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College, on 31st August, 1666.

[60] Mr. Faucher de Saint Maurice having been, in 1878, charged by the
Premier, Hon. Mr. Joly, to watch the excavations and note the discoveries,
in a luminous report, sums up the whole case. From this document, among
other things, we glean that the remains of the three persons of male sex
are those of:

1. Père François du Péron, who died at Fort St. Louys (Chambly) 10th
November, 1665, and was conveyed to Quebec for burial.

2. Père Jean de Quen, the discoverer of Lake St. John, who died at
Quebec, on 8th October, 1659, from the effects of a fever contracted
in attending on some of the passengers brought here that summer by
the French ship "Saint André."

3. Frère Jean Liégeois, scalped 29th May, 1655, by the Agniers at
Sillery - (the historian Ferland assigns as the probable spot, the
land on which the late Lieutenant-Governor Caron built his mansion
"Clermont," now occupied by Thomas Beckett, Esquire.) The remains of
this missionary, when excavated, were headless - which exactly agrees
with the entry in the _Jesuits' Journal_, May, 1655, which
states that Jean Liégeois was scalped - his head cut off and left at
Sillery, while his mutilated body, discovered the next day by the
Algonquins, the allies of the French, was brought to Sillery,
(probably the Jesuits' residence, the same solid old structure close
to the foundations of the Jesuits' chapel and monument at the foot of
the Sillery Hill, which many here have seen), from whence it was
conveyed to the Lower Town in a boat and escorted to the Jesuits'
College, with the ceremonies of the R. C. Church.

[61] Three Nuns of the Hôtel-Dieu Convent, according to authorities quoted
by Mr. Faucher, were buried in the vault (_caveau_) of the Jesuits'
Chapel. The sisterhood had been allowed the use of a wing of the Jesuits'
College, where they removed after the conflagration of the 7th June, 1755,
which destroyed their hospital.

4. _Mère_ Marie Marthe Desroches de Saint-François-Xavier, a young
woman of 28 years, who succumbed to small-pox on the 16th August,
1755.

5. _Mère_ de l'Enfant-Jésus, who expired on the 12th May, 1756.

6. _Mère_ de Saint-Monique, who died in July, 1756, the victim of
her devotion in ministering to the decimated crew of the ship
"Leopard," sunk in the port by order of Government to arrest the
spread of the pestilential disease which had raged on the passage.
Mr. Faucher closes his able report with a suggestion that a monument
ought to be raised, to commemorate the labours and devotion of the
Jesuits, on the denuded area on which stood their venerable College.

_Relation de ce qui s'est passé lors des Fouilles faites par ordre du
Gouvernement dans une partie des fondations du_ COLLÈGE DES JÉSUITES
_de Québec, précédée de certaines observations par_ FAUCHER DE SAINT
MAURICE. _Quebec. C. Darveau_ - 1879.

[62] Pierre DuCalvet was sent under warrant of Gen. Haldimand, a prisoner
on 29th September, 1780, on board the "Canceaux." He was then removed on
14th November, 1780, to the Military prison in Quebec, where he remained
until the 13th December, 1781, when the Provost Martial, Miles Prentice
placed him at the Franciscan convent, under the charge of Father DeBerey,
where he remained until the 2nd May, 1784. He followed Governor Haldimand
who had sailed in the "Atalante" on the 26th November, 1784, to England,
to sue him in an English Court of Justice for illegal arrest, and was lost
at sea in the "Shelburne" on his return to Canada.

[63] The following inscription was on the coffin plate:

(1) Count Frontenac - "Cy gyt le Haut et Puissant Seigneur, Louis de
Buade, Comte de Frontenac, Gouverneur-Général de la Nouvelle-France.
Mort à Québec, le 28 novembre 1698." - (_Hist. of Canada, Smith,
Vol._ 1, _p._ 133.)

(2) Gov de Callières. - "Cy gyst Haut et Puissant Seigneur, Hector de
Callières, Chevalier de Saint-Louis, Gouverneur et Lieutenant-
Général de la Nouvelle-France, décédé le 26 mai 1703." - (_Ibid.,
p._ 148.)

(3) Gov. de Vaudreuil. - "Cy gist Haut et Puissant Seigneur, Messire
Philippe Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil, Grande Croix de l'Ordre
Militaire de Saint-Louis, Gouverneur et Lieutenant-Général de toute
la Nouvelle-France décédé le dixième octobre 1725." - (_Ibid.,
p._ 190.)

(4) M. de la Jonquière - "Cy repose le corps de Messire Jacques-Pierre de
Taffanel, Marquis de la Jonquière, Baron de Castlenau, Seigneur de
Hardars-magnas et autres lieux, Commandeur de l'Ordre Royal et
Militaire de Saint-Louis, Chef d'Escadre des Armées Navales,
Gouverneur et Lieutenant-Général poor le Roy en tout la Nouvelle-
France, terres et passes de la Louisiane. Décédé à Québec, le 17 mai
1752, à six heures-et-demie du soir, âgé de 67 ans." - (_Ibid.,
p._ 222.)

[64] Faillon, Vol. III, p. 372.

[65] The laying of the corner stone of this lofty building whose
proportions must have seemed colossal to our fathers, was done with grand
masonic honors on the 14th August, 1805, by the Hon. Thos. Dunn, President
of the Province of Lower Canada, and administrator of the Government,
assisted by William Holmes, Esq., M.D., Deputy Grand Master of Ancient and
Accepted Free-Masons. Several coins of that reign were deposited under the
stone. Amongst the members of the craft, we find the names of Joseph
Bouchette, Claude Dénéchaud, Joseph Plante, Angus Shaw, Thomas Place,
David Monro, the architect's name is Edward Cannon, grand-father of
Messrs. Ed. J. Lawrence and James Cannon, our esteemed fellow-citizens;
Rev. Dr. Sparks delivered a splendid oration, to be found in the _Quebec
Mercury_, of 17th August, 1805.

Hujusce Fori Municipalis, Anglicè UNION HALL, ex Senates provincialis
consulto erecti,
THOMAS DUNN Vir Honorabilis Provinciae Proetectus Politiaeque
Administrator. Adstantibus et Curatioribus Selectis.

Hon. _John Young_ Praese, Hon. _John Antoine Panet_ Comitiae
Provincialis Rogatore.
_Jonathan Sewell_ Armigero Cognitore Regio,
_John Painter_ et _John Blackwood_, Armigeris, Pacis
Curatoribus;
_Joseph Bouchette_ Armigero Mensorum Principali,
_John Caldwell, Claude Dénéchaud, John Coltman, John Taylor, Joseph
Plante, Angus Shaw, Thomas Place_ et _David Monro_,
de Quebec Armigeris,
Nec non et multis _Latomorum_ hujus Urbis, quorum _William
Holmes_ Armiger,
M D fuit summus Magister Deputatus, adjuvantibus, hunc primum Lapidem
posuit, dei XIV. Mensis Sextilis, Anno Salutis MDCCCV.
Nummi quoque Regis Regnantis
GEORGE III.
Suppositi sunt,
_Videlicet_.

Nummus Aureus Anglicè _Guinea_, aureum etiam Dimidium ejus et Triens;
Nummus argenteus solidos quinque Anglicos valans, solidus dimidium solidi,
et quarta pars; nummus Aeranus denarios duos Anglicos valens; denarius
obolus; et quadrans.
EDWARD CANNON, Architectus.

[66] A MONUMENT OF THE OLDEN TIME. - Inserted in the wall enclosing the lot
of ground between Buade street and the Basilica, about midway from the
front entrance of the church, is to be seen a slab of very fine marble,
bearing the following inscription. It is the only one in the plate: -

"In memory
of
Mary,
wife of Thomas Ainslie, Esq.,
Collector of His Majesty's Customs of Quebec,
who died March 14th, 1767,
aged 25 years.
If Virtues Charms had pow'r to save
Her faithful votaries, from the grave;
With Beauty's ev'ry form supply'd
The lovely AINSLIE ne'er had died."

[67] John Hale who died in 1842, had six sons: 1st, Edward, who died at
Quebec in May, 1874; 2nd, Jeffery Hale; 3rd, Miss Hale; 4th, Bernard Hale,
now in England; 5th, Richard Hale, late 81st; 6th, William, late Capt.
52nd, who died at Ste. Anne, district of Three Rivers, about 1845; 7th,
Mrs. Hotham; 8th, George Hale; 9th, Miss Elizabeth Harriet Hale, who in
1838 married Commander John Orlebar, R.N.

[68] We are indebted to Professor H. LaRue, M.D., for the following notes
relative to an address delivered by him at a dinner given by the Notaries
Public in 1872: - "The first physician who entered Quebec narrowly escaped
being hung," says Dr. LaRue. "I said that he had narrowly escaped the
gallows; had he been hung I would not say it. It occurred thus: - Champlain
had just landed in the Lower Town and had laid the foundation of his
abode, when some of his followers hatched a plot against his life. The
scheme leaked out, the ring leader was arraigned, found guilty and hung;
so far as I know, this was the first execution which took place in Canada.
Some how or other, Surgeon Bonnerme, one of Champlain's followers, was
mixed up in the matter, imprisoned, but his innocence having shortly after
been established, he was acquitted. Dr Bonnerme died the following year
(1609) at Quebec, of scurvy. If Bonnerme was the first physician who came
to Quebec, he was not, for all that, the first medical man who landed in
New France; another had preceded him: Louis Hebert, the first citizen of
Quebec and of all Canada. Before Hebert's day the French who came to
Quebec came there for no other object than barter, hunting and fishing;
none had thought of settling permanently there. Louis Hebert was the first
proprietor in Quebec, the first land owner in Canada; as such, historians
recognize him as the first Citizen of Quebec - the _first Canadian_: a
surgeon, let us bear in mind. Louis Hebert visited New France in 1606, two
years before the foundation of Quebec. He spent the winter of 1606-7 - a
merry one - at Port Royal, Acadia, in the company of Samuel de Champlain
and Lescarbot. Lescarbot was the first lawyer who found his way to New
France; Lescarbot was the first historian of the country; he was gifted
with wit - a proclivity to mild satire; each page of his history reveals
the lawyer familiar with the Bar and its lively forensic display. The
winter of 1606-7, at Port Royal, was remarkable for good cheer; appetising
repasts, the product of the chase or of the sea, were the order of the day
to that extent that Lescarbot declared that Port Royal fare was as
_recherché_ as that of _Rue aux Ours_, in Paris - apparently the "Palais
Royal" of the French capital in those times. The third or fourth physician
of New France was Robert Giffard, Seignior of Beauport, who also was the
first settler in that parish; not only was Giffard the first resident of
Beauport, but, I have reason to believe, he was also the first settler -
_habitant_ - of the rural districts in Canada. Thus, the first citizen of
all Canada would appear to have been a physician; thus, after Champlain
the two founders of the colony would have been physicians. Giffard's Lodge
was situated on some portion of Col. Gugy's farm; the leading families of
Canada look to Giffard as one of their progenitors; Archbishop Taschereau
is one of his descendants.

"The first Royal Notary - _Notaire Royal_ - of Canada was M. Audouard, whose
first minute rests in the vaults of the Prothonotary of Quebec. But two
deeds at least had been executed before this first minute. The deed of
_partage_ of the Hébert family (1634), and the last will of Champlain
(1635). These two instruments were executed before Mêtres Duchaîne and De
la Ville, _greffiers_; the _greffiers_ were _Notaires_ also. Another fact
worthy of note is that the first time a Notary's services were put in
requisition was at the instance of the heirs of Hébert, the physician." -
_Morning Chronicle_, 12th April, 1881.

[69] _Chansons populaires du Canada_, &c., par Ernest Gagnon, 1865.

[70] The father of French-Canadian history; born in 1809, died in 1866.

[71] The tablet on his monument, in Mount Hermon Cemetery, bears the
following inscription: -

IN MEMORY OF ROBERT CHRISTIE, ESQ.

A native of Nova Scotia, he early adopted Canada as his country, and
during a long life faithfully served her. In the War in 1812 as a Captain,
4th Batt., he defended her frontier; in peace, during upwards of 30 years,
he watched over her interests as member of Parliament for the County of
Gaspé; and in the retirement of his later years recorded her annals as her
historian.

He died at Quebec on the 13th October, 1856, aged 68, leaving behind him
the memory of a pure career and incorruptible character.

_Integer vitae scelerisque purus._

The inscription, which we think worthy of commendation for the chasteness
and conciseness of its style, is from the pen of (the late) J. B. Parkin,
Esq., advocate, of this city; the most lasting monument, however, of the
honoured deceased is that which was the product of his own brain, his
History of Canada. This work is unfortunately incomplete, though the
materials of a posthumous volume are still extant; but it is to be
regretted that Mr. Christie's widow has been robbed, and that by the hand
of no common thief, of some most important documents collected by and
belonging to her late husband - _Quebec Mercury, 5th Nov._, 1859.

[72] Opposite to Mr. Narcisse Turcotte, jeweller, on Mountain Hill.

[73] The Basilica Minor, or Roman Catholic Parish Church, built in 1647,
restored after the siege of 1759, was consecrated by Bishop Laval on the
18th July, 1666, under the name of the Church of the Immaculate
Conception. It is the oldest church in North America. Its length is 216
feet by 108 in breadth, and is capable of containing a congregation of
4,000 persons. "It originated in a gift, in 1644, on the part of Couillard
and Guillemette Hebert, his wife, of 80 perches of land in superficies,
for a parish church, on condition on the part of the _Fabrique_, or
church authorities, that they would furnish a pew in perpetuity in said
church for them and their successors, on their paying them a sum of 30
livres, _tournois_, at each mutation. The Church was begun in 1644
and 1645, on this spot, out of collections made in the years 1643 and 1644
together, until the price for which were sold 1,270 beaver skins - worth
about 8,000 livres - was given by the Quebec merchants. The partners of the
India Company presented the church with a bell." - _Histoire abrégée de
l'Église de Quebec_.

[74] The Indian Fort (_Fort des Hurons_) was built to protect the
unfortunate Hurons who, after the butchery of 1648-49, had sought refuge
at Quebec. It is conspicuous on an old plan of Quebec of 1660, republished
by Abbé Faillon. It stood on the northern slope of Dufferin Terrace, on
the side to the east of the present Post Office, south-east of the Roman
Catholic Parish Church.

[75] _Voyage Sentimental_ - LaRue, page 96.

[76] "THE VOLTIGEURS, 1812. - This corps, now forming under the command of
Major De Salaberry, is completing with a despatch worthy of the ancient
war-like spirit of the country. Capt. Perrault's company was filled up in
48 hours, and was yesterday passed by His Excellency the Governor; and the
companies of Captains Duchesnay, Panet and L'Ecuyer have nearly their
complement. The young men move in solid columns towards the enlisting
officers, with an expression of countenance not to be mistaken. The
Canadians are awakening from the repose of an age secured to them by good
government and virtuous habits. _Their anger is fresh_, the object of
their preparations simple and distinct. They are to defend their King,
known to them only by acts of kindness and a native country, long since
made sacred by the exploits of their forefathers." - (From the _Montreal
Canadian Courant_, 4th May, 1812.) Does the sacred fire still burn as
bright? We hope so.

[77] The Hôtel Dieu is fully described at page 63 of "QUEBEC PAST AND
PRESENT."

[78] Bouchette's British Dominions in North America, 1832, p. 254.

[79] The practical jokers in our good city were numerous and select; we
might mention the Duke of Richmond's sons, Lord Charles and Lord William
Lennox: Col. Denny, 71st Highlanders; the brilliant Vallières de St. Real,
later on Chief. Justice; Petion Christie, P. A. De Gaspé, the writer; L.
Plamondon, C. Romain and other legal luminaries; recalling the days of
Barrington in Ireland, and those of Henry Cockburn in Scotland; their
_petit souper, bon mots_, boisterous merriment, found a sympathetic
chronicler in the author of "The Canadians of Old". _Facile princeps_
for riotous fun stood Chas. R. Ogden, subsequently Attorney-General, as
well known for his jokes as for his eloquence: he recently died a judge at
the Isle of Wight. - (J. M. L.)

[80] The first idea of utilising the ruins of the Château St. Louis, burnt
in 1834, is due to His Excellency the Earl of Durham, Governor-General and
High Commissioner in Canada from the 29th May to the 1st November, 1838.
George Lambton, Earl of Durham, died in England in 1840. He was one of our
ablest administrators, and with all his faults, one of the most
ungenerously treated public men of the day by the Metropolitan statesmen.

[81] "Le Chien d'Or - the History of an Old House," - MAPLE LEAVES, 1873, p.
89. [82] "His constant attendance when he went abroad," says Mère
Juchereau.

[83] The _Old Régime in Canada_, p. 177-9.

[84] John George Lambton, Earl of Durham, was born at Lambton Castle, in
April, 1792, and died at the Isle of Wight, on the 28th July, 1840,
broken-hearted at the apparent failure of his Canadian mission.

"Lord Durham," says Justin McCarthy, "was a man of remarkable character.
It is a matter of surprise how little his name is thought of by the
present generation, seeing what a strenuous figure he seemed in the eyes
of his contemporaries, and how striking a part he played in the politics
of a time which has even still some living representatives. He belonged to
one of the oldest families in England. The Lambtons had lived on their
estate in the north in uninterrupted succession since the Conquest. The
male succession, it is stated, never was interrupted since the twelfth
century. They were not, however, a family of aristocrats. Their wealth was
derived chiefly from coal mines, and grew up in later days; the property
at first, and for a long time, was of inconsiderable value. For more than
a century, however, the Lambtons had come to take rank among the gentry of
the country, and some member of the family had represented the city of
Durham in the House of Commons from 1727 until the early death of Lord
Durham's father, in December, 1797, William Henry Lambton, Lord Durham's
father, was a staunch Whig, and had been a friend and associate of Fox.
John George Lambton, the son, was born at Lambton Castle, in April, 1792.
Before he was quite twenty years of age, he made a romantic marriage at
Gretna Green with a lady who died three years after. He served for a short
time in a regiment of Hussars. About a year after the death of his first
wife, he married the eldest daughter of Lord Grey. In 1828 he was raised
to the Peerage with the title of Baron Durham." - _History of Our Own
Times_, page 9. - Justin McCarthy.

[85] I use the term advisedly, for had he followed out the Colborne policy
and gibbetted the "Bermuda exiles," he would have had one sin less to
atone for, at the hands of Lord Brougham and other merciless enemies in
England.

[86] Thanks to the late Mr. J. B. Martel, then Secretary of the Harbour
Commission, Quebec, we may designate in a few words the site which the
Quebec Bank now possesses. This extent of ground (at that period a beach
lot), was conceded to the Seminary by the Marquis de Denonville in 1687,
and confirmed by the King, the 1st March, 1688. The 25th August, 1750,
Messire Christophe de Lalane, Directeur du Séminaire des Missions
Étrangères à Paris, made a concession of it to Mons. Nicholas René
Levasseur, _Ingénieur_, formerly chief contractor of the ships of "His
Most Christian Majesty." On the 24th June, 1760, a deed of sale of this
same property, to Joseph Brassard Deschêneaux, consisting of a two-story
house and a wharf (_avec les peintures au-dessus de la porte_.) On the 8th
September, 1764, a deed of sale to Alexander McKenzie, purchase money,
$5,800. On the 19th April, 1768, Joseph Deschêneaux assigned his mortgage
to Mr. John Lymburner. On the 11th August, 1781, a deed of concession of
the beach in the rear, to low water mark, by the Seminary to Adam
Lymburner. The 5th November, 1796, a deed of sale by the attorney of Adam
Lymburner. Subsequently Angus Shaw became the proprietor in consideration
of $4,100. On the 17th October, 1825, a judicial sale, to the late Henry
Atkinson, Esq.

[87] Hon. D.A. Ross.

[88] This attempt, although ushered in with a brilliant victory on 28th
April 1760, failed.

[89] Born in 1765; died in 1820; resided at Quebec, 1741-46.

[90] See _Histoire de la Gazette de Québec_ - Gérin, p. 24.

[91] The "Neptune" Inn was opened as a house of public entertainment for
captains, by William Arrowsmith, on 1st May, 1809 (See _Quebec Mercury,_
1st May, 1809.)

[92] DOINGS OF THE PRESS GANG AT QUEBEC, 1807 - _Le Canadien_ newspaper, of
September, 1807, thus records the death, on the 13th September of that
year, of Simon Latresse, from the discharge of fire arms. - It had taken
place on the evening of the preceding Saturday, the perpetrator being one
of the crew of H.M. man-of-war _Blossom_, commanded by Captain George
Picket. "Latresse," says this journal, "was at the time attending a dance
in St. John suburbs, when a press-gang, under the charge of Lieut. Andrel,
entered. Latresse was laid hold of, but his great strength and activity
enabled him to shake off his captors. He then took to his heels and
received from one of them a pistol shot, the ball going through his body.
He was a native of Montreal, aged 25 years; had been for seven years a
voyageur to Michilimakinac; was noted for his fidelity and attachment to
his employers. Latresse leaves a widowed mother of 75 years of age to
mourn his loss, of whom he was the support". The poet Quesnel wrote a fine
piece of verse to commemorate the event. It is to be found in the
_Bibliothèque Canadienne_ of 1826.

[93] Quebec, 5th December, 1816. "At a meeting of the Board of Green
Cloth, held at the "Neptune" Inn, John Wm. Woolsey in the chair, it was
unanimously decided to establish a Merchants' Exchange in the lower part
of the Neptune Inn, &c. (Then follow the resolutions.) Subscription to be
two guineas per annum.

"On motion of John Jones, Esq., Resolved that the following gentlemen do
form a Committee of Management: - Thomas Edward Brown, James Heath, George
Symes, John W. Woolsey and Robert Melvin."

[94] William Finlay, an eminent merchant of Quebec, and one of its chief
benefactors, made several bequests which the city authorities invested in
the purchase of this market. Mr. Finlay died at the Island of Madeira,
whether he had gone for his health, about the year 1831.

[95] "ROMPU VIF," 1752 - A good deal of patriotic indignation has been
bubbled over at the mention of what was termed the Old World mode of
punishing high treason against the State. With respect to the atrocious
sentence pronounced by Chief Justice Osgood, at Quebec, in 1797, carried
out on the criminal David McLane, the "disembowling and hanging"
particulars (so well related by an eye-witness, the late P. A. DeGaspé,
Esq.,) ought not to be considered such a novelty in Canada.

A Montreal antiquary, Mr. P. S. Murphy, has unearthed a sentence
pronounced at Montreal in the good old Bourbon times, 6th June, 1752,
which shows that the terrible punishment of "breaking alive" (rompu vif)
was in force under the French _régime_.

"Belisle," says Mr. P. S. Murphy, "was condemned to 'torture ordinary and
extraordinary,' then to be broken alive on a scaffold erected in the
market place. The awful sentence was carried out to the letter, his body
buried in Guy street, Montreal, and a _Red Cross_ erected to mark the
spot."

_Translation_. - Extract from the requisition of H. C. Majesty's
Attorney: -

"I require for the King that Jean Baptiste Goyer dit Belisle be arraigned



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