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and convicted of having wilfully and feloniously killed the said Jean
Favre by a pistol shot and several stabs with a knife, and of having
similarly killed the said Marie-Anne Bastien, wife of the said Favre, with
a spade and a knife, and of having stolen from them the money that was in
their house; for punishment of which that he be condemned to have his
arms, legs, thighs and backbone broken, he alive, on a scaffold, which
shall be erected for that purpose in the market place of this city, at
noon, then on a rack, his face turned towards the sky, he be left to die.
The said Jean Baptiste Goyer dit Belisle, being previously put to the
torture ordinary and extraordinary, his dead body shall be carried by the
executioners to the highway which lies between the house lately occupied
by the said accused and the house lately occupied by the said Jean Favre
and his wife. The goods and chattels of the said Jean Baptiste Goyer dit
Belisle confiscated to the King, or for the benefit of those who may have
a right to them, or of those not liable to confiscation, the sum of 300
livres fine being previously set apart, in case that confiscation could be
made for the benefit of His Majesty.

"(Signed), FAUCHER.
"Done at Montreal, the 6th June, 1752."

[96] The most spacious, the most remarkable of these substantial vaults of
French construction, are those which now belong to the Estate Poston, on
the north side of Notre Dame street, nearly opposite the church Notre Dame
des Victoires. It is claimed that these vaults were so constructed as not
only to be fire proof but water-proof likewise at the seasons of high
water, in spring and autumn. This vault is now occupied by Messrs.
Thompson, Codville & Co. as Inland Revenue and Customs bonded warehouses.

[97] "_Cours d'Histoire du Canada_," _Ferland, Vol._ 1, _p._ 280.

[98] _Concession de la Barre aux Jésuites_, _Sept._ 16, 1683.

[99] _Cul-de-Sac_ means a street without an issue. The filling in of
this old market place, by the wharves on which Champlain Market Hall now
stands, has totally altered this locality.

[100] M. de Laval, in 1661, described the city as follows: -

"Quebecum vulgo in superiorem dividitur et inferiorem urbem. In inferiore
sunt portus, vadosa navium ora, mercatorum apoticae ubi et merces
servantur, commercium quodlibet peragitur publicum et magnus civium
numerus commoratur."

[101] George Allsop, a British merchant, came from England to this country
in the last century with Thomas Aylwin, grandfather of Judge Thos. Cushing
Aylwin. The Hale family were already in Canada, and became intimate with
the Allsops. George Allsop had six sons, all born in the Montcalm House
ramparts. At the time of Robert Allsop's birth his mother was placed for
safety in the vaults of the Citadel, at the time of the siege (1775) says
a family tradition. These six sons were as follows: -

George Waters Allsop, eldest, sent home to the Bluecoat School to be
educated; he was a Latin and Greek scholar, and a person of eminence
in other respects.
John Allsop, merchant in London.
Carleton Allsop, Consul-General to Colombia.
Robert Allsop, Deputy Commissary-General.
James Allsop, Paymaster 1st Batt., 44th Foot.
William Allsop, merchant, died at sea on a voyage to Buenos Ayres, and
was buried on the Patagonian coast, all co-seigneurs of Seignories of
Jacques Cartier and d'Auteuil.
James Allsop, at the age of 17, was taken by Hon. John Hale, Receiver-
General, into his office, St. John street, at $600 per annum. This
house was afterwards occupied by a Mrs. Stinson (I think as a
boarding-house); sold to Judge Aylwin, who left it by will to his
nephew, Robt S. Bradley, who now owns it.
James Allsop did not like the drudgery of Mr. Hale's office, who sent
him to England with a recommendation to the late Duke of Kent, asking
for a Paymastership. There were difficulties at first, he not being
considered old enough; but at last he was gazetted to one in the 1st
Batt., 44th Regt., and this Battalion was ordered to New Orleans, Hon.
Col. Mullins (Lord Ventry's son), commanding, who, being seized with a
panic on the field, disgraced himself, lost his presence of mind on
seeing the destruction the Americans were dealing out to the British
troops, by firing behind their cotton bags, and was in consequence the
cause of the death of Hon. Col. Pakenham, brother-in-law to the Duke
of Wellington. Miss Pakenham was a celebrated beauty, and engaged to
marry the Duke on his return from the Peninsular War; but having,
unfortunately, taken the small-pox during the Duke's absence, her
father wrote to the Duke to absolve him from his promise, she having
become so much disfigured from its effects, but the Duke was too
honourable, and married her. They were both in Brussels. My father,
who was Paymaster to the 2nd Battalion of the 44th, was at Waterloo.
We remained in Brussels some years. - (_Diary of Mrs. Chas. Aylwin_.)

[102] See Appendix - "La Négresse Rose."

[103] Quebecers will remember with pleasure the presence in our midst of
this famous Polar navigator in August, 1880, and his lady, whose
kindliness of manner and elegant French, won the hearts of many. The
instructive torpedo lectures of the scientific commander of the
_Northampton_ iron-clad, Capt. Fisher, will likewise retain a corner
in the chambers of memory.

[104] In fact, the spot where the remains of the great geographer and
discoverer are supposed to rest, seems to be the site on which the new
Post Office in the Upper Town has lately been built. Another theory,
however, is lately propounded by an Ottawa antiquary. See QUEBEC PAST AND
PRESENT.

[105] XAVIER MARMIER. - This writer was born at Pontcartier, France, in
1809, and early evinced a passion for travel. Having visited Switzerland
and Holland, he came to Paris in 1830. Being well versed in German
literature, he edited for ten years the _Revue Germanique_, during
which period he travelled and wrote much. In 1836-38 he went as the
Secretary of a scientific expedition to the north of Europe. He spent
several weeks at Archangel, visited Iceland, Greenland, and other
hyperborean regions, and after his return published many works, among
which may be mentioned Travels in Iceland and Greenland (7 vols., 8vo,
with elaborate maps and numerous folio plates), the Literature of Denmark
and Sweden, Souvenirs of Voyages and Traditions, Popular Songs of the
North, Letters on Holland and on Russia, Finland and Poland, Poems of a
Traveller, the Rhine and the Nile, Letters upon Algeria and the Adriatic,
A Summer on the Baltic, &c, &c, besides voluminous essays in reviews and
magazines. He was recalled from travels to become librarian of the
Department of the Marine, and in 1847 was appointed in charge of the
library of Sainte Geneviève. He is still (in 1881) living in Paris.

[106] _Lettres sur l'Amérique, par X Marmier, Canada, États-Unis, Havane,
Rio de la Plata_, 2 _Vols., Paris_, 1851.

[107] The Jesuit Fathers were in the habit of fastening the painters of
their canoes at the foot of the hill, "la _canoterie_," on their return
by water from their farm called "_Ferme des Anges_," hence its name.

We borrow from the "Directory for the City and Suburbs of Quebec" for
1791, by Hugh McKay, printed at the office of the _Quebec Herald_,
the following paragraph, "_Rues Ecartées_" (out-of-the-way streets) -
"_La Canoterie_ (canoe landings) follows the street Sault-au-Matelot,
commencing at the house of Cadet (where Mr. O. Aylwin resides), and
continues up to Mr. Grant's distillery; St. Charles street commences there
and terminates below Palace Gate; St. Nicholas street extends from Palace
Gate to the water's edge, passing in front of the residence of the widow
La Vallée; the old ship yard opposite to the boat yard, Cape Diamond
street commences at the wharf owned by Mr. Antrobus and terminates at the
outer extremity of that of Mons. Dunière, underneath Cape Diamond, the
streets Carrière, Mont Carmel, Ste. Geneviève, St. Denis, Des Grisons, are
all situated above St. Louis street" (Mr. Louis Dunière was M.P. in 1828.)

[108] Mr. T. P. Bédard sends us the following note on this street: - "Au
17ème siècle, la rue Sault-au-Matelot était la rue commerciale par
excellence avec la rue Notre-Dame, c'était là où ce faisait toutes les
affaires, la rue St. Pierre actuelle étant alors envahie par l'eau durant
les grandes marées."

[109] Did the dog belong to Champlain? an antiquary asks us.

"Ad laevum fluit amnis S. Laurentii, ad dextram S. Caroli fluviolus. Ad
confluentem, Promontorium assurgit, _Saltum Nautae_ vulgo vocant, ab
cane hujus nominis qui se alias ex eo loco praecipitem dedit." (Historia
Canadensis. - Creuxius, p. 204.)

[110] François de Bienville.

[111] In that early, dark, but not unhappy era of Quebec municipal
existence, in June, 1842, when the great novelist, Chas. Dickens,
perambulated our thoroughfares and surveyed our battle fields, did the
author of "Pickwick," in his rambles, meet in this odoriferous lane any of
those "roving, gentlemanly, philosophic, republican" porkers, such as had
crossed his path in the "empire city" of the West, and which, as typical
New York pigs, have since become famous. "A select party," says he, "of
half a dozen gentlemanly hogs have just now turned the corner."

"Here is a solitary swine lounging homeward by himself. He has only one
ear, having parted with the other to vagrant dogs in the course of his
city rambles. But he gets on very well without it, and leads a roving,
gentlemanly, vagabond life, somewhat answering to that of our club men at
home. He leaves his lodgings every morning at a certain hour, throws
himself upon the town, gets through the day in some manner quite
satisfactory to himself, and regularly appears at the door of his own
house again at night, like the mysterious master of Gil Blas. He is a free
and easy, careless, indifferent kind of pig, having a very large
acquaintance among other pigs of the same character, whom he rather knows
by sight than conversation, as he seldom troubles himself to stop and
exchange civilities, but goes grunting down the kennel, turning up the
news and small talk of the city, in the shape of cabbage-stalks and offal,
and bearing no tails but his own, which is a very short one, for his old
enemies the dogs have been at that too, and have left him hardly enough to
swear by. He is in every respect a Republican pig, going wherever he
pleases, and mingling with the best society, on an equal if not superior
footing, for every one makes way when he appears, and the haughtiest give
him the wall if he prefer it. He is a great philosopher, and seldom moved,
unless by the dogs before mentioned." - (_Dickens' American Notes_, p. 38.)

[112] CANADA'S ROYAL VISITORS - WHO HAVE BEEN HERE SINCE 1787. - "Canada has
been honoured with visits from the following Royal personages: - His Royal
Highness Prince William Henry (afterwards William IV.) uncle of Her
Majesty Queen Victoria, landed in Quebec in 1787. H.R.H. Prince Edward,
Duke of Kent, father of Queen Victoria, visited Canada in 1791, four years
later than his brother. H.R.H. Albert Edward, Prince of Wales and heir
apparent of the British Crown, was in this country in 1860, and laid the
corner-stone of the Parliament Buildings at Ottawa. H.R.H. Prince Alfred,
Duke of Edinburgh, second son of Queen Victoria, was here in 1861, H.R.H.
Prince Leopold in May, 1880. H.E.H. Prince de Joinville, son of Louis
Philippe, King of France, was in Canada the same year as Prince Alfred.
Prince Napoleon Bonaparte, cousin of Napoleon III., Emperor of France,
also in 1861. H.R.H. Prince Arthur, third son of the Queen, in 1869.
H.R.H. the Grand Duke Alexis of Russia, in 1871. H.R.H. Dom Pedro, Emperor
of Brazil, in 1876 (Centennial year); and Her Royal Highness the Princess
Louise and H.R.H. the Duke of Edinburgh (his second visit), in 1878. It
will thus be seen that Queen Victoria's father, uncle and five of her
children have been in Canada."

[113] Opened by him in 1831.

[114] "Travels through North America during the years 1825-26," By Carl
Bernhard, Duke of Saxe-Weimar Eisenach.

[115] Prescott Gate levelled in 1871.

[116] These steps went into Prescott Gate.

[117] The R. C. Bishop's Palace, on whose site the present brick
structure, Parliament House, was since erected.

[118] Bleak House, on the St. Louis Heights, was, until 1871, the quarters
of the Colonel of Engineers.

[119] The Abbé de Fénélon was the half-brother of the illustrious
Archbishop of Cambray, the author of "Telemachus." He was tried by
Frontenac and the Superior Council for having, at the preceding Easter,
preached at Montreal a violent sermon against the _corvées_ (enforced
labor) to build up Fort Frontenac, &c. He refused to acknowledge the
competency of the tribunal to try him, appeared before it with his hat on,
&c. Frontenac had him committed for contempt. Altogether it was a curious
squabble, the decision of which was ultimately left to the French King. -
(Parkman's Frontenac, p. 37, M. Faillon, _La Colonie Française, Vol.
III, pp. 515, 517.)

[120] Montcalm, de Vaudreuil, de Longueuil, de Bougainville, LaCorne, de
Beaujeu, Taché, de Léry, de St. Ours and others constituted this party of
honourable men.

[121] MÉMOIRES sur les affaires du Canada, 1749-60.

[122] Servants, lackeys and nobodies were named store-keepers, "_leur
ignorance et leur bassesse ne font point un obstacle_," say the
_Mémoires_, 1749-60.

[123] "He (deCallières), says Parkman, laid before the King a plan, which
had, at least, the recommendation of boldness and cheapness. This was to
conquer New York with the forces already in Canada, aided only by two
ships of war. The blow, he argued, should be struck at once, and the
English taken by surprise. A thousand regulars and six hundred Canadian
Militia should pass Lake Champlain and Lake George, in canoes and bateaux,
cross to the Hudson, and capture Albany, where they would seize all the
river-craft, and descend the Hudson to the town of New York, which, as
Callières states, had then about two hundred houses and four hundred
fighting men. The two ships were to cruise at the mouth of the Harbour,
and wait the arrival of the troops, which was to be made known to them by
concerted signals, whereupon they were to enter and aid in the attack. The
whole expedition, he thought, might be accomplished in a month, so that by
the end of October, the King would be master of the country....

It will be well to observe what were the instructions of the King towards
the colony which he proposed to conquer. They were as follows: If any
Catholics were found in New York, they might be left undisturbed, provided
that they took an oath of allegiance to the King. Officers, and other
persons who had the means of paying ransoms, were to be thrown into
prison. All lands in the colony, except those of Catholics swearing
allegiance, were to be taken from the owners, and granted under feudal
tenure to the French officers and soldiers. All property, public or
private, was to be seized, a portion of it given to the grantees of the
land, and the rest sold on account of the King. Mechanics and other
workmen might, at the discretion of the commanding officer) be kept as
prisoners to work at fortifications and do other labor. The rest of the
English and Dutch inhabitants, men, women, and children were to be carried
out of the colony, and dispersed in New England, Pennsylvania or other
places, in such manner, that they could not combine in any attempt to
recover their property and their country. And that the conquest might be
perfectly secure, the nearest settlements of New England were to be
destroyed, and those more remote, laid under contribution. - (_Count
Frontenac and New France under Louis XIV_, _p._ 187-9.)

[124] See Appendix, _verbo_ "CONQUEST IN NEW YORK."

[125] THE CHIEN D'OR A LEGEND OF QUEBEC.

[126] L'INTENDANT BIGOT.

[127] For the names of the victims and further particulars, vide 2nd
Volume du Dictionnaire Généalogique, par l'Abbé Tanguay.

[128] These bricks were found to be only 1-1/2 inches thick, of a dark
flinty appearance and as hard as iron, and seemed to be composed of silica
and oxide of iron.

The Jesuit College had been occupied as a barrack, under the warrant of
General J. Murray, in 1765. (J. M. L.)

[129] _Cours d'Histoire du Canada_, Vol. II, p. 140.

[130] Louis XV.

[131] Smith's History of Canada, Vol. II., p. 105.

[132] _Life of Lord Nelson_, by Robert Southey, LL.D.

[133] See Judge Henry's Diary of the Siege of 1775.

[134] The friends of the history will, no doubt, rejoice to learn that the
Literary and Historical Society has acquired the interesting diaries and
correspondence of Mr. James Thompson.

[135] Named after George Pozer, an aged Quebec millionaire, who for years
resided in the house subsequently occupied as a book-store by the late
Chas. Hamel. This eccentric old German was a native of Wesel, Germany. He
had emigrated in the last century to New York, from thence to London,
England, from thence to Quebec. He died here in 1840, immensely wealthy,
the cause of his death being a cold be caught in attending Parliament, at
Kingston, to remonstrate against what he considered the encroachments of
the City Council, at Quebec, who, to remove obstructions in the public
streets, had forcibly done away with the projecting steps of "Freemasons'
Hall," the _Chien d'Or_ building, for years the property of George Pozer.
George Pozer was the grandfather of Hon. M. Pozer, the portly Senator for
Beauce.

[136] Ryland street recalls the astute and able secretary and adviser to
many Governors, the Hon. Herman W. Ryland, who died in 1836, at Mount
Lilac, Beauport.

[137] St. Ours street reminds the student of history of that brave French
brigadier who on the glorious battle-field of the 13th September, 1759,
shed his blood to uphold the lost cause of France.

[138] Dambourgès street perpetuates the name of the intrepid Lieutenant
(afterwards Colonel) Dambourgès, who, on the 31st December, 1775, in the
Sault au Matelot engagement, helped so zealously to uphold the flag of Old
England.

[139] Hon. William Grant had wedded, at Montreal, on the 11th September,
1770, the widow of the third Baron de Longueuil, who had expired in 1755.
Hon Wm. Grant's decease is thus mentioned in the _Quebec Mercury_, on
the 7th October, 1805: - "Died, on Saturday, of an inflammation in his
bowels, after a short illness, William Grant, Esq., of St. Roch. He came
to this country shortly after the conquest; (about 1763). Under the old
constitution (prior to 1774) he was many years a Privy and Legislative
Councillor. Under the present one, he was three times elected a
representative to the House of Assembly for the Upper Town of Quebec. He
also, at different periods, filled several other important stations in the
Province, in all which he manifested ability, assiduity and activity. He
embarked in speculative enterprise at an early age, whence his life may be
truly said to have been a life of distinguished usefulness. His
possessions are extensive and valuable". On a portion of the lot acquired
and still occupied by Mr. Prudent Vallée, from the heirs of the late Peter
Brébaut, on the 4th May, 1833, by deed, before L. T. McPherson, Esq., N.
P., there remains still the massive ruins of what in the early part of the
century was a stately stone dwelling, with vaulted rooms in the basement.
The edifice faced towards St. Vallier street, and was surrounded by a high
wall, with an iron gate on the St. Vallier street side, and an iron
_porte-cochère_, enclosing what was once no doubt a blooming garden;
it is now densely built over, since the great fire of 1845 swept over the
locality like a tornado. This ostentations mansion is described in Mr.
Vallée's deed as the "Manor House," and we are led to believe that here
for many a long day flourished the enterprising and wealthy "Seignior of
St. Roch," the Hon. Wm. Grant, Receiver-General of His Majesty's rents,
with Madame La Baronne de Longueuil, his respected spouse. The Grant
estate, by a patent from Sir James Craig, dated 11th March, 1811,
subsequently included what is now a most populous portion of St. Roch,
styled "La Vacherie," because the city cows were daily brought to these
moist lands adjoining the St. Charles. However, this opulent family had
another manor, built by the Baronne very shortly after her marriage with
Mr. Grant, in 1770, on the lovely Island of St. Hélène, opposite to
Montreal. She had also erected, opposite to Molson's brewery, a
_banal_ mill to grind the corn garnered in the neighborhood. The St.
Hélène manor was probably the country seat during the summer mouths, and
the St. Vallier street mansion _la maison de ville_ of its busy and
successful master, who died in 1805, ten years after his noble lady, who
had expired on the 25th February, 1795.

[140] This gentleman (Mr. William Henderson) was for many years Secretary
of the Quebec Fire Assurance Company. I believe he is still living, and
that he resides at Frampton, in the County of Dorchester, P.Q.

[141] Renaud & Brown's Mills at present.

[142] Report No. 3 of Commissioners of the Harbour of Quebec.

[142] Queen's Birthday, Brochure, 1880.

[144] QUEBEC PAST AND PRESENT, p. 353.

[145] QUEBEC AS IT WAS AND AS IT IS. - Chas. Roger, 1864.


CHAPTER IV.

[146] The residence of Jos. Shehyn, Esq., M.P.P., occupies now this
historic site.

[147] SAUNDERS SIMPSON. - He was Prevost Marshal in Wolfe's army of
Louisbourg, Quebec and Montreal, and cousin of my father's. He resided in
that house, the nearest to St. Louis Gate, outside, which has not
undergone any external alteration since I was a boy. - _From unpublished
Diary of Deputy Commissary General Jas. Thompson._

[148] Recent evidence extracted by Dr. H. H. Miles, out of Jas. Thompson's
papers and letters, strengthen the theory previously propounded, and
indicate Miss Mary Simpson, daughter of Saunders Simpson, as the famed
Quebec beauty of 1782.

[149] Paint and extensive repairs have very much improved the historical
house - owned and partly occupied by Mr. Green, Surveyor of H. M. Customs,
Quebec - this year until May tenanted by George Stewart, Esq., author of
"_Lord Dufferin's Rule in Canada_," "_The Great St. John Fire_, 1877," &c.

[150] Major Perrault and his esteemed father, the Prothonotary, a warm
friend to education, both lived there many years.

[151] Three only now exist.

[152] My old friend died in 1867 - regretted as a scholar, an antiquarian
and the type of the old English gentleman.

[153] This realm of fairy land, so rich in nature's graces, so profusely
embellished by the late James Gibb, Esq., President of the Quebec Bank,
was recently sold for a rural cemetery.

[154] The stately home of Thomas Beckett, Esq.

[155] The picturesque villa of R. R. Dobell, Esq.

[156] A mossy old hall founded by Mr. McNider in the beginning of the
century; now occupied by the Graddon family.

[157] The grand mansion of the late Chas E. Levey, Esq.

[158] Owned by Mr. Morgan.

[159] The highly cultivated farm and summer residence of Andrew Stuart,
Esq.

[160] The property of Charles Ernest Levey, Esq.

[161] The beautiful home of W. Herring, Esq.

[162] The rustic abode of the late Hon. John Neilson, now owned by his
eldest son, John Neilson, P. L. Surveyor, advantageously known by his
popular notes on Canadian Birds. Dornald with its umbrageous glens,
undulating meadows, broad and dense hard wood groves, seems a veritable
Eden to the feathered tribe and offers innumerable opportunities of
observation to the eye of a naturalist.

[163] Recently acquired by James Bowen, Esq., founded by the late W.
Atkinson, Esq., in 1820.

[164] For account of the duel, which laid law one of the Hollands, see
_Maple Leaves_ for 1863. The tree, however, has lately been destroyed by a
storm.

[165] A stately Convent of Congregational Nuns.

[166] The ornate country seat of Robt. Hamilton, Esq.

[167] The cosy dwelling of And. Thompson, President Union Bank.

[168] The homestead of Hon. D. A. Ross, late Atty.-Genl., Province of
Quebec.


PART II - ENVIRONS OF QUEBEC

[169] A. Brulart de Sillery, Marquis de Puisieux, was Minister of Foreign
Affairs in France from 1747 to 1751. - O'Callaghan's _Paris Document
Table_, vol. x.

[170] His career furnishes a curious instance of the lavish expenditure



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