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rax, and the chelicerse and pedimlpi are modified into a
sucking or piercing apparatus. The LingtuUulida {Penta-
stomuw), the Tai'diffrada, and the Pycnogonida, have usually
been reckoned as highly modified A., somewhat akin to
the Acarimi; the, most recent anatomists, however, tend to
remove them from the A. altogether. On the other hand,
it has lately been clearly shown that the Silurian Ehiryp-
terida, and the ancient, but still persistent Limulua (seo
King-Crab), must be reckoned rather as A. than as Crusta-
ceans, and thus the two great divisions of the Arthropoda,
the Tracheata and the Branchiata, appear to have diverged
in palffiozolc times. See Acarus: Mjte: Scorpion: Spi-
der: Tick: also Huxley's Anctt, qf Inwrte^mted Animak,
Balfour's Comparative Embryoloay, and Cambridge's ma<
moir in Eneye. Britanniea, 9th eoL

ARACHNOID, n. i-rak'ncyd [Gr. arachfie, a spider;
et€h$, form]: in anat., the serous membrane covering th«
brain, and lyinfl" between the pia-mater and dura-fi}at&r:
Adj. in bot.^ ha vine fine hairs so entangled as to resemble a
cobweb; spider-web-like. Arachnida, n. plu. d^dk'ni-dd,
or Arach'nidans, n. plu. -nld4m [see Id2B, postfix]: a
class of articulata, comprising spiders, mites, and scorpions.
Arachnitis, n. dr'ak^ltU, inflammation of the aracumoid
membrane.

ARACHNOID MEMBRANE, d^dk'naid: one of the
three coverings of the brain and spinal cord; a thin glis-
tening, serous membrane, which by its parietal layer adheres
inseparably to the dura-mater on its outer side, and more
loosely to the pia-mater which is between it and the brain
substance. Between the pia mater and the A. M. in some
situations there are considerable intervals (sub-arachnoid
spaces); they are filled with a fluid named cerebro-spinal,
the presence of which is necessary to the proper action of
the nervous centres. See Cerebro-Spinal Fluid: Pia-
Mater.

ARAD, dr'dd: t in the dist. of A. in Upper Hungary;
on the right bank of the Marosh, an affluent of the Theiss;
and is also s^led Old A. to distinguish it from New A.,
on the opposite side of the river. A. carries on a large
trade in com, tobacco, etc., and was at one time the greatest
cattle-market in Hungary, and is even yet inferior only to
Pesth and Debreczin. During the 17th c, it was often
captured, and at last destroyed by the Turks. Its new
fortifications, erected 1763, made A an important iK)sition
in the revolutionary war of 1849, when it was occupied for
a considerable time by the Austrian general Bcrger, who
capitulated here, July, 1849. From A. Kossuth issued his
proclamation, 1849, Aug. 11, in which he expressed in im-
passioned terms his despair of the Hungarian cause for the
present. After the catastrophe of Vildgos, Aug. 17, A. was
surrendered to the Russians through the treachery of Q5r-
gey. Pop. (1891) 47,607, indudmg many Jews who are
vety wealthy.



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AILEOMETER— ARAGO.

New A.» a t in the Banat of Temesvar, containa (1880)
5,141 inhabitants, including many Germans, who are
the principal persons in the place. — The dist or prov. of
A. has 1,700 sq. m. The. e dist. is occupied by a branch-
chain of the Carpathian Mts., which contain marble
quarries, and mines of copper and iron; the w. is level, and
produces wheat, maize, and several varieties of wine, as
well as abundance of fruits. The inhabitants are chiefly
Wallachians. Pop. of prov. (1894) 304,818.

ARAEOMETER: see Areombteb.

AR^OSTYLE, n. d^eo^tU [L. areostylus: Gr. araiM,
thin, narrow, with intervals; stulos^ a pillar]: in arcA., a
kind of intercolumniation in which the pillars are so wide
apart that the intermediate spaces are each upwards of
three diameters of the colunm. This constitutes one of the
five kinds of intercolmnniation described by Yitruvius:
Adj., pertaining to.

ARiEOSYSTYLE, n. d're-<hsU'm [Gr. araioa, thin,
narrow; sustulos, with columns standing close]: an arrange-
ment in which columns are coupled; for example, in Uie w.
front of St. Paul's Cathedral, London.

ARAFAT, d'rd-fiU, Mount, or Je6<?^«r-'fYiAm«[' Mount-
ain of Mercy '1 : a granite hill abt. 15 m. s.e. of Mecca; be-
lieved by the Mohammedans to be the spot where Adam,
conducted b^ the angel Gabriel, met again his wife Eve,
after a punitive separation of 200 years, on account of their
disobedience in Paradise. It is not above 200 ft high, but
its circuit is a mile and a half. Its importance since the
time of Mohammed arises from its being the scene of a
yearly procession of the faithful who visit Mecca. Burck-
hardt, who witnessed the procession of 1814, states that not
less than 70,000 people were present, and that at least forty
different languages were spoken. The principal part of the
religious ceremony of this pilgrimage is a sermon, the bear-
ing of which entitles all to me name and privileges of a
Hadji.

ARAGO, dr'ago, d-rd-gd', or d-rd'go, Dohiniqub: 1786,
Feb. 26—1853, Oct 8; b. Estagel near Perpignan, dept of
the E. Pyrenees; celebrated French astronomer and natural
philosopher. At the age of 17, he entered the Polytedmic
School at Paris, where the spirit, promptitude, and vivid
intelligence of his answera to the questions of Legendre
excited admiration. In 1804, he became sec. to the observ-
atory at Paris. Two years afterwards, he was engl^^ed,
with Biot and others, by tLe French government, to carry
out the measurement of an arc of the meridian, which had
been commenced by Delambre and Mechain. A. and Biot
had to extend it from Barcelona to the Balearic Isles. The
two savauM established themselves on the summit of Mount
Galatza, one of the highest of the Catalonian branch of the
E. Pyrenees. Here they lived for many months, communi-
cating by signals with their Spanish collaborateura, across
the Mediterranean in the little isle of Ivi^a, though many a
night the furious tempests destroyed their hut together with
the labors of weeks. Visitors they had none, except two



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ARAGO.

Carthasian monks, who were wont to come up and spend a
portion of the evening in converse with them. Before A.
bad completed his calculations, Biot had returned to France,
and war had broken out between the two nations. A was
now held to be a spy; his signals were interrupted; aud
with great diflSculty he succeeded in m^ing his escape to
Majorca, where he voluntarily imprisoned himself in the
citadel of Belver, near Palma. At last he obtained his
liberty on condition of proceeding to Algiers, which he did;
but was captured, on his return to France, bv a Spanish
cruiser, and sent to the hidks at Palamos. He was, how-
ever, liberated after a time, and sailed once more for France;
but almost as he was entering the port of Marseilles, a tem-
pest arose which drove the vessel across the Mediterranean
all the way to Algiers. The former dey, to whose demands
he had owed his liberation from the hulks, was dead; his
successor, a ferocious tyrant, placed him on his list of slaves,
and intended to employ him as interpreter. After some
time, he was released at the request of the French consul,
and, narrowly escaping another capture bv an English
frigate, finally foimd his way to Marseilles 1809, July. As
a reward for his suffering in the cause of science, the
Acad, of Sciences suspended its standing rules in his favor,
and though onlv 23 years of age, he was elected member in
^e place of Lalande, who had just died, and was appointed
Professor of Analvtical Mathematics in the Polytechnic
School. Afterwards, his attention was given more to as-
tronomy, magnetism, galvanism, and the polarization of
light. In 1811, he read a paper to the Academy, which
maj be considered the foundation of ' chromatic polari-
zation.' In 1812, he commenced his extraordinary course
of lectures on astronomy, etc., which fascinated all
Paris — the savans, by their scientific rigor and solidity;
the many, by their brilliancy of style. In 1816, with
Gay Lussac, A. established the AnncUes de Chimie et
de Physique, and confirmed the truth of the undulatory
theory of light In the same year he visited England for
the first time, and made the acquaintance of various persons
distmguiflhed in science, especially Dr. Thomas Yoimg. In
1818, appeared his Beciuil d^ Observations geodesiques, astro^
nomiques et physiques. In 1820, he turned his facile and in-
ventive genius into a new channel, and made several im>
portant discoveries in electro-magnetism. Oersted had shown
that a magnetic needle was deflected by a voltaic current
passing along a wire. A. pursued the investigation, and
found that not only a magnetic needle, but even non-mag-
netic substances, such as rods of iron or steel, became sub-
ject to deflection also, exhibiting during the action of the
voltaic current a positive magnetic power, which, however,
ceased with the cessation of tne current. Some time after,
he demonstrated that a bar of copper, and other non-mag-
netic metals, when moved circularly, exert a noticeable in-
fluence on the magnetic needle. For this discovery of the
development of magnetism by rotation, he obtained, in 1825,
the Copley Medal of the Royal Socie^ of London; and in
1834, Yrhisa he again visited Great Bntain, especial honors



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ARAGO.

werepaid to him by the friends of science in Edinburgh
and Glasgow. Four years previous to this second visit to
Gitcit Britain, be had received the honor he most coveted—
that of being made Perpetual Sec. of the Acad. It was
while holding this office that he wrote his famous eloge* of
deceased members, the beauty of which has given him so
high a place among French prose- writers. As a politician,
alS), his career was remarkable. He was a keen republican,
and was prominent in the July revolution (1830). In the
following year he was elected by Perpignan as a member of
the chamber of deputies, where he occupied a position on
the extreme left. In the February revolution of 1848, he
was chosen a member of the pi o visional government, and
appointed minister of war and marine. In this position he
resisted the proposed measures of the socialist party, and
advocated the constitution of the United States as the beau-
ideal of democracy. His popularity in his own province
was the means of preventing Uie discontented population of
the E. Pjrrenees from proceeding to lawless and violent
measures. On the question of the presidency, A. opposed
Louis Napoleon, declared himself against the policy of the
new ministry, and refused to take the oath of allegiance
after the coup d'etat of 1851. Napoleon, however, made a
special exception in his favor, and allowed him to retain the
directorship of the observatory. His works were edited by
Barral (17 vols., 1854-62), and a statue of him was erected
at Perpignan in 1879. See Audiganne's .2I., son genie et aon
influence (2d ed. 1869).

ARAGO, fexiKKNE: archivist in the Ecole deM
Beaux Arts : 1802, Feb. 9—1892, Mar. 6 : brother of
Dominique. He held an appointment under the pro-
visional government as director-general of the post-office, in
which he showed great vigor, promptitude, and sagacity, and
achieved several postal reforms; was elected member of the
national assembly; was compromised by the insurrection
in June, and sentenced to exile for life. In 1859, he re-
turned to France: and at the time of the Franco-Prussian
war was mayor of Paris, resigning, 1870, November.

ARAGO, Jacques foiENNE Victor: 1790-1855, Jan. 1;
brother of Dominique, the maX savant. In 1817, he accom-
panied the expedition under Freycinet in a voyage round
the world. Afterwards, at Bordeaux and at Toulouse, he
was engaged in several branches of light literature, indus-
triously writing, in company with other scribes, a multitude
of vaudevilles, besides publishing several poems and ro-
mances. In 1835, he unacrtook the management of the thea-
tre at Rouen; but having become affiict^ with blindness,
he was compelled to resign this post in 1887. His early
voyage round ttie world was the occasion of two very pleas-
ant ^HDks of travel: Promenade autour du Monde {Pnris,
1888); Souvenir d'un aveugle, Voyage autour du Monde
(Paris, 1888). In 1849, though deprived of sight, he formed
a company of speculators, placed himself at the head of it,
and departed for California, to search for gold on a large
Kale. Mis companions mutinied, and left him, deserWd



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ARAGO— ARAGOK.

and disappointed, at Valparaiso. On his return, ne pub.
lished his painful experiences, under the title, V</yage d'un
aveugle en Calif omie et dans les Regions auriflres (Paris,
1851).

ARAGO, Jeajt: 1789-1886; brother of Dominique: was
general of the republican army in Mexico, and wrote, in
Spanish, a history of Mexico.

ARAGON, dr'a-gon: anciently a kingdom, then a pro v.
in the n.e. of Spain; bet 40" 2' and 42" 54' n. lat., and
long. 2* 10' w. and 0* 45' e.; greatest length from n. to s.,
190 m. ; breadth, 130 m. ; 17,9% sq. miles. It is bounded, n.
by the Pyrenees, separating it from France; w. , by Navarre,
and Old and New Castile; s., by Valencia, and part of New
Casdle; and e., by Catalonia, and part of Valencia. The
riyer Ebro, which descends from the n. heights of Old Cas-
tile, flows through the middle of A., receiving numerous
tributaries both from the lofty regions of the I^enees and
from the Sierras in the s.; of the former, the principal are:
the Noguera, which forms the boundary line between A.
and Catolonia, the Easera. and the Gallega; of the latter, the
principal are: the Guadalope, the San Martin, and the Salon.
The prov. is naturally divided into the level coimtry, alon^
the Ebro, and the n. mountainous district of Upper Aragon.
The central plain is sterile, poorly supplied with water, and
intersected by deep ravines (baraneas). Agriculture is here
confined to the raising of maize, vines, and olives; but on
the sides of the ^bro, where water abounds, rice and other
grains are abundantly produced; and in the valleys of upper
A., the most beautiful and fertile of all the Pyrenean val-
leys, we find a splendid vegetation, and a soil that enables
the inhabitants, In spite of the wretchedness of their agri-
culture, to grow considerable wheat, rye, maize, barley,
etc. The cfimate of the prov. is various; comparatively
cool in the mountain-districts, but often very sultry on the
plains. Spurs of the Pyrenees strike down far into the
prov., and between these ridges the rich valleys lie, some of
them upwards of 20 m. long. The slopes of the hills are
clothed with forests of oak, beech, and pine, and the fclltd
timber is floated down the rivers into the Ebro, and thence
down to Tortosa at its mouth. The minerals of the prov.
are copper, lead, iron, salt, alum, saltpetre, coal, and am-
ber. The manufactures are inconsiderable.

A., peopled by a brave, active, enduring, but obstinate,
race, has frequently been the arena of sanguinary war-
fare. It early became a Roman prov. ; and, on the fall of
the empire, passed into the hands of the West-Gk)ths, but
was conquered by the Moors in the beginning of the 8th c.
The rulers of A., after it had been recovered from the
Moors, and united with Catalonia (1187), became powerful;
obtained possession of the Balearic Isles in 1218; of Sicily in
1282, of Sardinia m 1826, and of Naples in 1440. By the
marriage of Ferdinand with Isabella, heiress of Castile, in
1409, the two states of A. and Castile were united, and
formed the foundation of the sreat Spanish monarchy.
After Ferdinand's death in 1516, Uie union of the states was



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ARAGONA— ARAL.

made pennanent In the war with the French, 1808-9,
Saragossa, the cap. of A., was remarkable for ita heroic de-
fense under Palaiox; and in recent Spanish ware, the people
of A. have displayed the same courage which marked their
conduct on that memorable occasion. Upper A. was on
the side of the queen; but Lower A. generally adhered to the
party of Don Carlos. The prov. is now divided into three
depts. — Saragossa, Teruel, and Huesca. The chief towns
are Saragossa, Calatayud, Huesca, and Teruel. See Saba-
GOB8A, etc. Pop. of A. (1877) 894.727. ; (1893) 928,718.

ARAGONA, d-rd-gond: t of Sicily, 8 m. n.n.e. from
Girgenti. It is a poor town, and stands in the midst of bare
green downs; but the hills above it are clothed with pines,
cypresses, olives, almonds, and carobs. The only object of
interest is the old castle of the princes of Aragona, a huge
building, in the Renaissance style, which has fallen mudi
Into decay. Pop. 10,000.

ARAGONITE: see Akbagonitb.

AR AGITATO, drd-gwd'to {Mycetes urainus); the largest
known species of new world monkeys. Its discordant
yells may be heard at a mile's distance.

ARAQUAY, drd-gm': large river of Brazil, rising in s.
lat. 18" 10 and w. long. ^V 30 . Like most of the consid-
erable rivers of the country, it flows towards the n. After
a course of about 1,000 m. to San Joao, it there joins the
Tocantins, which, after a n. course of 80<) m. more, mingles
Its estuary with that of the Amazon round the Isle of Mara jo.
Like most of the rivere in this part of Brazil, the A. is of
difficult navigation, frequently interrupted by rapids.

ARAISE, v. d-rdz [AS. a, and raue]: in OE., to raise.

ARAL, dr'alt Lake: second in size only to the Caspian
Sea, in the steppes of Asia; separated from the Caspian by
the plateau of UstUrt. It lies wholly within the limits of
Russian Central Asia, between 43° &' and 46" 44' n. lat.,
and 58" 18 and 61° 46' e. long. It is fed by the river Sir
(the ancient Jaxartes) on the n.e. side, and the Amu (or
ancient Oxus) on the s.c. It is shallow,, and has no outlet
Its level is 117 ft. above that of the Caspian, and 33 ft above
that of the Black Sea. Like other lakes drained only by
evaporation, it is brackish. Owing to the shallowness of
its watere, navigation is difficult; but Russian steamers have
been launched upon it, and took part in the operations
against Ehiva in 1873, June. The history of the Sea of
Aral is very remarkable. Sir Henry Rawlinson and Col.
Yule have recently collected references made to it in Greek,
Latin, Arabic, and Persian writere, and have established the
fact that its present area has been dry land twice within his-
torical times— the Jaxartes and the Oxus then running s.
of the Sea of Ami to the Caspian. This was the case dur-
ing the Greco-Roman period, and again during the 13th and
14th centuries. The nussian government has undertaken
the restoration of the Oxus to its old bed. — See Proceedings
9f Boyal Geographical Society, vol. xi., vol. xvi., and vol. i.
(new series, 1879); also The Shores of Lake Aral, by Major
Wwd (Lond. 1876).



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PLATE 10. :^S«^



Bruuch of Araucaria imbricata.



Arcade, Romsey Church, Hampshu^.



Arch of Titua.

Vol i



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ABALIA.

AHATiTA, &-Td'li-d: g^tiB of plants, type of the natural
order AreUMcea. This order is dicotyledonous or exoge-
nous, and consists of trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants,
resembling the Umbellifera (q.v.) both in their general habit
and in their botanical characters, but differing essentially in
the fruit, which is not didymous or formed of two separable
carpels as m the UmbeUitfem. The fruit of the Araliaceffi
ocnisista of several one-seeded cells, often succulent. The
Older contains about 160 known species, natives of tropical,
temperate, and cold climates, generally posses^ng sdmulant
and aromatic properties. Poisonous qualities, are not devel-
oped as in the VmbelUfera. The herb^ of many species af-
fords good food for cattle, and some are used for human food.
The genus Aralia contains a considerable number of species
— trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants. It has a succulent
fruit, with 5 or 10 cells, crowned with the styles. A. nudi-
eauli$ is a native of the United States, a species of humble
growth, having a solitary radical leaf with a trifld stalk and
ovate serrated segments; the scape is shorter than the leaf.
The root is said to be equal in value to sarsaparilla as an al-
terative and tonic. A. racemosa. A, spinosa, and A. JUspida,
also natives of N. America, produce an aromatic gum resin.
A, 9pino9a is a stimulant diaphoretic. The berries, infused
in wine or spirits, are employed as a cure for rheumatism.
It is sometimes called Toothache-tree: it also bears the name
of Angelica-tree. It is a native of moist woods in Virginia
and Carolina, growing to a height of 10 or 12 ft., with a
single stem, spreading head, doubly and treblv pinnate
leaves and ovate leaflets, and is very ornamental in a lawn.
A. polaris, found in the s. idand of New Zealand, and in
ttie greatest abundance and luxuriance in Lord Auckland's
Islands, is described by Dr. Hooker as a ' very magnificent
plant,' a herbaceous perennial, 4r-5 ft. high, with large orbic-
ular masses of green foliage and waxy flowers, presenting
a veiy striking appearance. A. edulis, now called Dvmor-
pharUhtiS edvM, is employed in China as a sudorific. Its
shoots are very delicate and pleasant when boiled; and the
roots, which have an agreeable aromatic flavor, are used by
the Japanese as carrots or parsnips are in Europe. Aralias
abound in the warm valleyis of the Himalaya. The natives
collect the leaves of many as fodder for cattle, for which
purpose they are of great value in a countrv where grass for
pasture is scarce; but the use of this food gives a peculiar
taste to the butter. Chinese rice paper has been ascertained
to be cut from cylinders of the pith of an Aralia. Ginseng
(q.v.), the root of a species of Panax, is one of the most im-
portant products of the order Araliacea, The astringent
roots of thirmera naaJbra, or Panke, are used in tanning, but
its fleshy leaf-stalks are eaten like those of rhubarb. It has
been seen on the sandstone cliffs of Chiloe with leaves nearly
8 ft. in diameter. — A, nudicavlU is known as Wild Sarsa-
parilla see Sarsapartlla); and A. spinom, the Angelica-
Tree, is known as Hercules Club, having thick branchlets.
Our native Ginseng (q.v.), and Dwarf Ginseng {A, trifolta),
with deep globular tuber, common at the north, belong
here.



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ARALIACEiE— ARAM.

ARALIAOE^, n. plu. d-rdlUi'se^ [araUd, an Amer-
ican wordl: the ivj family. Aralia, n. plu. (i-rd'U-u, a
genas of the above, one species of which has fragrant and
aromatic roots, which are used in America as a substitute
for sarsaparilla. Araliaceous, a. dr-dlt-d' shits, pertaining
to the Aralia.

ARALO-CASPIAN. a. d-rd'lo-kds'pi^n, or d'rdl^: a
term applied to the extensive basin or depr^sed area occu-
pied by the Aral and Caspian seas and surrounding districts
of country; 'in geol. , applied to the limestone and associated
sandy beds, of brackish-water origin, which have been
traced over much more than the area indicated.

ARAM, d'rdm, Eugene: 1704-59; b. Ramsgill, York-
shire. His father was a gardener, and could afford to keep
A. at school only for a short time; but even while assisting
his father, he contrived to gratifv his passion for learning.
At an early period of his life he married, and became a
schoolmaster, first in Netherdale, and afterwards at Knares-
borough, where he resided till 1745. In the town of Knares-
borough lived one Daniel Clarke, a shoemaker, and an in-
timate acquaintance of A.'s. On one occasion Clarke hap-
pened to i>urchase a quantity of valuable goods, which he
easily obtained on credit; but to the surprise of everybody,
he soon after disappeared, and no trace of him could be dis-
covered. Suspicion lighted upon A., not as Clarke's mur-
derer, but as his confederate in swindling the public. His
garden was searched, and in it was found a portion of the
goods which Clarke had purchased. A. was arrested and
med, but acquitted for want of evidence. He now left his
wife at Enaresborough, and went to London, and other
parts of England, in his capacity of schoolmaster; and in
spite of his wandering life, contrived to acquire a knowledge
of botany, heraldry, Chaldee, Arabic, Welsh, and Irish, and
was planning a great etymological work, to be entitled ' A
Comparative Lexicon of the English, Latin, Greek, Hebrew,
and Celtic Languages,' when he was suddenly dragged
away from his ushership of Lynn Academy, in NorMk,
and committed to prison on a charge of muider.

In 1759, a skeleton was dug up near Enaresborough, which
the inhabitants suspected to be that of Clarke, for they had
now come to the conclusion that the unfortunate man had
met with foul play, especially as A.*s wife had, on several



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