [38] who had been slain,
and fresh guaranties of peace. Consequently, this
Captain returned with his troops ; and there was no
further talk of anything but peace, which it was
proposed to conclude by a common council of all the
Nations having Deputies at that time in Quebec.

These Negotiations did not yet meet with all the
success hoped for, and Monsieur de Tracy concluded



140 LES RELATIONS DES J^SUITES [Vol.50

Ces Traites n'eurent pas encore tout le fticcez qu'on
en efperoit, & Monlieur de Tracy jugea que pour les
faire bien reiiffir, il falloit par la force des armes,
rendre encore plus traitables les Agniehronnons, qui
faifoient tou jours naiftre de nouveaux obftacles k la
tranquillity publique. II voulut lui-mefme malgr6
fon age avanc6 conduire contre ces Barbares una
arm6e compofee de fix cens foldats, tir6s de toutes
les Compagnies, [39] de fix cens habitans du pais,- &
de cent Sauvages Hurons & Algonquins. Tous les
apprefts de cette guerre fe trouverent en eftat par
les foins de Monfieur Talon, le 14. de Septembre,
qui eftoit le jour affign6 pour le depart, parce que
c'eft celui de 1' Exaltation & du triomphe de la Croix,
pour la gloire de laquelle on faifoit cette entreprife.
Le rend^s-vous general eftoit donne au 28 de Sep-
tembre, au Fort de fainte Anne, conftruit nouvelle-
ment dans une Ifle du lac de Cbamplain par le fleur
de la Mothe Capitaine au Regiment de Carignan.
Quelques troupes n'ayant pu y venir alT^s-toft, Mon-
lieur de Tracy ne put en partir que le 3. d'Odtobre,
avec le gros de I'armee. Mais Monfieur de Cour-
celles, [40] fuivant fon impatience ordinaire de fe
trouver dans I'occafion, partit quelques jours aupa-
ravant avec quatre cens hommes; & les fieurs de
Chambly & Berthier commandans des Forts de faint
Louis & de TAlTomption, furent laiff6s, pour partir
quatre jours aprez Monfieur de Tracy avec I'arriere-
garde. Comme il falloit aller fix vingt lieues avant
dans le pais, pour trouver les bourgades des ennemis,
& comme il y avoit beaucoup de grands lacs, & de
grandes rivieres k palfer, pour y arriver; il fallut
auffi fe munir de commodit^s pour I'eau & pour la



1664 - 67] RELA TION OF 1665 - 66 141

that, to assure their satisfactory issue, it was neces-
sary by force of arms to render the Agniehronnons
still more tractable, as they were always the occasion
of new obstacles to the public tranquillity. Despite
his advanced age, he determined to conduct, in per-
son, against those Barbarians an army, composed of
six hundred soldiers drawn from all the Companies,
[39] six hundred settlers of the country, and a
hundred Huron and Algonquin Savages. All the
preparations for this war were completed, through
the assiduous efforts of Monsieur Talon, on the 14th
of September, which was the date assigned for the
departure, as being the day of the Exaltation and
triumph of the Cross, for the glory of which the
expedition was undertaken. The rendezvous was
set for the 28th of September at Fort sainte Anne,
which had been recently built on an Island in lake
Champlain by sieur de la Mothe, a Captain in the
Regiment of Carignan.^ Some troops having been
unable to reach this place soon enough. Monsieur de
Tracy could not leave it with the main body until
the 3rd of October. But Monsieur de Courcelles,
[40] yielding to his customary impatience to gain
the scene of action, set out some days in advance
with four hundred men; while sieurs de Chambly
and Berthier,^" commanders of Forts saint Louis and
I'Assomption, were left behind, to start with the
rear-guard four days after Monsieur de Tracy. As
it was necessary to push forward six-score leagues
into the country to find the enemy's villages, and as
there were many large lakes and rivers to cross in
order to reach them, it was also necessary to provide
conveniences for water and land travel. The neces-
sary boats had been provided for this expedition,



142 LES RELATIONS DES J^SUITES [Vol.50

terre. On avoit pourveu aux baftimens neceffaires
pour cette expedition; il s'en trouva trois cens de
prefts, dont une partie efloit des bateaux tres-legers,
[41] & I'autre des canots d'ecorces d'arbres, dont cha-
cun porte au plus cinq ou fix perfonnes. II falloit,
quand on avoit paffe un lac ou une riviere, que
chacun fe cbargeaft de fon canot, & que Ton portafb
les bateaux k force de bras ; ce qui faif oit moins de
peine, que deux petites pieces de canon qu'on mena
jufqu'aux dernieres bourgades des Iroquois, pour en
forcer plus aifement toutes les fortifications.

Quelque foin qu'on prift de faire cette marche
avec peu de bruit, on ne put emp6clier que quelques
Iroquois, envoy6s jufqu'k trente ou quarante lieues
pour d6couvrir nos troupes, ne viflent de deffus les
montagnes cette petite arm^e navale, & ne couruflent
en donner avis ^ la premiere [42] bourgade : de forte
que rallarme s'etant en fuite portee de bourgade en
bourgade, nos troupes les trouverent abandonn^es, &
Ton ne put voir que de loin, ces Barbares, qui fai-
foient fur les montagnes de grandes huees, & tiroient
fur nos foldats plufieurs coups perdus.

Nos Troupes ne s'arreftant k toutes ces bourgades
qu'elles trouvoient vuides d'hommes, mais pleines de
bled & de vivres, qu'autant de temps qu'il en falloit
pour prendre les rafraichiffemens neceffaires, efpe-
roient trouver une vigoureufe refiftance dans la
derniere, qu'on fe preparoit k attaquer reguliere-
ment ; parce que les Barbares t^moignoient aff 6s par
le grand feu qu'ils y faifoient, & par les fortifications
qu'ils y [43] avoient faites, s'y vouloir tres-bien


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