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which ambitious sovereigns formerly required on such grand occasions. Let
us quote his biographer's own words: "Son entrée dans Rome fut superbe; il
était dans un carosse ouvert, en forme de calèche, tout brillant d'or,
même jusqu'aux roues qui étaient dorées. Ses chevaux étaient ferres avec
des plaques d'argent qui ne tenaient que par un seul clou, afin que,
venant à se détacher, elles fussent ramassées par les pauvres, à qui,
outre cela, il faisait jeter quantité d'argent. Son carosse était entouré
de douze gentilshomme bien montes et superbement vêtus; et de douze valets
de pied d'une rich livrée, suivis des carosses que le Pape avait envoyé
pour lui faire honneur. Sa Sainteté fut sur un balcon pour voir son
entrée. M. l'ambassadeur était vêtu en Chevalier de Malte, avec sa croix
enrichie de diamants. Ce fut dans ce superbe équipage qu'il fit les
visites des cardinaux."

[171] An authentic record still remains of the foundation of the mission;
it is written in the language of Virgil, by Father Deguen, its first
missionary, and heads the register of baptisms, marriages and burials of
the mission. It runs thus: "Dominus de Sillery, eques militenses et
sacerdos non adpridem factus, vir imprimis plus, reductionem Sancti
Josephi, una et amplius leaca, suprâ Kebicum ad ripas magni fluminis."
Jacta sunt fundimenta domûs, Julii, 1637, et 14 Aprilis anni, 1638. -
_Bressani_, _Appendix_, p. 300.

[172] Il y avait (des petite forts) à Sillery, sur les fiefs Saint Michel,
Saint François, Saint Sauveur, à Beauport, à l'Ile d'Orléans. "Les
_Hiroquois_," dit la mère de l'Incarnation, "craignent extrêmement les
cannons; ce qui fait qu'ils n'osent s'approcher des forts." Les habitants,
afin de leur donner la chasse et de la terreur, ont des redoutes en leurs
maisons pour se défendre avec de petites pièces. - _Abbé Ferland's Notes_,
p 92.

[173] _History of the Hôtel-Dieu_, Mère Juchereau.

[174] Abbé Faillon's _Histoire de la Colonie Française en Canada_, vol.
ii., p. 28.

[175] The hotel was later kept by one Pierre Letarte.

[176] Faillon cautions students to be careful not to confound the name of
the parish of Ste. Foye with the name "Sainte Foix" which M. Puiseaux had
given to his manor, higher up than Quebec on the shore of the St.
Lawrence. - _Ibid_, vol. iii, p. 319.

[177] "Jacques Brassier, Jean Tavernier, Nicholas Josselin, Etienne Robin
dit Desforges, René Douspin Jean LeComte, and Francois Crusson dit Pelate,
belonged to those immortal seventeen heroes who, led on by their brave and
youthful commander, Adam Dollard Desormeaux, shed their blood so nobly for
the salvation of the nascent colony at Montreal at the Longue Sault, on
21st May, 1660." - (See Faillon, vol. ii., p 416.)

[178] Manuscript owned by G. B. Faribault, Esq.

[179] _Histoire de la Colonie Française en Canada_, Faillon, vol. iii., p.
222.

[180] The insecurity produced in the colony at this period by the
incessant inroads of the Five Nations was such that several colonists were
on the eve of, and some did, return to France.

"Les familles françaises éparses sur les bords du St. Laurent, se
trouvaient exposées à des dangers continuels. Pendant le jour, les hommes
étaient attaqués au coin des champs, à l'orée d'un bois, sur les eaux du
grand-fleuve. Pour tomber tout-à-coup sur leurs victimes, les maraudeurs
iroquois se tenaient cachés tantôt derrière un arbre renversé, tantôt dans
un marais, ou au milieu des joncs du rivage pendant la nuit, ils rôdaient
autour des maisons, cherchant à surprendre quelques familles sans
défense." - (_Ferland, Histoire du Canada_: Vol. I., p. 398.)

Hence the French houses in each settlement were generally close to one
another for mutual protection; the church in the centre to sound the
tocsin of alarm.

[181] _Relations des Jésuites_, 1652, p. 7.

[182] _Histoire du Canada_ - Ferland. Vol. I, page 109.

[183] "Monsieur de Courcelles, qui en fut le chef (de l'expédition), y
apporta toute la diligence possible, de sorte qu'il se trouva prêt à
partir le 9 Janvier, 1666, accompagné de M. duGas, qu'il prit pour son
lieutenant, de M. de Salampar, gentilhomme volontaire, du Père Pierre
Raffeix, Jésuite, de 300 hommes du Régiment Carignan Salières et de 200
volontaires, habitants des colonies françaises, chacun ayant aux pieds des
raquettes, dont ils n'étaient pas accoutumés de se servir et tous sans en
excepter les chefs et M. de Courcelles même étant chargés chacun de 25 ou
30 livres de biscuit etc. A peine pourrait on trouver dans toutes les
histoires une marche plus difficile et plus longue, que le fut celle de
cette petite armée, et il fallut un courage français et la constance de M.
de Courcelles pour l'entreprendre * * * il fallait faire trois cent lieues
sur les neiges, traverser continuellement sur la glace des lacs et des
rivières en danger de faire autant de chutes que de pas, ne coucher que
sur la neige au milieu des forêts, et souffrir un froid qui passe de
beaucoup la rigueur des plus rudes hivers de l'Europe.

"Cependant nos troupes estant allées le premier jour à Sillery, pour
recommander le succès de leur entreprise à l'Archange Saint Michel, Patron
de ce lieu là, plusieurs eurent des le troisième jour, le nez, les
oreilles, les genoux et les doigts, ou d'autres parties du corps gelées et
le reste du corps couvert de cicatrices." - _Relations des Jésuites_,
1666, page 6.

[184] This crack regiment had covered itself with glory at the battle of
St. Gothard in 1664, when 80,000 Turks had been cut to pieces by the army
of Count Coligny. - (_Histoire de la Mère de l'Incarnation_, Casgrain,
p. 425-6.)

[185] "Le vingt-cinq Janvier," says Ferland, "ils étaient sur les glaces à
l'entrée du lac Saint Pierre. Le froid était plus vif, que les jours
précédents; des glaçons accumulés barraient presque la route qu'ils
suivaient. Les volontaires accoutumés de longue main à rencontrer ces
difficultés savaient les surmonter; ils étaient vêtus à la manière du
pays, et portaient habits, bonnets et chaussures de peaux de bêtes; aussi
ils pouvaient sans danger braver le froid. Il n'en était pas ainsi des
soldats français, encore peu habitués à la sévérité du climat, et qui
n'étaient pas pourvus de couvertures suffisantes. L'on fut contraint de
reporter aux Trois Rivières plusieurs d'entre eux dont les uns s'étaient
blessés sur les glaces, et les autres avaient les mains, les bras et les
pieds gelés." - (_Cours d'Histoire du Canada_, vol. ii, p. 467.)

[186] Baron Vincent Saint Castin, was from Oléron, in Béarn. Originally a
Colonel in the King's Guards, he came to Canada in 1665, a Captain in the
Carignan Regiment. He was, in 1680-1, in command of Fort Penobscot in
Maine. He married Matilda, the daughter of Madockawando, Sachem of the
Penobscots, by which tribe he was adopted and elevated to the rank of
Chief. He played a conspicuous part in the wars of that day, signed
treaties with the Governors of New England. Having amassed a property of
300,000 crowns, he retired eventually to France, where he had an estate.
He was succeeded by his son in the Government of Penobscot. His daughters
married advantageously in the colony. We find one of them, Mademoiselle
Brigitte de Saint Castin, amongst the pupils of the Ursuline Nuns at
Quebec, about the beginning of the last century. - _"Les Gouverneurs
Généraux du Canada le ménagent et ceux de la Nouvelle Angleterre le
craignent," says La Hontan._

[187] _Notes on the Environs of Quebec_, 1855.

[188] Occupied by Michael Stevenson, Esq.

[189] The temple for Catholic worship, erected at Pointe à Puizeau about
1854, is very picturesquely located; its stained glass windows, its
graceful new spire, frescoed ceilings, add much to its beauty. The Rev'd
Messire George Drolet has succeeded to the Rev. Father Harkin, who had
been in charge ever since the late Abbé Ferland was appointed secretary to
the Archbishop of Quebec and Military Chaplain to the Forces. For some
time in 1877, St. Columba Church was in the spiritual charge of
Monseigneur de Persico.

[190] From the noise it makes before easterly gales.

[191] The _Jesuits in North America_, Parkman - pages 282-3. Vimont,
_Relation_, 1645, 2-22.

[192] Breweries, however, and other manufactories had been in operation in
the colony as early as 1668, as we glean from the following entry in the
_Jesuits' Journal_: -

"Et parce qu'un pais ne peut pas se former entièrement sans l'assistance
des manufactures, nous voyons déjà celle des souliers et des chapeaux
commencée, celle des toiles et des cuirs projetée, et on attend que la
multiplication qui se fait des moutons, produise suffisement des laines
pour introduire celle des draps, et c'est ce que nous espérons dans peu
puisque les bestiaux se peuplent assez abondamment, entr-autres les
chevaux qui commencent à distribuer dans tout le pais. La brasserie que
Monsieur Talon fait construire, ne servira pas peu aussi pour la commodité
publique, soit pour l'épargne des boissons enivrantes, qui causent ici de
grands désordres, auxquels on pourra obvier par cette antre boisson qui
est très saine et non malfaisante, soit pour conserver l'argent dans le
pais qui s'en divertit par l'achat qu'on fait en France de tant de
boissons, soit enfin pour consumer le surabondant des bleds qui si sont
trouves quelquefois en telle quantité que les laboureurs n'en pouuaient
avoir le débit." - _Relations des Jésuites_, 166, p. 3. On the site of
Talon's brewery, was built the Intendant's Palace, in the rear of
Boswell's Brewery.

[193] _Heriot's Travels_, 1806, p. 98.

The Jesuit, Father Ennemond Massé died at Sillery, 12th May, 1646, aged
seventy-two.

[194] _Histoire de la Colonie Française en Canada, vol. II, p._ 115.

[195] _Faillon_, vol. III, p. 318.

[196] In 1684, at the review of French troops at Fort Fontenac, appear
among others _Captaines de la Côte_; the _Captain de la Côte de Beauport_,
Duchesnay, Laferté and Meseray, of Cap. Rouge. (Paris Documents, vol. IX,
p 234.)

[197] "Along this road was the favorite drive of the Canadian belle." -
_Hawkins' Picture of Quebec_.

[198] Madame Pean's house in St. Louis street stood where the Officers
Barracks have been since built. We take her to have been that pretty Ang.
De Meloises, a pupil of the Ursuline Nuns, mentioned in the _Historie
des Ursulines de Québec_.

[199] _Quebec, Past and Present_; Maple Leaves - 1865.

[200] The monument erected by the inhabitants of Sillery, to the memory of
the Revd. Père Ennemond Masse, S. J., first Missionary to Canada, was
inaugurated on Saturday afternoon, the 26th June, 1870, in presence of the
inhabitants of Sillery, and of several literary gentlemen of the environs.
Revd. G. V. Cazeau, addressed those present, and was followed by the Abbes
Laverdière and Casgrain, and by Hon'l P. C. A. Chauveau and Mr. R. R.
Dobell.

Mr. Dobell delivered a lengthy and able address on the worth of the good
missionary but dwelt chiefly on the career of the benevolent Commander
Brulart de Sillery:

At our suggestion, the monument was made by its inscriptions to
commemorate the merit of both:

The speakers all paid a high tribute to the researches of the Revd. Abbes
Laverdière and Casgrain, through whose labors the resting place of the
Revd. Père Masse were discovered, and with whom originated the idea of
erecting this monument.

The ground upon which the monument stands was given by Mr. Henry
Lemesurier: and Mr. R. R. Dobell has nobly assisted Messrs. Laverdière and
Casgrain in carrying out the project.

The monument is plain but elegant, and altogether about 20 feet high. It
is of cut-stone, with four marble tablets surmounted by a marble cross.
One of the tablets bears the following inscription:

The Inhabitants of Sillery
Have erected this Monument to the Memory of
PÈRE ENNEMOND MASSE, S.J.,
First Missionary in Canada,
Buried in 1646,
In the Church of Saint Michel,
On the Domain of Saint Joseph of Sillery.

On another tablet was inscribed:

The Church of Saint Michel,
Which formerly stood on this spot,
Was built by
The Commander of Sillery,
Founder (in 1637) of the St. Joseph Domain.

The ceremony throughout was of a most interesting character, serving to
mark an important event in the history of Canada.

[201] The Plains of Abraham. Notes, original and selected, by Lt. Col.
Beatson, Royal Engineers - Gibraltar: Printed at the Garrison Library
Press, 1858. This volume is very rare.

[202] Donation du 10 Octobre, 1648, et du 1er Février, 1652, par Adrien
Duchesne à Abraham Martin, de 30 arpents de terre.

Concession du 16 Mai, 1650, par la Compagnie de la Nouvelle France, de 12
arpents de terre à Abraham Martin.

Vente du 1er Juillet, 1667, aux Dames Ursuline de Quebec, par les
héritiers d'Abraham Martin, d'un terrain contenant 32 arpents en
superficie.

[203] A creature of Bigot, Capt. DeVergor, on the 13th of September, 1759,
after allowing his militia men to return home on leave, was in charge of
the post at Wolfefield, where Wolfe ascended after taking the Captain
prisoner; this was the key to the position. Ferland and other writers have
imputed treason to DeVergor.

[204] "MONTCALM EN CANADA."

In a work published at Tournai, in 1861, _par un ancien missionnaire_, at
page 193, Père Martin notices the discrepancies between the various
writers whom he had consulted. "It is difficult at the present day, to
decide with certainty as to the numbers of the two armies who met on the
Plains of Abraham; ancient writers are no more in accord than modern. Here
are some of the estimates:

FRENCH. ENGLISH.
L'Intendant Bigot,....................... 3,500 3 to 4,000
Montreuil, Major Général,................ ... 4,500
Doreil, Commissaire,..................... 3,000 6,000
Colonel Fraser,.......................... 5,000 4,000

(Sullivan says the forces were equal, but that Wolfe's soldiers were
disciplined veterans, and that the half of Montcalm's were militia and
Indians.)

Hawkins,................................. 5,000 4,800
Bancroft,................................ 5,000 5,000
Garneau,................................. 4,500 8,000
Beatson,................................. 7,500 4,828
Dussieux,................................ 4,500 5,000

The estimates given by Garneau, of the English, and by Lt. Col. Beatson,
of the French, are evidently exaggerated. The estimates of Knox and
Ferland deserves also notice, even if only from the discrepancy they
present."

[205] Montcalm, when he heard that the English had ascended the hill and
were formed on the high ground at the back of the town scarcely credited
the intelligence ... but he was soon undeceived. He saw clearly that the
English fleet and army were in such a situation that the Upper and Lower
Town might be attacked in concert, and that nothing but a battle could
save it. Accordingly he determined to give them battle. - _The Annual
Register for the year_ 1759.

[206] Local tradition relates that, on receiving, about 8 o'clock in the
morning of the 13th September, the startling intelligence that the English
were in possession of the Plains, MONTCALM (hitching up his breeches with
both hands, as was his custom) briskly exclaimed, "_if that be the case
it is time we were hastening thither; for we must drive them into the
river before noon._" - R. S. B.

[207] "The English troops were exhorted to reserve their fire; and they
bore that of the enemy's light troops in front (which was galling though
irregular) with the utmost patience and good order, waiting for the main
body of the enemy which fast advanced upon them. At forty yards distance
our troops gave their fire, which took place in its full extent, and made
a terrible havoc among the French." - _The Annual Register for_ 1759.

"General Wolfe ordered the men to load with an additional bullet which did
great execution.

"As soon as the French came within musket-shot they began to fire, but the
British reserved their fire until the enemy were within twenty yards."
- _Beatson's Naval and Military Memoirs of Great Britain from_ 1729
_to_ 1790.

[208] The Canadian militia (of which more than half of Montcalm's forces
consisted) were without bayonets. - MONTCALM'S _Letter of 24th August_,
1759.

[209] The authenticity of this famous, prophetic letter has been attacked
by subsequent writers: among others by Francis Parkman.

[210] For a description of the spot where MONTCALM expired, see _Album
du Touriste_.

[211] _Knox's Journal_, Vol. ii., pp. 14, 21, 24, 28, Aug. 21 "The
project of erecting a fortress on the Island of Coudres, for a garrison of
three thousand men, is laid aside for want of proper materials, and the
season being too far advanced for such an undertaking. The enterprise of
storming Quebec is also given up as too desperate to hope for success." P.
28.

[212] Denis de Vitré, then a prisoner of war in England, had been induced
to come to Canada, partly by threats, partly by promises, to pilot the
English fleet. According to the Diary of old James Thompson, both Cugnet
and Davis had indicated the spot when Wolfe landed at Sillery. Stobo
claimed the credit of it, and according to Panet's Diary, it was on his
advice, that on the 21st July, 1759, was undertaken the expedition to
Deschambeault and neighboring parishes, where 100 Quebec ladies of
respectability secreted there - had been captured and brought back.

[213] "For sale, the elegant villa of the late Sir Frederic Haldimand,
K.B., delightfully situated near the Falls of Montmorency, with the farm-
house. - Quebec, 1st December, 1791." - _Supplement to the Quebec Gazette,
22nd Dec._, 1792.

[214] Our port must have presented quite a warlike aspect - over and above
the _Ulysses_ and _Resistance_ frigates there had preceded the Prince's
arrival, the following ships of war, forming part of Commodore Sawyer's
squadron: The flag ship _Leander_, 50 guns, Capt. J. Bevelay; the
_Resource_, Commander Paul Minihin; the _Ariadne_, Commander Osburn; the
_Thisbe_, Capt. Coffin, was also arrived from a cruise, and four
transports, one named the _Lord Mulgrave_, with detachments of the 5th,
25th and 54th regiments, were anchored before the city.

[215] The list of the partners of Prince Edward's grandson H. R. H. the
Prince of Wales, at the ball, etc., given in his honour in Quebec, by the
Mayor and citizens, at the Music Hall, on the 21st August, 1860,
comprises: 1. Mrs. Langevin (wife of Sir H. L. Langevin, M.P.P., and Mayor
of Quebec); 2. Mrs. Cartier (wife of Sir George Etienne Cartier, Attorney
General); 3. Miss Irvine (daughter of Colonel Irvine, then Provincial
Aide-de-Camp); 4. Miss Price; 5. Miss LeMesurier (since married to Capt.
Carter); 6. Miss Derbyshire (Mrs. J. Adamson); 7. Miss Clementina Sewell;
8. Miss Caron (daughter of Hon. Justice Caron, and now wife of Mr. Justice
Taschereau); 9. Lady Milne; 10. Miss Napier, of Montreal (since married to
Capt. Bell); 11. Mrs. Serocold (wife of Captain Serocold and daughter of
the Hon. Chief Justice Duval); 12. Miss Dunscomb (daughter of the
Collector of Customs at Quebec); 13. Miss Fischer (daughter of the
Attorney General of New Brunswick); 14. Miss Mountain (daughter of the
late Bishop of Quebec); 15. Miss Agnes Anderson; 16. Mrs. Ross; 17. Mrs.
Alex. Bell; 18. Miss Tilley (daughter of Sir Leonard Tilley); 19. Mrs. R.
H. Smith.

[216] He was created Field Marshal in 1827.

[217] Monsieur Jean Laforme was, indeed, a high authority on hair
dressing. Our youthful grandmothers of 1791 would have no other than
Monsieur Laforme to dress their hair for the _Château_ balls. A memorable
instance has been handed down to posterity of the awful dilemma in which,
either a press of engagements or an oversight, placed the Court
_peruquier_, from which his genius alone extricated him. The
beautiful Mrs. P - - t, the consort of the Speaker of the Legislative
Assembly in 179-, had to attend at a ball at the Castle St. Louis.
Unfortunately she had omitted engaging in time Laforme to arrange her hair
for the evening in question; and every hour of the day on which the ball
was to take place, being bespoken, the hair-dresser at his wit's ends said
that he would guarantee that she would yet go to the ball, but she must
place herself entirely in his hands. "Well," said the _Grande Dame_,
"what, then, am I to do?" "Bah!" said the _peruquier_, "'tis easily
settled; I shall _do_ your hair the day _previous_." - "But then how am I
to sleep with my hair done up?" "Oh! that is again easily arranged - you
will sleep in _fauteuil_. I will have your hair and head padded and
strapped down." And thus was it done and she went to the ball.

[218] The Hon. Hugh Finlay was Deputy Postmaster General for Canada from
1774 to 1800, when he was succeeded by George Heriot, who wrote a folio of
travels on Canada. Hugh Finlay had served under Benjamin Franklin, the
first English Deputy Postmaster General for the _then_ British American
Provinces, from 1750 to 1774, when he resigned. When he took the
appointment the postage on letters was insufficient to cover his salary,
£300 per annum.

[219] "Away," exclaimed the Prince to the excited voters, "with those
hated distinctions of English and Canadians; you are all my august
father's beloved subjects."

[220] The anecdote of the officer, who, on being ordered on foreign
service, cut off his queue and buried it with military honors, is
humorously related by Erskine Neale, in the Duke's biography, p. 325.

[221] Christie's History of Canada.

[222] This curious incident is mentioned in the _Maple Leaves_ for
1865, in connection with a mess dinner, when a gentleman friend of one of
the young Hollands was proved to be a beautiful female in disguise, who
afterwards married the brother of an English nobleman.

[223] Since these lines were written in 1865, many changes have come over
Marchmont - our esteemed neighbor was suddenly called away, leaving his
beautiful house to his devoted wife; she, too, alas! has paid the debt of
nature in May, 1880.

[224] "Ce capitaine avait avec lui beaucoup d'habitants de Lorette, dont
le lieu était à portée de ce poste; ils lui demandèrent permission d'aller
travailler la nuit chez eux, il la leur accorda (on prétend que ce fut à
condition d'aller aussi travailler pour lui, sur une terre qu'il avait
dans cette paroisse)." - _Mémoire sur les affaires du Canada_, 1749-60, p.
114.

[225] Captain Chandler was appointed, in 1800, commissioner to settle the
domain accruing from the Jesuits' estates; subsequently he became Seigneur
of Nicolet, where he died about 1863.

[226] We give here the poetical tribute paid by Adam Kidd to a spot where
he appears to have spent many happy hours, as a guest of the Percevals,
together with, his notes to the poem: -

SPENCER WOOD

Through thy green groves and deep receding bowers,
Loved Spencer Wood! how often have I strayed,
Or mused away the calm, unbroken hours,
Beneath some broad oak's cool, refreshing shade

There, not a sound disturbed the tranquil scene,
Save welcome hummings of the roving bee,
That quickly flitted o'er the tufted green,
Or where the squirrel played from tree to tree.

And I have paused beside that dimpling stream,
Which slowly winds thy beauteous groves among
Till from its breast retired the sun's last beam,
And every bird had ceased its vesper song.

The blushing arbors of those classic days,
Through which the breathings of the slender reed,
First softly echoed with Arcadia's praise,
Might well be pictured in this sheltered mead.

And blest were those who found a happy home
In thy loved shades, without one throb of care—
No murmurs heard, save from the distant foam
That rolled in column's o'er the great Chaudière.

And I have watched the moon in grandeur rise
Above the tinted maple's leafy breast,
And take her brillant pathway through the skies,
Till half the world seemed lulled in peaceful rest.

Oh! these were hours whose soft enchanting spell
Came o'er the heart in thy grove's deep recess,
Where e'en poor Shenstone might have loved to dwell,
Enjoying the pure balm of happiness!

But soon, how soon, a different scene I trace,
Where I have wandered, or oft musing stood,
And those whose cheering looks enhanced the place,



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