J.M. Le Moine.

Picturesque Quebec : a sequel to Quebec past and present online

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active agent in the affair. To say the truth, however, in this
instance it was the lady who precipitated matters. The affair occurred
at Paris, soon after the Waterloo campaign. The Duke's final
determination against Sir Peregrine's proposals having been announced,
the daughter suddenly withdrew from the father's roof, and fled to the
lodgings of Sir Peregrine, who instantly retired to other quarters.
The upshot of the whole thing, at once romantic and unromantic,
included a marriage and a reconciliation, and eventually a Lieutenant-
Governorship for the son-in-law, under the Governorship-in-Chief of
the father, both despatched together to undertake the discharge of
vice-regal functions in a distant colony. At the time of his marriage
with Lady Sarah Lennox, Sir Peregrine had been for some ten years a
widower. [39] After the death of the Duke of Richmond, Sir Peregrine
became administrator, for a time of the general government of British
North America.

One of the Duke of Richmond's sons was lost in the ill-fated steamer
_President_ in 1840. In December, 1824, Sir Peregrine revisited Quebec
with Sir Francis Burton, Lieutenant-Governor, in the _Swiftsure_, steamer
escorting some very distinguished tourists. A periodical notices the
arrivals at the old Château as follows: -

"Sir Peregrine is accompanied by Lord Arthur Lennox, Mr. Maitland,
Colonels Foster, Lightfoot, Coffin and Talbot, with the Hon. E. G.
Stanley (from 1851 to 1869 Earl of Derby), grandson of Earl Derby, M.
P. for Stockbridge; John E. Denison, Esq., (subsequently Speaker of
the House of Commons), M. P. for Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and James S.
Wortley, Esq. (afterwards Lord Wharncliffe), M. P. for Bossiney in
Cornwall. The three latter gentlemen are upon a tour in this country
from England, and we are happy to learn, that they have expressed
themselves as being highly gratified with all they have hitherto seen
in Canada." - (_Canadian Review_, 1824.)

Quebecers will be pleased to learn that the name of Sir Peregrine Maitland
is pleasantly preserved by means of Maitland Scholarships in a grammar
school for natives at Madras, and by a Maitland Prize in the University of
Cambridge. Sir Peregrine, as patron of education, opened an era of
progress which his successors Lords Elgin, Dufferin and Lorne have
continued in a most munificent manner.

A curious glimpse of high life at Quebec, in the good old days of Lord
Dalhousie, is furnished in a letter addressed to _Delta_, of Blackwood's
Magazine, by John Galt, the novelist, the respected father of our gifted
statesman, Sir Alexander Tilloch Galt. [40]

The talented author of the "_Annals of the Parish_," after expatiating on
the dangers he had that day incurred in crossing over from Levis to Quebec
in a canoe, among the ice-floes, thus alludes to the winter amusements: -

QUEBEC, 22nd February, 1827.

MY DEAR SIR, - I am under very great obligations to you. A copy of the
"Laird" having come to the castle from the New York publishers, Lady
Dalhousie lent it to me. * * * I am much pleased with Quebec. It is at
present filled with Highland regiments, in which I have many
acquaintances and the hospitality of the other inhabitants is also
unbounded, for the winter suspends all business, and pleasure is
conducted as if it were business. The amateurs have a theatre, and I
wrote a piece for them, in which a Londoner, a Glasgow merchant, an
Irish girl, a Yankee family and a Highlander were introduced. It was
adapted entirely to the place, and in quiz of a very agreeable custom
- of everybody calling on strangers. Dr. Dunlop performed the
Highlander beyond anything I ever saw on the regular stage. The whole
went off with more laughter than anything I have ever seen, for the
jokes being local and personal (supplied by upwards of thirty
contributors), every one told with the utmost effect."

"This farce, says Delta, composed at Quebec by J. Galt, and performed
there before the Earl of Dalhousie (then Governor-General), was named
"The Visitors, or a Trip to Quebec," and was meant as a good humoured
satire on some of the particular usages of the place. An American
family figured as the visitors, and the piece opened with a scene in
an hôtel, when a waiter brings in a tea-tray loaded with cards of
callers, and the explanation of the initials having had reference to
people, many of whom were present at the performance, tended much to
make the thing pass off with great éclat. It seems that a custom
prevails there to a punctilious extent, of all the inhabitants of a
certain grade calling upon strangers and leaving their cards.

"This flash of harmless lightning, however, assumed somewhat of a
malignant glare when seen from the United States. The drift of the
performance was, it seems, hideously misrepresented by some of the
newspapers, and it was said that Mr. Galt had ungratefully ridiculed
the Americans, notwithstanding the distinction and hospitality with
which they had received him. It thus came to pass that he promised,
when next in New York, to write another farce, in which liberty as
great should be taken with his own countrymen. "An Aunt in Virginia"
was the product of this promise, and with the alterations mentioned
and a change of scene from New York to London, it was published under
the name of "Scotch and Yankees.""

A volume would not suffice to detail the brilliant receptions, gay routs,
_levees_, state balls given at the Castle during Lord Dorchester's
administration - the lively discussions - the formal protests originating
out of points of precedence, burning _questions de jupons_ between
the touchy magnates of the old and those of the new _regime_. Whether
la Baronne de St. Laurent would be admitted there or not? Whether a de
Longueuil's or a de Lanaudière's place was on the right of Lady Maria, the
charming consort of His Excellency Lord Dorchester - a daughter of the
great English Earl of Effingham? Whether dancing ought to cease when their
Lordships the Bishops entered, and made their bow to the representative of
royalty? Unfortunately Quebec had then no Court Journal, so that following
generations will have but faint ideas of all the witchery, the stunning
head-dresses, the _décolletées_, high-waisted robes of their stately
grandmothers, whirled round in the giddy waltz by whiskered, épauletted
cavaliers, or else courtesying in the demure _menuet de la cour_.

In August, 1796, when Isaac Weld, Jr., visited Quebec, he describes the
old part of the château as chiefly taken up with the public offices, all
the apartments in it, says he, "are small and ill-contrived; but in the new
part (Haldimand Castle) which stands in front of the other, facing the
square (the ring), they are spacious and tolerably well furnished, but
none of them can be called elegant. This part is inhabited by the
Governor's family. * * * * Every evening during summer, when the weather
is fine, one of the regiments of the garrison parades in the open place
before the château, and the band plays for an hour or two, at which time
the place becomes the resort of numbers of the most genteel people of the
town, and has a very gay appearance." (_Weld's Travels through the States
of North America in_ 1795-6-7, vol. 1, p. 351)

In 1807, when the deadly duel between England and Imperial France was at
its height, Great Britain sent New France as her Viceroy, a military
Governor, equally remarkable for the sternness of his rule and for his
love of display, hence the name of "Little King Craig," awarded to Sir
James Craig. To meet his requirements the House of Assembly voted in 1808,
a sum of £7,000 to repair the Château St. Louis. Sir James took up his
quarters in the interim, in Castle Haldimand. The Château St. Louis
received an additional story and was much enlarged. In 1812 an additional
sum of £7,980 19s 4d was voted to cover the deficit in the repairs. Little
King Craig inhabited Château St. Louis during the winters of 1809-10-11,
occupying Spencer Wood during the summer months. The _Château_ stables
were subsequently converted into a riding school, afterwards into a
theatre, where the exhibition of Harrison's Diorama caused the awful
tragedy of 12th June, 1846. [41] The Earl of Durham, in 1838, struck with
the commanding position of this site, had the charred ruins of the old
Château removed and erected a lofty platform which soon was called after
him "Durham Terrace."

In 1851-2-3-4, Haldimand Castle was repaired at a cost of $13,718.42. In
1854, Hon. Jean Chabot, member for Quebec and Commissioner of Public
Works, had Durham Terrace much enlarged; the adjoining walls were repaired
at an expense of $4,209.92. More expenditure was incurred in 1857. When
the Laval Normal School was installed there, Bishop Langevin, then
Principal, had the wing erected where the chapel stands. The vaulted room
used as a kitchen for the Laval Normal School, was an old powder magazine;
it is the most ancient portion of the building. The present Castle was, by
Order in Council of 14th February, 1871, transferred by the Dominion
authorities to the Government of the Province of Quebec, together with
Durham Terrace, the Sewell Mansion, facing the Esplanade (Lieutenant-
Governor's office), also, the site and buildings of the Parliament House,
on Mountain Hill.

The extension of this lofty and beautiful Terrace, suggested to the City
Council by the City Engineer in his report of 1872, necessarily formed a
leading feature in the splendid scheme of city improvements, originated by
the Earl of Dufferin, with the assistance of Mr. Lynn, an eminent Irish
engineer, and of our City Engineer, le Chevalier Baillairge. An appeal was
made by a true and powerful friend to Quebec (Lord Dufferin) to our
gracious Sovereign, who contributed munificently from her private purse,
for the erection of the new gate, called after her late father, the Duke
of Kent - Kent Gate, in remembrance of his long sojourn (1791-4) in this
city. Large sums were also granted by the Dominion, it is thought, chiefly
through the powerful influence of Lord Dufferin, seconded by Sir H. L.
Langevin; an appeal was also made for help to the City Council and not in
vain; it responded by a vote of $7,500.

The front wall was built at the expense of the Dominion Government, and
occupies part of the site of the old battery, erected on that portion of
the château garden granted to Major Samuel Holland in 1766.

The length of Dufferin Terrace is 1420 feet, and it is 182 feet above the
level of the St. Lawrence. It forms part of the city fortifications. The
site can be resumed by the Commander of the Forces (the Governor-General)
whenever he may deem it expedient for objects within the scope of his
military authority.

Durham Terrace, increased to four times its size, now forms a link in the
Dufferin plans of city embellishment, of which the corner stone was laid
by the Earl of Dufferin on the 18th October, 1878, and was authentically
recognized as "Dufferin Terrace" in April and May, 1879, in the official
records of the City Council; several iron plates were inserted in the
flooring with the inscription, "_Dufferin Terrace, H. Hatch, contractor,
C. Baillairge, engineer._" But a famous name of the past, which many
loved to connect with this spot - that of Louis de Buade, Count de
Frontenac, was not forgotten. The Literary and Historical Society of
Quebec, on the 18th April, 1879, presented to the City Council a petition,
asking among other things, that one of the handsome kiosks on the Terrace
should bear the name of Frontenac; their prayer was granted, and by a
resolution moved on 9th May, 1879, by Mr. P. Johnson, C.C., and seconded
by Alderman Rhéaume, the five kiosks of Dufferin Terrace were named
_Victoria, Louise, Lorne, Frontenac, Plessis_.

It is the site of the present Normal School, adjacent to this historic
spot, which has been selected for the palatial hotel in contemplation.


"The laying of the corner stone of Dufferin Terrace took place the
same day (18th Oct., 1878) as that of the two city gates, the St.
Louis and the Kent Gate. The ceremony was performed in the presence of
thousands. His Worship the Mayor (R. Chambers) received His Excellency
the Earl of Dufferin, and with him were present many of the Aldermen
and Councillors, with the City Engineer and contractors, the members
of the Judiciary, Consul-General of Spain, Consuls of France, Belgium
and the United States, Dean Stanley, of London, England; Mrs.
Stevenson, sister to the Countess of Dufferin, Messrs. Russell
Stevenson, R. R. Dobell, Simon Peters, Dr. Marsden, Jas. Motz, many
ex-Aldermen and ex-Councillors, Alexander Woods, Chairman of the
Harbour Commission, W. S. Desbarats, W. G. Sheppard, Wm. White, Very
Revd. H. Hamel, His Lordship Judge Taschereau, late of the Supreme
Court, Hon. Judge H. Taschereau, Judge of the Superior Court, &c.

"A handsome trowel and mallet were handed to His Excellency the
manufacture of Mr. Cyrille Duquet. On the face of the trowel a
splendid likeness of the Governor-General was embossed, and an
appropriate inscription was engraved thereon. On the plate of the
foundation stone the inscription reads as follows: - "Dufferin
Terrace, laid by His Excellency the Earl of Dufferin, Governor-General
of the Dominion of Canada, on the 18th day of October, 1878, in
presence of the Dominion and city authorities and dignitaries, and an
immense concourse of people from all parts of Canada, also His Honor
Luc Letellier de St. Just, Lieut.-Governor of the Province of Quebec,
R. Chambers, Esq., Mayor of the city of Quebec. City Aldermen - Hon.
John Hearn, Patrick Henchey, Louis Bourget, R. F. Rinfret, Francois
Gingras, J. P. Rhéaume, Germain Guay, F. O. Vallerand, Esqs. City
Councillors - Onésime Beaubien, Andrew Hatch, Guillaume Bouchard, F. X.
Langevin, Jean Docile Brosseau, Francis McLaughlin, John C. Burns,
William McWilliam, William Convey, J. F. Peachy, John Delaney, F. W.
Roy, Peter Johnston, Willis Russell, Charles Brochu, Richard Turner,
Esqs. City Clerk - L. A. Cannon, Esq. City Treasurer - C. J. L.
Lafrance, Esq. City Accountant - M. F. Walsh, Esq. City Legal Adviser -
L. G. Baillairge, Esq. City Notary - A. G. Tourangeau, Esq. Owen
Murphy, Esq., ex-Mayor; Chas. Baillairge, Chevalier, City Engineer."
In the leaden box, placed within the stone, were laid mementoes of the
occasion, similar to those placed in the proper receptacle in the
stone laid in the morning at St. Louis Gate, with the addition of
beautifully executed portraits of Lord and Lady Dufferin, from the
studio of Messrs. Ellison & Co.

"His Excellency having given the _coup de grâce_ to the foundation
stone with the silver mallet, the proceedings were closed." -
(_Morning Chronicle_, 19th Oct., 1878.)

The new city gate erected on the site of the old St. Louis Gate, instead
of being called Dufferin Grate, as it had been contemplated, was allowed
to retain its time-honored name, St. Louis Gate; the public of Quebec,
however, were resolved that some conspicuous monument should recall to
Quebecers the fragrant memory of its benefactor, Lord Dufferin; on the
visit in June, 1879, of His Excellency Lord Lorne and H.R.H. the Princess
Louise, a request was made on them by the citizens, through their chief
executive officer, the Mayor of Quebec (R. Chambers), to name and open to
the public our world-famous Terrace. On the 9th June, 1879, our
distinguished visitors performed this auspicious ceremony in presence of
thousands, and in the following words confirmed the name previously
entered in the Corporation records: -


"According to notice previously given, the inauguration of Dufferin
Terrace occurred at half-past two o'clock in the afternoon. When that
hour arrived a mass of people variously estimated at from eight to
fifteen thousand, but probably containing about ten thousand, occupied
the Terrace. The appearance from an elevated place of this sea of
humanity was indeed wonderful. The band pavilion in the centre of the
garden had been reserved for the Viceregal party, and was covered in
carpet and scarlet cloth, with two chairs of state. The entrance to
the pavilion was kept by the City Police, while "B" Battery furnished
the band and guard of honour, and played the National Anthem as the
distinguished party arrived on the field.

The Mayor and members of the City Council had previously walked in a
body to the pavilion from the City Hall, and now His Worship conducted
His Excellency and Her Royal Highness to the dais, and addressing
himself to the Governor-General, said: -

"MAY IT PLEASE YOUR EXCELLENCY. - On behalf of the Corporation and
citizens of Quebec, permit me to thank Your Excellency for acceding to
our request that you would be pleased to open in person this public
promenade, and also Her Royal Highness for graciously honouring us by
her presence.

"The corner stone of this structure was laid by Your Excellency's
predecessor, the Earl of Dufferin (18th Oct., 1878).

"It will be gratifying to the noble Lord to learn that the work in
which he took so lively an interest has been inaugurated by Your
Excellency, and that the ceremony was graced by the presence of Her
Royal Highness the Princess Louise.

"I have, therefore, respectfully to request that Your Excellency may
be pleased to give the name which the Terrace is henceforth to bear,
and to signify if it is the pleasure of Your Excellency that it be
opened to the public."

His Excellency replied: - "I am happy to accede to your request to
signify that this Terrace shall be called after your late Governor-
General, Dufferin, and that it is now open to the public."

Rounds of applause followed His Excellency's remarks, and loud cheers
were given for the Earl of Dufferin, Her Royal Highness and His
Excellency." (_Morning Chronicle_, 10th June, 1879.)

Parallel with Ste. Anne street, and terminated by Dauphin street, a
tortuous, rugged little lane, now known as St. Andrew's street, leads past
St Andrew's schoolhouse, to the chief entrance of the Presbyterian house
of worship; a church opened at the beginning of the century, repaired and
rendered quite handsome a few years ago, but much damaged by fire on the
30th April, 1881. In connection with the erection of this structure, a
document was recently exhumed from the archives of the Literary and
Historical Society, which throws much light on an important section of the
former population of the city. It is a memorial to His Majesty George
III., signed at Quebec on the 5th October, 1802, by the Rev. Dr Sparks'
congregation and by himself. The first incumbent of St. Andrew's Church -
commenced in 1809, and opened for worship on the 30th November, 1810 - was
the Reverend Doctor Alexander Sparks, who had landed at Quebec in 1780,
became tutor in the family of Colonel Henry Caldwell at Belmont, St. Foye
road, and who died suddenly in Quebec, on the 7th March, 1819. Dr. Sparks
had succeeded to the Rev. George Henry, a military chaplain at the time of
the conquest; the first Presbyterian minister, we are told, who officiated
in the Province, and who died on the 6th July, 1795, aged 86 years.

One hundred and forty-eight signatures are affixed to this dusty document
of 1802.

A carefully prepared petition - it seems - to the King, asking for a site in
Quebec whereon to build a church - and suggesting that the lot occupied by
the Jesuits' Church, and where until 1878, stood the Upper Town, market
shambles, be granted to the petitioners, they being without a church, and
having to trust to the good will of the government for the use, on
Sundays, of a room in the Jesuits Barracks, as a place of worship. [42]

_Signatures to Memorial addressed to George III., asking for land in
Quebec to build a Presbyterian Church_: -

Alex. Sparks, Minister, A. Ferguson,
Jas. Thompson, Jr., Robert Eglison,
Fred. Grant, Robt. Cairns,
Jno. Greenshields, William A. Thompson,
Chas. G. Stewart, Wm. McWhirter,
James Sinclair, John McDonald,
John Urquhart, John Auld,
William Morrin, Bridget Young,
Jno. Eifland, Jno. Shaw,
John Barlie, Charles Hunter,
Geo. McGregor, Geo. Black,
Wm. Holmes, W. G. Hall,
James Ward, J. Gray,
Jno. Purss, F. Leslie,
Ann Watt, Robt. Wood,
J. Brydon, Lewis Harper,
Jno. Frazer, Mary Boyle,
James Somerville, A. Anderson,
J. A. Thompson, John Anderson,
Wm. Hall, Robt. Ross,
Wm. Thompson, Sr., Wm. Fraser,
D. Monroe, Wm. Hay,
J. Blackwood, Wm. McKay,
M. Lymburner, Robt. Harrower,
Francis Hunter, James Tulloch,
W. Rouburgh, Samuel Brown,
John McCord, Isaac Johnstone,
J. G. Hanna, Peter Leitch,
J. McNider, Henry Baldwin,
Adam Lymburner, Daniel Forbes,
Jno. Lynd, William Jaffray,
Peter Stuart, J. Hendry,
William Grant, John Thompson,
J. A. Todd, George Smith,
John Mure, Wm. Reed,
John Patterson, Alexander Harper,
John Crawford, Robert Marshall,
John Hewison, William White,
David Douglas, Thomas White,
George Wilde, John Taylor,
Fred. Petry, Adam Reid,
James Ross, James Irvine,
David Stewart, John Munro,
John Yule, Alexander Munn,
Angus McIntyre, Alexander Rea,
John Mackie, James Elmslie,
John Purss. Johnston, Charles Smith,
Wm. Thompson, Jr., Ebenezer Baird,
Con. Adamson, Lawrence Kidd,
Geo. Morrison, James McCallum,
Jno. Goudie, John Burn,
G. Sinclair, Joanna George,
Walter Carruthers, Maya Darling,
Wm. Petrie, William Lindsay,
John Ross, Janet Smith,
Wm. McKenzie, William Smith,
Thos. Saul, Henrietta Sewell,
J. Ross, Jr., Jane Sewell,
Ann Rose, C. W. Grant,
James Mitchell, Robert Ritchie,
Geo. King, George Pyke,
Alex. Thompson, Joseph Stilson,
James Orkney, Henry Hunt,
J. Neilson, George Thompson,
Daniel Fraser,
Quebec, 5th October, 1802.

Some of these signatures are suggestive. The most notable is probably that
of old Adam Lymburner, the cleverest of the three Lymburners, all
merchants at Quebec in 1775. [43] Adam, according to the historian
Garneau, was more distinguished for his forensic abilities and knowledge
of constitutional law, than for his robust allegiance to the Hanoverian
succession at Quebec, when Colonel Benedict Arnold and his New Englanders
so rudely knocked at our gates for admission in 1775.

According to Garneau and other historians, in the autumn of that memorable
year, when the fate of British Canada hung as if by a thread, Adam
Lymburner, more prudent than loyal, retired from the sorely beset fortress

Online LibraryJ.M. Le MoinePicturesque Quebec : a sequel to Quebec past and present → online text (page 10 of 59)