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1842, the admired guests of the officers of the Grenadier Guards stationed
there.

[2] _Lettres sur l'Amérique_: X. Marmier. Paris, 1869.

[3] The Highlanders - 78th, 79th, and 93rd.

[4] _The New York Ledger._

[5] Before the era of the Allan line, sailing vessels used to land their
living cargoes of forlorn emigrants in the Lower Town, sometimes after a
passage of fourteen weeks.


CHAPTER II.

[6] Parkman thus heralds the advent of this foreign arrival from sea: - "A
lonely ship sailed up the St. Lawrence. The white whales floundering in
the Bay of Tadousac, and the wild duck diving as the foaming prow drew
near, - there was no life but these in all that watery solitude, twenty
miles from shore to shore. The ship was from Honfleur, and was commanded
by Samuel de Champlain. He was the Aeneas of a destined people, and in her
womb lay the embryo life of Canada." (_Pioneers of France in the New
World_, p. 296.)

[7] Champlain calls Cape Diamond, Mont du Gas (Guast), from the family
name of De Monts. He gives the name of Cape Diamond to Pointe à Puiseaux.
See map of Quebec (1613.)


CHAPTER III.

[8] Six French Governors died and were buried in Quebec - Samuel de
Champlain, Count de Frontenac, M. de Mesy, De Callières, Marquis de la
Jonquière, and Marquis de Vaudreuil. Two English Governors - Lieut. Gen.
Hope and the Duke of Richmond.

[9] Up to 1617, and later, Cbamplain's residence was in the Lower Town,
and stood nearly on the site of the Church _of Notre-Dames des Victoires_.

[10] John London MacAdam, the inventor of macadamized roads, was born in
Ayr, Scotland, on the 21st September, 1756, and died at Moffat on the 26th
November, 1836. The Parliament of Great Britain voted £2,000 to this
benefactor of the human race. Macadamized roads, like several other useful
inventions, met with many obstacles in Quebec. Some of the loudest to
denounce this innovation were the carriage builders, who augured that good
roads, by decreasing the bills for repairs to carriages, would ruin their
industry, that their "usefulness would be gone."

[11] _Jesuit's Journal_, page 89. _Vide_ Appendix - Verbo, Horses.

[12] The _Journal des Jésuites_, published by Geo. Desbarats in 1874,
under the supervision of the learned Abbés Laverdière and Casgrain, from
the copy in the Archives of the Quebec Seminary, though fragmentary,
throws valuable light on many points in Canadian History. We clip the
entry for 1st January, 1646, as summarized in the _Glimpses of the
(Ursuline) Monastery_, respecting the custom of New Year's visits and
presents; this entry will further introduce us to some of the denizens of
note in Quebec in 1646: - We meet with the first _seigneur_ of Beauport,
Surgeon Robert Giffard, who had settled there in 1634; the Royal Engineer
and Surveyor, Jean Bourdon; J. Bpte. Couillard, the ancestor of the Quebec
Couillards, of late years connected by marriage with the Quebec DeLérys;
Mdlle. de Repentigny, a high-born French lady; the founder of the
Ursuline Monastery, the benevolent Madame de la Peltrie; the devoted
Sillery missionary, Father de Quen; without forgetting our old Scotch
friend, Pilot Abraham Martin, who, from the nature of the gift bestowed,
it seems, could relish his glass, and evidently was not then what we now
call a "Neal Dow man."

January, 1st, 1646. - The soldiers went to salute the Governor with their
guns; the inhabitants presented their compliments in a body. He was
beforehand with us, and came here at seven o'clock to wish us a 'Happy New
Year,' addressing each of the Fathers one after another. I returned his
visit after Mass. (Another time we must be beforehand with him.) M.
Giffard also came to see us. The hospital nuns sent us a letter of
compliment early in the morning; the Ursulines also, with beautiful
presents, wax candles, rosaries, a crucifix, and, at dinner, two excellent
pigeon-pies. I sent them two images, in enamel, of St. Ignatius and St
Francois Xavier. We gave to M. Giffard the 'Life of Our Lord,' by F.
Bonnet; to M. des Châtelets, a little volume of Drexellius on Eternity; to
M. Bourdon, a telescope and compass, and to others, reliquaries, rosaries,
medals, images, etc. We gave a crucifix to the woman who washes the Church
linen, a bottle of rum to Abraham, and four handkerchiefs to his wife;
some books of devotion to others, and two handkerchiefs to Robert Haché;
he asked for more and we gave them to him. I went to see M. Giffard, M.
Couillard and Mademoiselle de Repentigny. The Ursulines sent to beg I
would come and see them before the end of the day. I went; and paid my
compliments also to Madame de la Peltrie, who had sent us presents. I was
near leaving this out, which would have been a great oversight. At home, I
gave to our Fathers and Brothers what I thought they would like best. I
had given beforehand to F. De Quen, for Sillery, all he chose to take from
my room, and a choice present for Father Masse." - _Journal_, p. 24.

[13] Histoire de la Colonie Française en Canada, Vol. III., p. 384.

[14] History of Emily Montague, 4 Vols., 1767 - London.

[15] The "dear man," in a concluding paragraph, dated 1st July, 1766, to
John Temple, Esq., Pall-Mall, London, says: "Adieu! I am going to attend a
very handsome French lady, who allows me the honour to drive her _en
calashe_ to our Canadian Hyde Park, the road to St. Foix, where you
will see forty or fifty calashes, with pretty women in them, parading
every evening." - (_History of Emily Montague, Vol. I., p. 25._) The
handsome Colonel Rivers, who so fancied his drives on the Foye road in
1766, the writer was told by Hon. W. Sheppard, was no other than the
gallant Colonel Henry Caldwell, Wolfe's Assistant Quartermaster-General at
the battle of the Plains, in 1759 - the "Laird of Belmont" - who died at
Quebec in 1810, a friend, no doubt, of the clever Mrs. Brookes who wrote
this novel.

[16] Histoire de l'Hôtel-Dieu de Québec (Mère Juchereau, 511.)

[17] Histoire de l'Hôtel-Dieu, Casgrain, p. 81.

[18] To Let. - That elegant house, No. 6 Port Louis Street, lately occupied
by H.R.H. Prince Edward, and at present by the Lord Bishop of Quebec. For
particulars, apply to Miss Mabane, or to Munro & Bell, Quebec. - 4th March,
1794 (_Quebec Gazette_, 1794.)

[19] Montgomery's House is now a much frequented stand for the sale of
cigars, candies, newspapers, &c., to tourists.

[20] William Brown, uncle to the Neilsons, was a Scotchman from
Philadelphia, who had been induced to print a journal in Quebec from the
representations and information he had collected from William Laing, a
Quebec merchant tailor, whom he had met in Scotland.

[21] Twenty-four years in advance of the _London Times_, founded in 1778,
but twelve years after the _Halifax Gazette_, published in Halifax, N.S.,
in March, 1762, by one John Bushnell.

[22] The first books printed in Quebec were: -
"Catéchisme Montagnais," 1767.
"Lettre sur la Ville de Québec," 1774.
"Cantique de Marseilles," 1776.

In Montreal: -
"Réglement de la Confrérie de l'Adoration Perpétuelle du Saint Sacrement
et de la Bonne Mort," _Mesplet & Berger_, 1776.
"Jonathan and David, a tragedy, a book of 40 pages," _Mesplet & Berger_,
1776.
"Officium Sacerdotum," _Mesplet & Berger_, 1777.
- (_Montreal Prize Questions in Canadian History_.)

[23] The mode of consulting a Roman lawyer was this: the lawyer was placed
on an elevated seat, the client, coming up to him said _Licet consulere?_
The lawyer answered, _consule_. The matter was then proposed, and an
answer returned very shortly, thus: _Quaero an existimes_, vel, _id jus
est, nec ne? Secundum ea, quae proponuntur, existimo, placet, puto._ -
(_Adams' Roman Antiquities_, 201.)

Lawyers gave their opinions either by word of mouth or in writing,
commonly without any reasons annexed, but not always.

The lawyers of these days do not, as a rule, see their clients quite so
early in the morning as those of Rome did.

Agricolam laudat juris legumque peritus
Sub galli cantum, consultor ubi ostia pulsat.

Romae dulce diu fuit et solemne, reclusa
Mane domo vigilare, clienti promere jura.

[24] La Hontan, I., 21 (Ed. 1705). In some editions the above is expressed
in different language - (From Parkman's _Old Regime_, p. 270.)

[25] It lines a space in rear, on which the Imperial Government erected,
for the British troops in garrison, the Military Hospital. Since 1872, it
is used as a temporary Court House, in lieu of the old Court House, built
in 1814, and destroyed by fire in 1871. A high wall to the south-east,
encloses a lofty eminence surmounted by a flagstaff - the _Mont Carmel_
mentioned by La Potherie, Charlevoix and other old writers. The French had
a _Cavalier_ here. A little Eden of flowers, adjacent to the residence of
the member for the County of Quebec, Hon. Adolphe P. Caron, Minister of
Militia, and son of the late Lieutenant-Governor, Hon. R. E. Caron, now
enlivens this eminence. On the same side of the street, about one hundred
feet to the east, facing Parloir street, still exists a high-peaked old
tenement, to which a livery stable is attached. This house is said to
occupy the site on which, in 1759 stood the dwelling of Dr. Arnoux, Jr.,
the French surgeon under whose roof the gallant Montcalm was brought about
noon, on his way from the lost battle of the Plains.

[26] Smith's _History of Canada_, Vol. II, p. 92. _Diary of Siege of_
1776. _Lit. and Hist. Society Pub., fourth series_, p. 9.

[27] In accepting the _Château St. Louis_ as the spot where Montcalm
expired, we still wish to leave the question an open one. Did Montcalm
expire at the _Château_, under Dr. Arnoux's roof, at the General Hospital,
as averred by Capt. John Knox, or, possibly, under his own roof on the
ramparts, near Hope Gate? This point is not yet cleared up. See
disquisition in _Album du Touriste_ "Où est mort Montcalm?"

[28] On the 9th July, 1755, De Beaujeu won this brilliant victory.

[29] The 8th July, 1758, has been rendered famous by Montcalm and his
regulars and Canadian militia at Carillon.

[30] Louis Honoré Fréchette, born at the town of Levis, opposite to
Quebec - went through a classical course at the Quebec Seminary - studied
for the Bar, recently member of parliament for his native county, Levis,
under the present Judge for the Kamouraska District, Hon. Henri
Taschereau. Represented his native county of Levis in the Commons
Parliament from 1873 to 1878. His poetical effusions were published, at
Quebec, in 1863, in a small volume, intituled "Mes Loisirs"; in 1877, a
more extensive collection was published under the title of "Pêle-Mêle." He
was awarded in 1880, by the _Académie Française_ of Paris, the _Grand Prix
Monthyon_, 2,000 francs. In April, 1881, Queen's College conferred on Mr.
Fréchette the degree of Doctor of Laws, and McGill University also made
him an LL.D. Since his marriage in Montreal to Mdlle. Beaudry, the poet
resides in that city.

[31] A magnificent banquet had just previously been given to Mr.
Fréchette.

[32] The greatest of French Canada's poets died at St. Malo, France, in
June 1880, an exile - and fugitive from Justice.

[33] Parkman's _Old Regime_, p. 192.

[34] Bouchette - _Topography of Lower Canada_, 1815.

[35] "There were in that forte and habitation thereof four brasse pieces
each weighing about 150 lbs. weight, another piece of brasse ordinance
weighing eighty lbs. weight, five iron boxes of shot, for the five brasse
pieces of ordinance; two small iron pieces of ordinances weighing each
eight cwt. six murderers with their double boxes or chargers, one small
piece of ordinance weighing about eighty lbs., forty-five small iron
bullets for the service of the aforesaid; five brasse pieces, six iron
bullets for the service of the aforesaid, twenty-six brasse-pieces
weighing only three lbs. each, thirty or forty lbs. of gunpowder all
belonging to M. de Caen, of Dieppe; about thirty lbs. of mettle belonging
to the French King; thirteen whole and one broken musket, a harquebush,
two large harquebueses five or six foote longe, a piece belonging to the
Kinge; five or six thousand leaden bulletts, plate and bars of lead
belonging, sixty corselletts whereof two are compleat and pistoll proof;
two great brasse pieces weighing eighty lbs., one pavilion to lodge about
twenty men belonging to the Kinge, a smith's fordge with appurtenances,
all necessaries for a carpenter, all appurtenances of iron work for a
windmill; a handmill to grind corn; a brass bell belonging to the said
merchants, and about 2,500 to 3,000 beaver skins in the magazines, and
some cases of knives and the forte belonging to the Kinge, and the
habitations and houses then belonging to the said merchants were all left
standing. * * * * *

"That there were not any victualls or ordinance, sustenance for men in the
said forte at the time of taking it, the men in the same having lived by
the space of two months before upon nothing but rootes." (THE CONQUEST OF
CANADA, 1629, by _Kirke_, p. 76-7.)

[36] A detailed account of the picturesque interview between Count de
Frontenac and Sir Wm. Phipps' envoy in 1690, will be found in _Quebec
Past and Present_, p. 122.

[37] This sketch of the old Château in 1804, now forms part of the
historical album of the writer, through the kindness of Mr. Parkman.

[38] "_Toronto of Old_," H. Scadding, D.D., Toronto, 1873, p. 122-3.

[39] The name of Lennox in 1819, was indeed a familiar one in the highways
and byways of old Stadacona. There were three brothers, we are told, sons
of the Duke; Lord Charles, Lord William Pitt, Lord Arthur Lennox; more
than one of them are said to have had a hand in some of the practical
jokes so much to the fancy of Quebec military men, barristers, &c, in
1819, some of whom still survive, demure grandfathers, at present.

[40] John Galt, novelist, dramatist, historian, the genial author of
"Lawrie Todd," "Annals of the Parish," "The Laird," "Stanley Buxton," "The
Radical," "Eben Erskine," "The Stolen Child," "Majolo," "Omen,"
"Kathelun," "Ringan Gilhaize," "Spaewife," "Sir Andrew Wylie," "Provost,"
"Entail," "Steamboat," "The Life of Byron," and other works. Born at
Irvine, in Ayrshire, on the 2nd May, 1779, died at Greenock, 11th April,
1839. He came to Canada in 1827, as Secretary to the Canada Land Company,
which he had originated, and one of the five Commissioners (Colonel
Cockburn, Sir John Harvey, John Galt, Mr. McGillivray and Mr. Davidson)
named by England for the valuation of the Province of Upper Canada. This
remarkable man was the founder of Galt, Goderich, Guelph, and other
western cities, and was the father of three sons, John, Thomas and Sir
Alexander Tilloch, the last at present our _chargé d'affaires_ in
London.

[41] See _Quebec, Past and Present_, page 454.

[42] For full particulars about St Andrew's Church, see "_Quebec, Past
and Present_," pages 404-5.

[43] Adam, the oldest; John lost at sea on his voyage to England, in the
fall of 1775; and Matthew, who, later on, we think was a partner in the
old firm of Lymburner & Crawford, came to his end, in a melancholy manner
at the Falls of Montmorency, about 1823. Were they all brothers? we cannot
say. Adam and John were.

[44] Mrs. Widow Arch. Campbell closed her long career at Quebec, in
November, 1880.

[45] John Sewell, Capt. in 49th (Brock's Regiment), and Lt-Col. Volunteers
in 1837.
William Smith Sewell; late Sheriff of Quebec, died 1st June, 1866.
Edmund Willoughby Sewell, Clerk in Holy Orders.
Robert Shore Milnes Sewell, Advocate, died 9th May, 1834.
Maria May Livingstone Sewell, widow of Major Henry Temple, 15th
Regiment, died at Quebec in April, 1881.
Henrietta Sewell, wife of Rev. Dr. Frs. J. Lundy, died 17th Nov. 1847.
Henry Doyle Sewell, Clerk in Holy Orders.
James Arthur Sewell, M.D., Professor at Laval University.
Montague Charles Sewell, died 28th February, 1859.
Charlotte DeQuincy Sewell, died 31st December, 1826.
Fanny Georgina Sewell, wife of Capt. Trevor Davenport, 1st "Royals."
Eliza Janet Sewell, wife of John Ross, Esq., died 8th May, 1875.
Algernon Robinson Sewell, Lt.-Col. 15th Regiment, died 10th January,
1875.

[46] Histoire de Marie de l'Incarnation, par l'Abbé H. R. Casgrain.

[47] The old homestead, successively owned by Messrs. Timothy H. Dunn and
Joseph Shehyn, M.P.P., and now by Mr. J. O. Vallières, was erected in 1812
for Capt. Benjamin LeMoine, Canadian Militia, the writer's father.

[48] A detailed sketch of this great educational institution, descriptive
of its origin and constitution, galleries of paintings, museum, library
etc., appears at page 361 of "Quebec, Past and Present," to which the
reader is referred. We purpose to note the changes which have taken place
since the publication of that work only.

[49] In 1808, among other notabilities on the _Rue des Pauvres_, we
find that, as appears by a notarial deed of transfer, in the Woolsey
estate, before J. Plante, N.P., 28th March, 1808, a grand old relic of the
Canadian _noblesse_, la Baronne de Longueuil, the widow of the late
Captain David Alexander Grant, of the 94th regiment - to whom she had been
united in wedlock at Quebec, on the 7th May, 1781. She then dwelt there in
a house belonging to her husband's uncle, the Honorable William Grant (who
had died at Quebec in 1805), though her usual abode was on the picturesque
family property - on the Island of St. Helen, opposite Montreal. This
island was purchased by the Imperial authorities for military purposes
about 1815. The dignified, accomplished and queenly old Baronne expired at
Montreal on the 7th February, 1841, aged 86 years. Her grandson, Charles
Colmore Grant, of London England, now bears the title of Baron de
Longueuil, in virtue of the gracious recognition of our Sovereign, as set
forth in the London (Royal) _Gazette_ of the 4th December, 1880, and
Canada _Gazette_ of the 21st January, 1881.

[50] The following was composed by the late Hon J. Sewell, Chief Justice
of Lower Canada: -

ADDRESS

_Spoken at the Opening of the Quebec Royal Theatre, February_ 15,
1832.

Ye sons of pity, whose kind acts proclaim
How much you glory in true English fame,
In fame which rests on deeds of solid worth
And kindred feelings for the peopled earth:
Ye too, fair dames, whose daily conduct shows
How much ye feel in heart, for others woes
Who by compassion led, have hither come
To grace these walls and soften mis'rys doom,
We bid you welcome all - and what you see
[_Looking around the House_]
Thus dedicate to you and charity
[_Bowing to the audience_]
By the kind bounty which you now bestow
You will assuage the pangs of human woe,
To infant suffering and to aged grief
You will afford prompt solace and relief,
The famished penitent who stole for bread
Snatched from his wants will once more raise his head
The sickly wretch upon his bed of straw
Will pine no longer, but will quickly draw
From your resources, the comfort he requires
To sooth his pains, and quench a fever's fires;
And houseless strangers will no longer meet
Their fete in storms, and perish in the street.

[51] See appendix for list of executions.

[52] The Earl of Dalhousie, Sir James Kempt, John Adams, Edmund William
Romer Antrobus, Charles Ardouin, Thomas Cushing Aylwin, Frederick Baddely,
Henry W. Bayfield, Francis Bell, Henry Blake, Edward Bowen, William Brent,
Joseph Bouchette, Robert Shore Milnes Bouchette, Joseph Bouchette, junior,
George Bourne, Judge Burton, Edward Burroughs, John Caldwell, Hugh
Caldwell, Archibald Campbell, Charles Campbell, John Saxton Campbell, John
Cannon, Edward Caron, John P. Cockburn, Andrew Wm. Cochran, Thos. Coffin,
James Cuthbert, John Davidson, Wm. H. A. Davies, Dominick Daly, Jerome
Demers, Edward Desbarats, Frederick Desbarats, Robert D'Estimauville,
William Dudley Dupont, William Bowman Felton, John Charlton Fisher, John
Fletcher, William Finlay, James B. Forsyth, John Fraser, John Malcolm
Fraser, Francois Xavier Garneau, Augustin Germain, Manly Gore, William
Green, Louis Gugy, John Hale, James Hamilton, Andre Rémi Hamel, Joseph
Hamel, Victor Hamel, Aaron Hart, James Harkness, William Henderson,
Frederick Ingall, William Kemble, William Kelly, James Kerr, Pierre
Laforce, Louis Lagneux, William Lampson, Pierre de Salles Laterrière,
Thomas Lee, junior, Joseph Légaré, Henry Lemesurier, Thomas Lloyd, William
Lyons, Frederick Maitland, John McNider, William McKee, William King
McCord, Roderick McKenzie, John Langley Mills, Thomas Moore, Joseph
Morrin, George J Mountain, Henry Nixon, Charles Panet, Joseph Parent,
Etienne Parent, Augustus Patton, Francois Xavier Perrault, Joseph Francois
Perrault, William Power, Francis Ward Primrose, William Price, Rémi
Quirouet, William Rose, John Richardson, Randolph I. Routh, William Sax,
Jonathan Sewell, Edmund Sewell, Robert S M. Sewell, William Sheppard,
Peter Sheppard, Joseph Skey, William J. Skewes, William Smith, James
Smilie, William Stringer, Charles James Stewart, Lord Bishop of Quebec,
Sir James Stuart, David Stuart, Andrew Stuart, Joseph Signay, Robert
Symes, Jean Thomas Taschereau, John Peyfinch Thirlwall, Henry Truder,
Joseph Rémi Valières de St. Real, Geo. Vanfelson, Norman Fitzgerald
Umacke, George Usborne, George A Wanton, Gustavus Wicksteed, Daniel
Wilkie, George Willing, Thomas William Willan, George Wurtele and Jonathan
Wurtele. After half a century the survivors are Gen. Baddely, Gustavus
Wicksteed, Revd Edmund Sewell, John Fraser, Admiral Bayfield and Thomas
Lloyd.

[53] Now the mansion of the Hon. Pantaléon Pelletier, Senator.

[54] LOSSING'S FIELD BOOK, Vol. I, p. 195, thus describes the dress of the
invaders: "Each man of the three rifle companies (Morgan's, Smith's, and
Hendrick's) bore a rifle barreled gun, a tomahawk or small axe, and a long
knife, usually called a scalping knife, which served for all purposes in
the woods. His underdress, by no means in a military style, was covered by
a deep ash-coloured hunting shirt, legging and moccasins if the latter
could be procured. It was a silly fashion of those times for riflemen to
ape the manners of savages." "The Canadians who first saw these (men)
emerge from the woods, said they were _vêtus en toile_ - clothed in
linen. The word _toile_ was changed to _tôle_, iron plated. By a mistake
of a single word the fears of the people were greatly increased, for the
news spread that the mysterious army that descended from the wilderness
was clad in _sheet-iron_."

[54a] "The flag used by what was called the Continental troops, of which
the force led into Canada by Arnold and Montgomery was a part, was of
plain crimson, and perhaps sometimes it may have had a border of black. On
the 1st January, 1776, the army was organized, and the new flag then
adopted was first unfurled at Cambridge, at the head-quarters of General
Washington, the present residence of the poet Longfellow. That flag was
made up of thirteen stripes, seven red and six white, but the Union was
the Union of the British flag of that day, blue bearing the Cross of St
Andrew combined with the cross of St George and a diagonal red cross for
Ireland. This design was used by the American Army till after the 14th
June, 1777, when Congress ordered that the Union should be changed, the
Union of the English flag removed and in its place there should be a
simple blue field with thirteen white stars, representing the thirteen
colonies declared to be states. Since that time there has been no change
in the flag except that a star is added as each new state is admitted. The
present number being thirty-eight." - W. O. HOWELLS.

[55] _Extract from the Quebec Gazette, May 1st_, 1794.

"CLUB."

"The Gentlemen who served in the Garrison of Quebec in 1775-76, are
acquainted that their Anniversary Dinner will be held at Ferguson's Hotel
on Tuesday, 6th May.

Dinner to be on Table at half-past-four o'clock.

The Honble. A. de Bonne,\
" " J. Walker, \ Esquires
Simon Fraser Senr., / Stewards,
James Frost, /
John Coffin, junr., Secretary.

Quebec, 25th April, 1794."

[56] Date of departure of invaders in 1776.

[57] Natanis and his brother Sabatis, and seventeen other (Abenaquis)
Indians, the nephews and friends of Sabatis, marched with Arnold to
Quebec. - (_Henry's Journal_, page 75.) This may account for their
successful venture through the trackless wilderness between Massachusetts
and Quebec.

[58] Faucher de Saint Maurice.

[59] A memorable Indian Council was held in the court of the Jesuits'



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