Copyright
Johann Friedrich Herbart.

A text-book in psychology; an attempt to found the science of psychology on experience, metaphysics, and mathematics online

. (page 1 of 19)
Online LibraryJohann Friedrich HerbartA text-book in psychology; an attempt to found the science of psychology on experience, metaphysics, and mathematics → online text (page 1 of 19)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


1


Ml






1





InT€RNA1 iUNA



"mmn





THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES



/



EDITED BY

WILLIAM T. UzVRPJS, A. M., LL. D.



Volume XVJIl.



\



THE

INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION SERIES.

12mo, cloth, uniform binding.



THE INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION SERIES was projected for the par-
pose of bringing together in orderly arrangement the best writings, new and
old, upon educational subjects, and presenting a complete course of reading and
training for teachers generally. It is edited by W. T. Harris, LL. D., United
States Commissioner of Education, who has contributed for the different volumes
in the way of introductions, analysis, and commentary. The volumes are taste-
fully and substantially bound in uniform style.

yoLmiEs NOW ready.

Vol. I.— THE PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. By Johann K. F. Rosen-
KRANZ, Doctor of Theology and Professor of Philosophy, University^ of
KOiiigsberg. Translated by Anna C. Brackett. Second edition, revised,
with Commentary and complete Analysis. $1.50.

Vol. II.— -A. HISTORY OF EDUCATION. By F. V. N. Painter, A.M., Pro-
fessor of Modern Languages and Literature, Roanoke College, Va. $1.50.

Vol. ni.— THE RISE AND EARLY CONSTITUTION OF UNIVERSITIES.
With a Survey of Medi.eval Education. By S. S. Laurie, LL. I)..,
Professor of the Institutes and History of Education, University of Edin-
burgh. $1.50.

Vol. IV.— THK VEXTn.ATION AND WARMING OF SCHOOL BUILDINGS.
By Gilbert B. Mc>rrison, Teacher of Physics and Chemistry, Kansas City
High School. gLOO.

Vol. v.— THE EDUC.\TION OF MAN. By Friedrich Froebei.. Translated
and annotated by W. N. Hailmann, A. M., Superintendent of Public
School.i, La Porte, Ind. gL.'jO.

Vol. VI.— KLEMENTARY PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCVTION. Bv .TosEpn
Baldwin, A.M., LL. D., author of "The Art of School Maiiiigenieut."
$1.50.

Vol. VII.-THK SENSES AND THE WILL. (Part I of "The Minu op tub
Ciiii.i>.") IJy W. PRKYER, Profe«-(or of I'liysiolosiy in .lenn. Tniiwlatcd by
H. \V. Brow.v, Teacher in the State Noriiial School at V\'orce.-*ler, Mass.
l\.M.

Vol. VIIL— MKMORY : What it is and how to Improve it. By Daviu Kay,
F. R. (i S., author of " Kdncation and Educators," etc. gL.'K).

Vol. IX.-TIIR DKVELOPMKNT OF TIIK INTKLLKCT. fPart II of "The
.Mind Of TiiK Crm.D.'") Mv W. I'ukyku, Pi ofessor of Physiology in Jeiia.
Tran»Iat«;d by H. W. Brown. %\.M.

Vol. X.-HOW TO STUDY GEOCHJAPHY. A Practical Exposition of Methods
and Devices In Teaching Gr'ogrupliy wliii'h apply tin- PriiirinlcH and Plniis
of RItter and Giivot. Hy Frascm W. I'arkur, Principal of the Cook
Coiiiily (IllitmlH) N'ormnl School. Jl..^).

Vol. XL- EDUCATION IN TDK UNITFD STATRS : Its Hi^tort fiu.m tmk
EARi.ir.>'T Sktti.kmknt!4. liy ({ichardG. Uoonb, ;\. M., I'rofuBSorof Peda-
Kngy, Indiana fnivcrslty. $1 ."jO.

Vol. XIL-ECROPEAN SfllOOI.S : or, What I Saw in tmk SriiooiM op Gkr

many. FhANCK, ArBTIllA, and SwITZKRI.AND. Hv I.. R. Kl.KMM, I'h. I).,

Principal of the Cincinnati Techuical School. Fully llluHtrale<l. |>2.00.



THE INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION SERIES.— (Continued.)

Vol. XIII.— PRACTICAL HINTS FOR THK TEACHERS OF PUBLIC
S(^HOOLS. Hy Geobge Howland, Suptrinteudeut of the Chicago Public

Schools. $1.00.

Vol. xrv.— PESTALOZZI : His Life and Work. By Rogku de Guimps.
Authorized Translation from the eecond French edition, by J. Kubbell,
B. A. With an Introduction by Rev. R. H. Quick, M. A. gl.SO.

Vol. XV.— SCHOOL SUPERVISION. By J. L. Pickard, LL. D. $1.00.

Vol. XVI.— HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN IN EUKOPE. By Hei.enb
Lange, Berlin. Translated and accompanied by comparative statiBticfi by
L. R. KxEMM. Sl.OO.

Vol. XVII.— ESSAYS ON EDUCATION.VL REFORMERS. By Robert Her-
bert Quick, M. A., Trinity College, Cambridge. Only authorized edition
of tlie work as rewritten in 1890. $1.50.

Vol. XVIII. -A TEXT-BOOK IN PSYCHOLOGY. By Johann Friedrich
Herbart. Translated by Margaret K. Smith. $1.00.

Vol. XIX.— PSYCHOLOGY APPLIED TO THE ART OF TEACHING. By
Joseph Baldwin, A. M., LL. D. gl.50.

Vol. XX.— ROUSSEAU'S fiMILE : or. Treatise on Education. Tranplated
and annotated by W. II. Payne, Ph. D., LL. D., Chancellor of the Univer-
sity of Nashville. §1.50.

Vol. XXL— THE MORAJL INSTRUCTION OF CHILDREN. By Felix Abler.
$1.50.

Vol. XXIL— ENGLISH EDUCATION IN THE ELEMENTARY AND SEC-
ONDARY SCHOOLS. By Isaac Sharpless, LL. D., President of Haver-
ford College. $1.00.

Vol. XXIIL— EDUCATION FROM A NATIONAL STANDPOINT. By Alfred

FOUILLEE. $1.50.

Vol. XXrV.— MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE CHILD. By W. Preyer,
Professor of Physiology in Jena. Translated by H. W. Brown. $1.00.

Vol. XXV.— HOW TO STUDY AND TEACH HISTORY. By B. A. Hinsdale,
Ph. D., LL. D., University of Michigan. $1.50.

Vol. XX\a.— SYMBOLIC EDUCATION : A Commentary on Froebel's
"Mother Play." By Susan E. Blow. $1.50.

Vol. XX\ai.— SYSTEMATIC SCIENCE TEACHING. By Edward Gabdnibb
Howe. $1.50.

Vol. XXVni.— THE EDUCATION OF THE GREEK PEOPLE. By Thomas
Davidson. $1.50.

Vol. XXIX.-THE EVOLUTION OF THE MASSACHUSETTS PUBLIC
SCHOOL SV:STEM. By G. H. Martin, A. M. $1.50,



New York ; D. APPLETON & CO., Publishers, 72 Fifth Avenue.



INTERXATIONAL EDUCATION SERIES



A TEXT-BOOK
IN PSYCHOLOGY



AN ATTEMPT TO FOUND THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY
ON EXPERIENCE, METAPHYSICS, AND MATHEMATICS



BY



JOIIANN FPJEDPJCn HERBART



TRANSLATED FROM THE ORIGINAL GERMAN

By MARGARET K. SMITH

TEACHER IN THE STATE NOKMAL SCHOOL AT OSWEGO, NEW YORK



NEW YORK
D. APPLKTON AND COMPANY




CopTRiGnT, 1891,
By D. APPLETON AND COMPANY.



?iSUtt



L_.



,-*..ia<«iaaCJ -



xiuucariun
Library

BF
I SI



EDITOR'S rr.EFACE,



The present work is a translation o Joliann Fried-
rich Herbart's Lolirbuch zur Psychologic, from the
second revised edition published in 1834 — the date of
the first edition being 181G.*

The fact that Herbart's philosophical writings have
given a great impulse to scientific study and experi-
ment in education is a sufficient reason for including
this volume in the International Education Scries.

Ue succeeded Krug in 1809, and filled for a quar-
ter of a century afterward the chair long occupied by
the celebrated Kant at the University of Konigsberg,
Bupplementing his philosophical labors by founding
and directing a pedagogical seminary (or normal school,
as we call it in the United States). It is interesting
to note that Herbart's successor at Kiinigsberg was
Karl Roseukranz, also eminent in the philosophy of
pedagogy.

Although a German philosopher and occupying the
chair of Kant, Ilcrljart set out from an entirely dilTcr-
eut basis, and produced a system uidike those of tlie
great geniuses who have made (ierman ])liil()80phy for
ever memorable. So unlike them, indeed, is his sys-

* (J. Ilarlonhlcin's edition, Iliituburg mid Lcipsic, lybO.



^i EDITOR'S PREFACE.

tem that one has great difliculty to trace their influ-
ence upon his thoughts. Strange to say, however, his
system becomes fruitful in the following generation,
in two directions : first, in the line of physiological
psychology, especially in the attempt to reduce tlie
facts of the mind to mathematical statements ; and,
secondly, in the line of the philosophy and art of edu-
cation.

A careful examination of the pedagogical writings
of the followers of Herbart shows that the important
thought which has become so fruitful is that of " ap-
perception." This is specially named or referred to in
§§ 2G, 40, 41, 43, 59, 123, 182, 183, and in many other
places in the following work. It is, in fact, the central
thought from which the author proceeds and to which
he always returns.

To explain this idea we contrast perception with
apperception. In perception we have an object pre-
sented to our senses, but in apperceptioji we identify
the object or those features of it which were familiar
to us before ; we recognize it ; we explain it ; we in-
terpret the new by our previous knowledge, and thus
are enabled to proceed from tiae known to the un-
known and make new acquisitions ; in recognizing the
object we classify it under various general classes ; in
identifying it with what we have seen before, we note
also differences which cliaracterize the new object and
](3ad to the definition of new species or varieties. All
this and much more belong to the process called ap-
perception^ and we see at once that it is the chief busi-
ness of school instruction to build up the process of
apperception. By it we re-enforce the perception of
the present moment by the aggregate of our own past



EDITOR'S PREFACE. vii

sense-perception, and by all that we have learned of
the experience of mankind.

Here, then, is the great good that comes from the
Herbartian pedagogics ; it lifts up the so-called " Xew
Education " from its first step where it was left by
Pestalozzi to a second step which retains all that was
valuable in the new education, and at the same time
unites with it the permanent good that remained in
the old education.

For Pestalozzianism laid great stress on sense-
perception {Anschauung) without considering what
it is that makes sense-perception fruitful. It is not
what we see and hear and feel, but what we inwardly
digest or assimilate — what we ajjperceive — that really
adds to our knowledge.

As soon as instruction mounts to this second step
it ceases to talk about the cultivation of outer percep-
tion — as if mere acuteness of sense were in itself the
end of instruction — and turns its attention upon the
systematic building up of the inner faculty of per-
ception — the recognizing faculty. It accordingly in-
vestigates carefully the course of study. AVhat shall
one study to give him most assimilative power? What
shall he study to make him at liome in the world of
Man and the world of Nature, so that he may readily
comprehend all that comes into his experience?

What items shall enter the course of study, is a
question that concerns vitally the pi'actical success of
the school. But it is cquidly important to fix the
true ord(!r of studios. The knowledge of ai)porcop-
tion gives the clew to the order in wliich the sci)arato
branches and disciplines should follow one another.
Those studies sliould precede whicii furnish the data



viii EDITOR'S PREFACE.

for appercciving the elements of the studies that fol-
low. Those studies should come later which presup-
pose the results reached in the earlier branches. The
interesting experiments in " concentric instruction,"
wherein Grimm's Fairy Stories or Eobinson Crusoe is
used as the central theme of interest and all the other
studies of the course are brought into connection with
it for purposes of apperception, may be referred to
here * as illustrating the mode and manner in which
the idea is applied in some parts of Germany. Each
class is to have its Gesinnungsstoff, or subject-matter
that interests all the pupils and appeals to their imag-
ination and feelings. This furnishes a center of inter-
est for everything else — geography, history, arithmetic,
language-study, etc.

It is obvious that the pedagogy of all lands will
take a great step forward when it leaves the crude first
stage of work that is characterized by bald verbal
memorizing or by equally defective training of sense-
perception by object-lessons, and takes its stand on
the theory of apperception. It will then subordinate
verbal memorizing and aimless lessons in sense-per-
ception for really nourishing instruction and inward
growth. .

IIerbart's Scaffolding to the Doctrin"e of
Apperception".

The idea of apperception underlies, as we have said,
the entire treatise presented in this book. The other
matter may be regarded as scaffolding erected for
the puri:)Ose of explaining the operations of this act.



* See Dr. L. R. Klemm's European Schools, pp. 184, 211.



EDITOR'S PREFACE. ix

There must be, it is evident, ideas stored up in the
mind from former experience, and these ideas may be
in the mind but out of consciousness at any given
moment. This gives us tlie theory of the threshold
of consciousness (p. 12), and of the ideas that rise from
unconsciousness above that threshold into conscious-
ness when incited by other ideas Avliich are kindred to
them. The doctrine of complexes and blendiufjs (p.
17) gives his notion of the close association of ideas in
the case of tiling and properties, or of the union of
oppositcs. These views he grounds in a theory of the
unity and simplicity of the soul and an interrelation
between one simple essence (Wesen) or monad and
another, in which relation one monad acts upon another,
which reacts again upon it (p. 119). This action and
reaction is a jiroccss of self-preservation. The self-
preservations, or the results of this reaction, are ideas
or concepts ( Vorsfellung means mental image, or con-
cept, or representation, or presentation — in short, any
and all mental products included under the English
word idea in its widest application).

Then there naturally follows a consideration of
the mathematical relations of the rising and sinking
of these ideas in consciousness (pp. 18-22). Here the
doctrine of series is suggested ; for, since one idea calls
up another complicated or blended with it, it must bo
clear that ideas arc always to be found as members of
series or groups ; and, moreover, the same idea will like-
ly enough form a link in eacli one of several different
series. Hence the comijlexity of association becomes
apparent. The interaction between mind and Ijody
(p. .34) is an element to be considered in the matlie-
matical calculations. The classification of the mental



X EDITOR'S PREFACE.

phenomona and the old theory of faculties can not be
passed without notice, and the author discusses it
throughout Part Second of the work.

Herbart's scaffoldings of explanation may be true
or false, but even if false his investigation is of perma-
nent value, because it singles out for its object this
problem of apperception. Thus few will find what he
says in regard to the will (pp. 82, ff.) satisfactory, be-
cause the will is included under desire : " The will is
desire, accompanied with the conviction that the ob-
ject desired can be attained." But the comparative
psychology of the will may trace desire and will to one
root in creatures below man. So, too, intellect and
feeling have one root in the same lower order of
creatures.

Mathematics ik Psychology.

In this Text-book of Psychology Herbart indicates
the mathematical application that may be made in
psychology, but does not develop it so fully as in a sub-
sequent work published in 1834 entitled " Psychology
as a Science founded for the First Time on Experience,
Metaphysics, and Mathematics." There are three im-
portant mathematical formulae treated : (1) Of two
concepts, no matter how unequal their respective
strength, the one can never quite obscure or arrest the
other (i. e., drive it out of consciousness) ; but of three
or more concepts, it may happen that one is so weak
as to be entirely arrested by the other two (p. 12).
This is proved in the Psychology as Science, by show-
ing of two concepts a and i, that the amount of arrest

al)
is expressed in the proportion a -f- Z» : a : : 5 : - , i •



EDITOR'S PREFACE. xi



So that a has a remainder = a — — r- 7 > while 5 has a




remainder after arrest = h — — r-j — — r~l ' ^ ^^ ^^

a-\- a -f-

obvious that this can become zero only when a is in-
finite. The case in Avhich there are three concepts, a,
b, and c, give for the remainder of- c the exj^ression

c — I — r^ i — T 5 and the conclusion that there may

be zero for result — where, for example, a and h aro
equal and their sum is equal to three times the value
of c. (Psychol, als. Wiss., §§ 44, 45.)

The second mathematical formula (p. 13, § 17)
states that, while the arrested portion of the concept
sinks, the sinking portion is at every moment propor-
tional to the part not arrested. Ilerhart gives the in-



tegrated expression for this, namely



^,<T=:sll-e A



in which *S^= the aggregate amount arrested ; t = the
time elapsed during the collision of concepts ; o- = the
arrested portion of all the concepts in the time indi-
cated by ^ ; c = the basis of the natural system of
logarithms. In § 74 of the Psychology as Science he
gives the differential equation from which this is do-
rived : (S — cr) d t = (I (T.

The third mathematical statement (§§ 24-28, pp.
18-22) concerns the assistance which one idea gives
anothci to recall it into consciousness. Ilcrbart gives,
in § 25, both equations, the difTcrential and ini(^gral.

The expression indicates how much help II (a concept

in the mind but unconscious) received from P (a con-
scious concept or ])ercept) to lift itabovc the threshold of



xii EDITOR'S PREFACE.

consciousness, n also aids P to the extent indicated by

To

p-. Ill this expression r = the remainder of P that ia

not arrested, and p the remainder of n unarrested. Now
the aid given by P to 11 is greater before the union of
r with p than after some part of the union has taken
place. Herbart lets the portion of p which is already
united with r and brought into consciousness = w.

Then the differential equation =^ . - — — . clt = f/w ex-

II p

presses the mode in which the influence of P on 11 to
bring up a new part of p into consciousness is condi-
tioned by the amount remaining of that part after
subtracting the jiart already become conscious (i. e.,

p — iM whose ratio to the total remainder of 11 is ).

P

I -rt\

The integral equation w = p 1 1 — e —fr- I wherein e is

the base of the natural system of logarithms, as Her-
bart remarks (Psychology as Science, § 86), " shows
us in a perfectly clear manner how w depends on p, r,
t, and n " ; or, in other words, how the amount of an
idea or concept that is recalled to consciousness, de-
pends on («) its total amount = IT, (b) the size of the
part of it = p, which can blend with P, the assisting
concept ; (c) the portion of P = r which may blend
with n, and on (cZ) the time elapsed during the opera-
tion.

Vaulting and Tapering.

This doctrine of the help given by one concept to
another involves the curious phenomenon that Her-
bart describes (§ 2G, p. 21) as vaulting ( Wblbunrj)
and tapering {Zuspitzimg). The first effect of the



EDITOR'S niEFACE. xiii

conscious idea, P, on the unconscious one allied to it,
n, is to bring the latter into consciousness in general
without accurate discrimination of the part p which
may blend with the part r. But time being given, the
other portions of 11 incougruent with r are arrested
and sent back, and thus the assisted idea is arched,
figuratively speaking, in such a manner that its part
p is the top of the arch and extends into consciousness.
By the further action of separating p from the re-
mainder of n, the arch becomes more and more pointed,
until finally, only p remains in consciousness and all
the rest of n has been arrested and sunk from view.
The reader, therefore, will find it necessary to learn how
to interpret readily this figurative expression which
Herbart uses, technically, into the description of the
process of apperception — the first part of the process
identifying wholes which do not perfectly blend, and
the later steps of the process eliminating more and
more the portions which can not blend, and thus
" arching " tlio portion of II which can bler.d, until at
last there is left only the pure p which unites com-
pletely with r, and the pointing is accomplished.

IIerbart's Place ix the IIistgry of PniLOsornY.

From the point of view of apperception the anom-
alous position of IIerl)art's system in the history of
philosopliy may be explained — or rather the anomaly
may bo removed.

All modern philosophy in general has for its prob-
lem the exploration of the subjective factor in knowl-
edge, as the Greek ))hilosophy sought to discover the
objective factor. Thus modern philosophy has a psy-
chological tendency, while ancient jiliilosopliy luul



xvi EDITOR'S PREFACE.

nitz and moves off in the direction of the sensation-
alists, who like Locke exphiin all by means of sense-
perception. But Ilerbart takes with him also Leibnitz's
idea of the soul as a monad ; omitting, however, the
important attribute of self-activity, which endows
Leibnitz's monad (" natural changes that proceed from
an internal principle," " which change is perception "
— Monadology, §§ 11, 12). In the place of this self-
activity Ilerbart places a sort of mechanical action
and reaction {Druck and Gegendruck) in direct oppo-
sition to the doctrine of Leibnitz (Monadology, § 7),
who denies the possibility of mechanical interaction
between independent beings.

In the liistory of philosophy all systems are profit-
able lessons in the comprehension of human thought.
If true systems, they help us to see the positive road ;
if false, they stand as guide-posts whicli warn the
traveler not to take the by-paths leading ad ahsurduin.
Ilerbart's system may undertake to explain too much
by the ideas of mechanical action and reaction ; or
perhaps, on the other hand, it may be truly said that
he never intended his " pressure, counter-pressure, and
self-preservation " to be taken in a mechanical sense.
But whatever he has done is worthy of being faith-
fully studied and mastered, if for no other reason than
for the discipline that he gives us in the habit of re-
ferring all mental phenomena to the act of appercep-
tion for their explanation.

In conclusion, I present the analysis of Steinthal
(one of the ablest of the thinkers who have followed
Herbart), in which he gives the essential elements of
the act of apperception in its four stages :

1. Identification — as in the case where we recog-



EDITOR'S PREFACE. xvii

nize the person before us to be tbe same we have
known.

2. Classification — as in the case where we recog-
nize the object before us to be an individual of a class
well known to us.

3. Harmonizing or reconciling apperception —
wherever we unite two opposed or incongruent con-
cepts (as, for example, the concept of something that
has existed and served our purposes with the concept
of the same thing as changed and destroyed— a friend
Avho has died ; a house that has been burned, etc.).

4. Creative or formative apperception — which
makes combinations, poetic or scientific — inductive or
deductive discoveries, solutions of enigmas, illusions
and hallucinations. In this sort of apperception the
mind creates the apperceiving factor.

The old doctrine of " association of ideas," which,
since the time of Locke, has furnished one of the
most dismal chapters in " mental philosophy," so-
called, is to be supplanted by this new doctrine of ap-
perception.

It has been asked, Why employ this bizarre techni-
cal term for what we can express in terms already fa-
miliar to us? The answer is, that the word apjierccp-
tion has no synonym already become familiar to us.
It is a term for a new idea — a synthesis of nuiny other
ideas variously expressed already by such Avords as as-
similate, associate, identify, recognize, explain, inter-
j)ret, comi)rehend, classify, subsume, conception, elabo-
ration, thought, etc.

The associiition of ideas looks merely to their con-
nection, which may he a matter of accident. But ap-
perception looks to the nuxlilifiitiun of ideas one



xviii EDITOR'S PREFACE.

through the other, and hence leads to the process of
formation of ideas, whicli is the central point of in-
terest in psychology and education.

I append a note giving some information as to the
bibliography of this subject.

W. T. Haeris.
Washington, D. C, August, 1891.



BIBLIOGRAPHY.

The student who desires to pursue this subject further may
be referred to the following lists of books selected out of the
immense literature that has grown up round the theme :

I. The Philosophers :

M. W. Drobisch : Empirische Psychologic nachnaturwissen-
schaftlicher Methode. [Drobisch has labored with most success
on the mathematical phase of Herbart's system.]

M. Lazarus : Das Leben der Seele, etc.

H. Steinthal : Einleitung in die Psychologic und Sprach-
wissenschaft. [Messrs. Lazarus and Steinthal have applied Her-
bart's ideas of apperception with distinguished success in the
province of comparative philology, and their grasp of this im-
portant thought seems to me a great advance in philosophic
clearness over the exposition made by Hcrbart himself.]

W. WuNDT : Grundziige der Physiologischen Psychologie.


1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Online LibraryJohann Friedrich HerbartA text-book in psychology; an attempt to found the science of psychology on experience, metaphysics, and mathematics → online text (page 1 of 19)