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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
AT LOS ANGELES




Xibrar^ of ipbiloeopb^,

EDITED BY J. H. MUIRHEAD, M.A.



S^ 5 7 4



THE LIBRARY OF PHILOSOPHY.



The library OF PHILOSOPHY is in the first instance
a contribution to the History of Thought, While much has
been done in England in tracing the course of evolution in
nature, history, religion and morality, comparatively little has
been done in tracing the development of Thought upon these
and kindred subjects, and yet " the evolution of opinion is
part of the whole evolution ".

This Library will deal mainly with Modern Philosophy,
partly because Ancient Philosophy has already had a fair share
of attention in this country through the labours of Grote,
Ferrier and others, and more recently through translations
from Zeller ; partly because the Library does not profess to
give a complete history of thought.

By the co-operation of different writers in carrying out this
plan, it is hoped that a completeness and thoroughness of treat-
ment otherwise unattainable will be secured. It is believed,
also, that from writers mainly P^nglish and American fuller
consideration of English Philosophy than it has hitherto re-
ceived from the great German Histories of Philosophy may
be looked for. In the departments of Ethics, E!conomics and
Politics, for instance, the contributions of Elnglish writers to
the common stock of theoretic discussion have been especially
valuable, and these subjects will accordingly have special pro-
minence in this undertaking.

Another feature in the plan of the Library is its arrange-
ment according to subjects rather than authors and dates,
enabling the writers to follow out and exhibit in a way
hitherto unattempted the results of the logical development of
particular lines of thought.

The historical portion of the Library is divided into two
sections, of which the first contains works upon the develop-
ment of particular schools of Philosophy, while the second
exhibits the history of theory in particular departments.

To these have been added, by way of Introduction to the
whole Library, (i) an English translation of P>dmann's His-
tory of Philosophy, long since recognised in Germany as the
best ; (2) translations of standard foreign works upon Philo-
sophy.

J. II. MUIRHEAD,

General Editor.



ALREADY PUBLISHED.

Thk History of Philosophy. By Dr. Johann Eduard Erdmann.

EitgUsk Translation. Edited by WiLLiSTON S. HouGH, M.Ph. , Professor
of Mental and Moral Philosophy and Logic in the University of Minnesota.

In 3 vols., medium 8vo, cloth.

Vol. I. Ancient and Mediaeval Philosophy, \y. . . Third Edition.

Vol. II. Modern Philosophy, 155 Fourth Edition.

Vol. III. Modern Philosophy since Hegel, 125. . . Third Edition.

The History of /Esthetic. By Bernard Bosanquet, M.A. , LL.D. , late Fellow
of University College, O.xford.

The Development of Rational Theology since Kant. By Professor OttO'
Pfleiderer, of Berlin. Second Edition.

Philosophy and Political Economy in some of their Historical Relations,
By James Bonar, M.A. , LL.D.

Appearance and Reality. By F. H. Bradley, M.A., Fellow of Merton College,
Oxford. Third Edition.

N.ATURAL Rights. By David G. Ritchie, Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in.
the University of St. Andrews.

Sigw.'VRT's Logic. Translated by Helen Dendy. 2 vols.

Analytic Psychology. By G. F. Stout, M.A. , Fellow of St. John's College,
Cambridge, Wilde Reader, in Mental Philosophy, Oxford. 2 vols.

Second Edition.

A History of English Utilitarianism. By Ernest Albee, Ph.D., Instructor
in the Sage School of Philosophy, Cornell University.

LIST OF WORKS IN PREPARATION.

Sens.\tionalists: Locke to Mill. By W. S. Hough, M.Ph.

The History of the Philosophical Tendencies of the Nineteenth Century.
By Josiah Rovce, Professor of Philosophy, Harvard University.

First Principles of Philosophy. By John Stuart Mackenzie, M.A., Fellow
of Trinity College, Cambridge, Professor of Logic and Philosophy in the University
College of South Wales, Co. Monmouthshire.

Epistemology ; or, The Theory of Knowledge. By James Ward, D.Sc,
LL. D. , Professor of Mental Philosophy and Logic in the University of Cambridge.

Principles of Psychology. By G. F. Stout, M.A., Fellow of St. John's College,
Cambridge, Wilde Reader in Mental Philosophy, University of Oxford.

Principles of Instrumental Logic. By John Dewey, Ph.D., Professor of Philo-
sophy, University of Michigan.

CONTEMPOR.^RY PSYCHOLOGY. By Professor Villa. English Translation.

Phenomenology of Mind. By G. W. F. Hegel. Translated by Professor J. B.
B.AILLIE, M.A.

The History of Ethics. By Professor Jodl. English Translation.



SWAN SONNENSCHEIN & CO., Lim., LONDON
THE MACMILLAN CO., NEW YORK



ERDMAXN'S HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY.



NOTICES OF THE PRESS.



" A SPLENDID monument of patient labour, critical acumen and admirable
methodical treatment. ... It is not too much to predict that, for the library of
the savant, for the academical student, whose business it is to be primed in the
wisdom of the ages, and for the literary dilettante, who is nothing if not well up
in 'things that everybody ought to know,' these volumes will at once become a
necessity for purposes, at least, of reference, if not of actual study. . . . We
possess nothing that can bear any comparison with it in point of completeness."
—Pall Mall Gazette.

" It is not necessary to speak of the great merits of Erdmann's History of
Philosophy. Its remarkable clearness and comprehensiveness are well known.
. . . The translation is a good, faithful rendering, and in some parts even reaches
a high literary level." — Professor John \V.\tso.s, in The Week, of Canada.

" It is matter of real congratulation, in the dearth still of original English or
American work over the whole field of historical philosophy, that by the side of
the one important German compend of this generation, the other, so well fitted
to serve as its complement, is now made accessible to the English-speaking
student." — Mind.

" It has been long known, highly esteemed, and in its successive editions has
sought to make itself more worthy of the success it has justly achieved. Erd-
mann's work is excellent. His history of mediaeval philosophy especially deserves
attention and praise for its comparative fulness and its admirable scholarship.
... It must prove a valuable and much needed addition to our philosophical
■works." — Scotsman.

" The combination of qualities necessary to produce a work of the scope and
grade of Erdmann's is rare. Industry, accuracy, and a fair degree of philosophic
understanding may give us a work like Ueberweg's ; but Erdmann's history, while
in no way superseding Ueberweg's as a handbook for general use, yet occupies
a different position. Erdmann wrote his book, not as a reference book, to give in
brief compass a digest of the writings of various authors, but as a genuine history
of philosoph}', tracing in a genetic way the development of thought in its treat-
ment of philosophic problems. Its purpose is to develop philosophic intelligence
rather than to furnish information. \\'hen we add that, to the successful execution
of this intention, Erdmann unites a minute and exhaustive knowledge of philo-
sophic sources at first hand, equalled over the entire field of philosophy probably
by no other one man, we are in a condition to form some idea of the value of the
book. To the student who wishes, not simply a general idea of the course of
philosophy, nor a summary of what this and that man has said, but a somewhat
detailed knowledge of the evolution of thought, and of what this and the other
•v^-riter have contributed to it, Erdmann is indispensable; there is no substitute."
— Professor John Dewlv, in The Andovey Review.

" II is a work that is at once compact enough for the ordinary student, and full
enough for the reader of literature. ... At once .systematic and interesting." —
jfuurnal of Education.

" The translation into English of Erdmann's History of Philosophy is an
important event in itself, and in the fact that it is the first instalment of an under-
taking of great significance for the study of philosophy in this country. Apart,
however, from its relation to the Library to which it is to serve as an introduction,
the translation of Erdmann's History of Philosophy is something for which the
English student ought to be thankful. ... A History of past endeavours,
achievements and failures cannot but be of great use to the student. Such a His-
tory, able, comp-w-tent, trustworthy, we have now in our hands, adequately and
•worthily rendered into our mother-tongue." — Spectator.



A



HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY



BY



JOHANN EDUARD ERDMANN

Professor of Philosophy in the University of Halle



ENGLISH TRANSLATION

EDITED BY

WILLISTOxN S. HOUGH

Professor of Philosophy in the University of Minnuoia



IN THREE VOLU-MES.— VOL. Ill



GERMAN PHfLOSOPHY SINCE HEGEL




LONDON

SWAN SONNENSCHEIN & CO. Lim.

NEW YORK: THE MACMILLAN CO.

1S99



First Edition .
Second Edition
Third Edition.
Fovirth Edition



November 1889
October 1890
October 1892
January 1899






• • •

. • •• •



Butler & Tanner, The Selwood Printing Works, Frotne, and Londom



mi

V.3



CONTENTS OF VOLUME THIRD.



Appendix.
GERMAN PPIILOSOPHY SINCE HEGEL.

PAGE

Introduction, § 331 . . 3

I. Dissolution of the Hegelian School, §§ 332-342 ... 6

A. Phenomena in the Logico-Metaphysical Sphere, §§

332-334 6

B. Phenomena in the Sphere of the Philosophy of Religion,

§§ 335-338 54

a. The Question of Immortality, § 336 . . . 58

b The Christological Question, § 337 ... 62

c. The Theological Question, § 33S .... 69

C. Phenomena in the Spheres of Ethics and Politics, §§

339-341 84

Concluding Remarks, § 342 100

11. Attempts at a Reconstruction of Philosophy, §§ 343-348 . 106

A. Returns to Earlier Systems, § 344 ..... icS

B. Attempts at Innovation, § 345 . . . . .127

C. Further Development of Earlier Systems, §§ 346, 347 . 146

D. Fourth Group. Conclusion, § 348 .... 327



AN OUTLINE



OF



ERDMANN'S HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY.



BY

HENRY CHURCHILL KING, A.M.,

PROFESSOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN OBERLIN COLLEGE.

■ ! ip ! O



BASED UPON THE

ENGLISH TRANSLATION

EDITED BY
WILLISTON S. HOUGH,

PROFESSOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA.



LONDON
SWAN SONNENSCHEIN & CO. Lim.

NEW YORK: THE MACMILLAN CO.

1S99

. 190/



The following " Outline " of Erdmann's History of Philosophy, prepared
■by Professor Henry C. King, of Oberlin College, is published with my

^sanction and commendation.

WILLISTON HOUGH.



Minneapolis, February, 1892.



HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY.



THE RELATIONS OF THE SYSTEMS Oh MODERN PHILOSOPHY.

(Erdmann.)



I.

Realism = Idealism

i.e.

Locke and Hume = Leibnitz and
Berkeley

II.

Individualism = Pantheisjn

i.e.

Eighteenth If Seventeenth
Century j \ Century

HI.

Cosmosophy = Theosophy

i.e.

Antiquity = Middle Ages.



Critico-Realjstic ji Crilico-Sceptical
Dogmatism |l Idealism



i.e.



Reinhold |{ Maimon and Beck



Kant



Critical 11 Critical
Individualism | Pantheism



" Science of j[ " System of
Knowledge" || Identity"



Modern 11 Modern
Naturalism || Theosophy



(Krause)



He^el



( Schelling's
" Positive
Philoso-
phi- "}



= means, combined with. (1 means, opposed to.



Q

y
■'^



o



o

o



Pi
w

Q

c



Q



<



W

<^

H"

o

<






==*



Its Characteri-
sation,


" World-
Wisdom."


" Theological
Wisdom."


" Knowledge of
Man."


The .
Philosophers,


" Men Experi-
enced in World-
ly Affairs."


" Unpractic?il .
Students, espe-
cially later the
clergy,"


Men of very
various ten-

■' dencies and
training.


Consequent
Emphasis,


Emphasizes

The Here,

The Real,
The Natural. _


l'2mphasizes
'J he Hereafter,

The Ideal,
The Supernat-
ural,


Recognizes both
the here and the
hereafter, the
real and the
ideal, the natu-
ral and the su-
pernatural.


Its spirit.


" Pagan love of
the World."
" Worldly-
Mindedness."


"Antagonism to
the World —
Unworldliness,
other Worldli-
ness."

" The Demand
to be Clerical."


" To transfigure
the World
through the
Spirit,"
" The Demand

to be Spiritual."

-


Its Principal
Divisions,


Physics

and
Politics.


■Sf-^ •-


Has embraced all
departments —
Metaphysics,
Theory of
Knowledge,
^Esthetics,
Ethics — but
with special
emphasis on
Metaphysics
and later
Theory of
Knoivledge.






S
^


Man —

the Aficrocosmos

and

Microtheos,


^1


Wholly uninflu-
enced by Chris-
tian Ideas.


Christian Ideas
of Reconcilia-
tion, Sin, and
Creation come
in.


Developed under
influence of
Ideas called
forth by the
Reformation
— Protestant-
ism,


Limits,


Thales to
Plutarch,
6oo B.C. to

100 A.D,


Gnosticism to
Hobbes (d. 1679),
100 A.D, to 1600.


From Descartes
(1596-1650).


The Periods,


Ancient
Philosophy.


Mediteval
Piiilosophy.



ta-. — -

a.



An Outline of

Erdmann's History of Philosophy.



ANCIENT PHILOSOPHY.

(See Chart, page 4.)
THALES TO PLUTARCH, 60O B.C. TO lOO A.D.

Tirst Period. — Immaturity. Pre-Hellenic in spirit. No distinction between
knower and known. Like is known by like.
I. The Pure Physiologers. '^ Nanc Hylozoism.^''

A. Thales. Water.

B. Anaximandcr. The Indefinite.

C. Anaximenes. Air.

D. Diogenes oi A-^oWonia.. Greater formal perfection. Reactionary.
I!. The Pure Metaphysicians. Seek original thought-determination.

A. The Pythagoreans. Number. Transition from Physiologers to Meta-

physicians. . ...

B. The Eleatics.

(I) XenopJiancs. The One. The Existent.
(II) Parinenides. Being.

(III) Melissus. Being. Defender against Physiologers.

(IV) Zeno. Being. Dialectic. Defender against later views.

III. The IMetaphysical Physiologers. Thought-principle, yet physically appli-

cable.

A. Heraclitiis. Becoming. Eternal Flux.

B. Einpedoclcs. Four unchangeable elements.

C. The Atomists. Democritus. Infinite number of non-qualitative atoms.

Second Period. — Greek Philosophy at Its Height. — The Attic Philosophy.

Pericles (450), to Alexander (300).
T. The Reason. 2. Final Cause.
I. Anaxagoras (b. 500 B.C., cir.). The Problem stated.
II. The Sophists. Further Discriminations.
Protagoras, Gorgias, Prodicus, Hippias.
ill. Socrates (469-399 b.c). Concretely answered in Socrates himself.

All tniths in the subject, but only in so far as it is universal. Virtue is
knowledge.

IV. The Socratic Schools. Abstractly developed on different sides.

A. The Megarians. Eleatics. Euclides.

B. The Cyrenaics. Momentary pleasure, the good. Aristippus.

C. The Cynics. Moral Egoism. Antisthenes.

V. Plato (427-348 B.C.). •• Socratism apprehended from every side."'

I. Eleatic and Pythagorean elements. 2. .Alethod, ^-Dialectic.*'
3. Doctrine of " Ideas."' 4. Four cardinal virtues. 5. The ideal State.
VI. Aristotle (385-322 b.c). Socratism systematized, symmetrized and de-
veloped. "Hellenism fully comprehended."'

I. Analytical investigations. Beginning of Zr>i,'-/if. 2. Metaphysics.
Fourfold idea of cause; conception of final cause. 3. Still dualistic.
»4. Emphasizes physical inquiry. 5. Practical and theoretical_ virtues.
Virtue a mean. 6. No Utopian state. 7. Beginning of .Esthetics.

5



OUTLINE OF ERDMANNS



Third Period. — iWay. Epicurus (b. 342 >'-c.) to Plutarch (d. 120 a.d.).

1. More iridividualistic, more subjective, more Roman, more ethical.

2. One-sided tendencies.
I. The Dogmatists.

A. Epictifcatis. Epicurus ; Lucretius. Calculated eudasmonism. Atomism.

B. Stoics. Zeno (b. 340 B.C.). Philosophy, the art of virtue. Complete

fatalism. Apathy, the highest state.
IL The Sceptics.

A. Pyrr/io. No certainty. Imperturbability.

B. The A'cw Academy. Reticence. Imperturbability. Finally approximates to

Stoicism.

C. Return to PyrrJio. i4£nesidemus ; Sextus Empiricus. Complete subjec-

tivism.
III. The Syncketists. Philosophic response to Roman world.

A. Classical, Ko7nan, Ciceronian.

(I) Cicero (106-43 B.C.). Romanizes Greek pliilosophy. Moderate scep-
ticism. Civic point of view.
(II) Seneca (5-65 A.D.) . Stoic element prevalent.

B. Hellenistic, Alexandrian , Philonian.

(I) Orientalizing Hellenes. «. Neo-Pythagoreans. /;. Plutarch (50-120

A.D.).

(II) Hellotizing yeri's. a. Hermes. l>. Philo Judaeus (b. a few years
B.C.). Doctrine of the Logos, as the idea of the world.



MEDIAEVAL PHILOSOPHY.

(See Chart, page 4.)
GXO.STICISM TO HOBBES (d. 1679). IOO-160O.

First Period. — Patristics. 100-800.

1. .Negative attitude of Church to World .shown first in " Flight."

2. Strife between History and Philosoi)hic propositions.

I. Gnostics, i. Sacrifice of Pliilosophy to History — to new ideas of Christian-
it}-. 2. Seek relations of faith and knowledge, of Christianity to Juda-
ism and Heathenism. 3. Three classes — Judaizing, Paganizing, Chris-
tianizing.
II. Neo-PIw\T()NISTS. I. Sacrifice of History to Philosophy. 2. Contempt for
Christian teaching. 3. Combine all that philosophy has hitherto taught ;
yet the}' are not the ciilniination of ancient philosophy, since they have
negative and positive relations to ideas of Christianity.

A. Pi.OTiNCS (b. 205), and RoM.w Neo-Platonism. Greek elements predomi-

nate. Platonic. Porphyry (b. 232), " Tree of Porphyry." Question of
the Universals.

B. Ja.\ii5MCHcs, and Svriax Neo-PIatonism. Orientalizing Pythagorism.

Theurgic.

C. Procli's (b. 412), and Athenian Neo-Platonism. Aristotelian element.

Formal completeness.
HI. Church Fathers, i. Combine and transcend these opposite tendencies.
2. Special mission — ])Iiilosophicaliy to formulate trutlis of original gos-
pel ; and thus lielp the Congregation to l:)ecome the Church.

A. Ai'OLOGl.STS. Justin Martyr, e.i:;.

B. Ai'OLOfiiSTS ANr> Dogmatists. Origen (185-254).

C. Framers ok Dogma. Atiianasius (298-373) and Augustine (353-430).

Theology, Ciiristology, Anthropology, successively formulated.

D. COMi'iLiCKS AM) Commentators. Oriental, John of Damascus, e.^;. (d. sec-

ond half of 8tlj century). Occidental, Isidore, e.g. (b. 560).



HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY,



Second Period. — Scholasticism. 800-1400. Mission to systematize, and make
comprehensible Church doctrine. Occidental Church State.
I. The Rise of Scholasticism. 800-1200. The Church conquering the world.

A. Sckohisfia's/n as a Fiisioi of Relii^iiui aitd Reasiui.

(1) Erigoia (b. 800). Sums up and anticipates entire problem of

Scholasticism. Compare Charlemagne.
(II) Aiisebn (1035-1109). Reconciliation of belief with reason of the
natural man. Source of controversy between the Nominalism
and Realism of the nth centurv.
(Ill) Abelard (1079-1142). " The Rationalist among the Schoolmen."
" Universalia sunt /;/ rebus."'

B. Sdiolastkis?)t as Merc Rational Science. Gilbert. "Puri Philosophi."

C. Sdiolasticistn as Merc Religions Science.

(I) Hugo of St. Victor (1096-1141).
(II) The Summists — Pullus, Lombard, Alanus.

(III) The Victorines, Pietists of the 12th century.

D. Transition. Close of First Division. Scholasticism bankrupt. John of

Salisbury (d. 1180), mediaeval academician. Amalrich (d. 1207),
mystical reactionary.
II. Scholasticism at Its Height. 1200-1300.

I. Philosophic Reflection of the Crusades. 2. Learning from anti-
Christian philosophers.

A. Mohamtncdajis and y civs. Forerunners of the Christian Aristotelians.

(1) In the Orient — Avicenna, e.g. (978-1036).
(II) In Spain — Averroes, e.g. (1120-1198).

B. C/iristian .Iristotelians. Philosophy a wliolly ecclesiastical science. Reason

is " Aristotle with annotations."' " Advancing beyond their predecessors,
without letting anything fall."

{\) Alexander (d. 1245). Franciscan. " Theologorum Monarcha."
Speculative Dogmatics.
{{Y) Bonaventnra (1221-1274). Franciscan. " Doctor Seraphicus."

Mystical Contemplation.
{\\Y) Albert us Magnus (1193-1280). Dominican. "Doctor Univer-
.salis." Philosopher, Theologian, and Mystic united.

(IV) T/iomas Aquinas {\22'j-i2'j 4). Dominican. " Doctor Angelicus."

I. All elements of Albert completely interwoven. 2. The climax
of Scholasticism as Ecclesiastical Philosophy. 3. The Thomist
watch-words : " unitas form^e"" ; matter individualizes ; " perseitas.
boni."'
(V) Litlly (1235-1315). Speciahsm in philosophy made easy. Lully'.s.
" Great Art."
(VI) Dante (126^-12,21). Popularization of the System. Poetical trans-
figuration of Scholasticism. " Dying strain."
HI. The Decay of Scholasticism. 1300-1400. Aristotle, as authority, is
superior to Church. Answering to failure of Cnisades.

A. Roger Bacon (b. 1214). Anticipated this " reverence for the world.'"

B. Duns Scotus (1274-1308). "Doctor SubtiHs." i. His Individualism, and

Arbitrariness of God (as opposed to Thomas), become the two cardinal
doctrines of the "Nominalism of the 14th century" — of " Occamism."
2. Theology and Philosophy no longer agree.

C. William of Occam (d. 1347). ' " Venerabilis Inceptor." "Doctor Invinci-

bilis." Triumph of Occamism. i. Separates Philosophy and Theology.
2. Logic deals with signs only. 3. Individual only is real. 4. Arbi-
trariness of God.

D. Reactionary attempts to unite Philosophy and Theology in difterent ways.

(1) P'ieiTe d'Ailly.
(II) Gerson.
(Ill) Raymond of Sabunde. "Book of nature," and revealed Word.

Man a microcosm.
(1\') N'icolas of Cusa (1401-1464). Comi)ined the most various tenden-
cies in Scholasticism.



6 OUTLINE OF ERDMANN'b



Third Period. — Transition. 1400-1600. i. " Growing Dominion of Reason and
Mind."' but Church mistrustful. 2. Complete dissolution of elements of Scholas-
ticism ; hence Theosophists and Cosmosophists. 3. Anti-Scholastic. 4. The
principle of nationality.
I. Philosophy as Divine Wisdom. The Theosophists.

I. Speculation linked with original gospel proclamation. 2. Mystical.
'Pi.: Master Eckhart (b. 1260, cir.) and Speculative Mysticism. Tauler (1290—
' '. ■■-'■' 1361), and " Theologia Germanica."

B. Ritysbroek (i 293-1 381) and Practical Mysticism.

(I) " I3rotherhood of Common Life." Thomas a Kempis (1380-1471).
(II) German Reformers. Transition to culmination of Mysticism,
through Luther (1483-1 546), "a filter for mysticism"; Schwenk-
feld (1490-1561), not mere historic faith; Sebastian Franck
(1500-1545), faith an experience; Weigel (1533-1588), Man a
microcosm and image of God. freedom from self.

C. yacob B'ohme (i 575-1 624) and TJicosopliic Mysticism, i. "Stripped of

learned robe." 2. "Intuition of enthusiasm." 3. "Man not only
carries all creatures in himself, but also the Divine Trinity."
II. Philosophy as Secular Wisdom. The Cosmosophists. " Attempt to
philosophize as if a divine wisdom inspired by Christianity had never
existed."

A. Reawakening of the Systems of Antiquity. The Renaissance. "Pagan

in head, Roman Catholic in heart."

(I) Revival of Platonism. Marsilio Ficino, e.g. (1433-1499).
(II) Revival of Aristotelianism. Leonicus Thomaus, e.g. (b. 1456).
' (1^0 Revivers of other Sj'stems. Atomism, Gassendi (1592-1655).

Ciceronian, Ramus (b. 15 17).

B. The Secular Philosophers proper. Aim to make Philosophy wholly inde-
• pendent of Church.

(I) The Natural Philosophers.

a. Ecclesiastical. Bond to Church slackens. Friendly.

i. Paracelsus (1493-1541). Philosophy, "apprehended na-
ture." Alacrocosm and Microcosm,
ii. Cardanus (i 500-1 576).

iii. 7>/f.f///i- (1508-1588). " The most important " of the group.
Philosophy, pure secular learning. " A few natural forces,
bound by unalterable laws."
iv. Patritius (1529- 1593).
V. Campanella (i 568-1639).

b. Anti-Ecclesiastical. Bond to Church breaks. Hatred.

Bruno (i 548-1 600). Both Pantheistic and Atomistic ten-
• ■ dency.

c. No n- Ecclesiastical. Bond to Q\\\ixc^ forgotten. Indifference.

i. .Sceptical Men of the World. Montaigne, ^.,i;^. (1533-1599)-
ii. Erancis Bacon (1560- 1626). i. Scientific secular wisdom,
2. Observation, Experience, Induction, but not Experi-
ment.
(II) The Political PJnlosophers.

a. Ecclesiastical. Old Catholic, Protestant, Neo-Catholic.

b. Anti-Ecclesiastical. Machiavelli (\.\6c) - i^2'j). Anti-Christianas

well, renounces all ideals.

c. A'on- Ecclesiastical. liodin, (ientiJis, (rrotius (1583-1645).



Online LibraryJohann Eduard ErdmannA history of philosophy (Volume 3) → online text (page 1 of 40)