Johann Leonhard Hug.

An introduction to the writings of the New Testament, Volume 1 online

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it was printed.

** Bruns' in Repert. for Biblical and Eastern Literature, Pt. zv.
p. 163.

. * Herbert Marsh's remarks and additions to Miehaelis'slntf* to
thsN, T.p. U2. p. 1.

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We sometimes meet with it bound up with the He*
brew Bible, from Plantings press in the year 1573-74.
At the end are Varis Lecidones ex N. T. Syriad
MS. Codice Coloniensi nuper k Fr. Raph. collects^.
Instead of the title-page, these words are placed im-
mediately over the Gospel of Matthew, Kmn VSff^m.

6. MTtn Vkp^TVn Novum Domini nostri Jesu Christi
Testamentum Syriaofe. Antwerpis ex officinA Chris-
tophori Plantini, Architypographi R^ii mdlxxv. in
16. with Hebrew characters. Variae Lecticmes ex
N. T. Sjrrici (sic) manuscripto codioe Coloniensi
nuper k Franc. Raph. collects, are again subjoined
as an appendix. Both of Plantings editions appear to
be only an impression from the Antwerp Polyglott

6* Novum Testamentum, Kmn Hp^/rr, i caii^ &a-
difmr. Novum Jesu Christi D. N. Testamentum ad
Christianissimum GaUiae et Poloniae Regem Henri-
cum iii. Potentissimum et Invictiss. Prineipem,
Christians Religionis vindicem et assertorem uni-
cum. Parisiis MPLXxxin. apud Joannem Benenatum.
4. According to the declaration of Richard Simon^
the text of de la Boderie is here again given, and the
book belongs to the latter impressions of the Antwerp
Polyglott, unless indeed this scholar in the interval
added some improvements to the text

7. Elias Hutter s text in opere duodecim lingua-
rum 1599. is useless to critics.

8. Novum Domini nostri Jesu Christi Testamen-
tum Sjrriac^ cum versione Latin4 ex diversis edi-
tionibus diUgentissime recensitum. Accesserunt in
fine notationes variantis Lectionis ex quinque im-
pressis editionibus diligenter collectss k Martino
Frostio. 1621. Cothensis Anhaltinorum, 4, Some
copies are dated A' 1622 ; but mine is, in a very ex-
traordinary way, ended a year earlier, than it was
begun. The subscription at the end is, Finitum

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Cothensis Anhaltinorom xxvi. Septembris Anno
Christi MDCxxi^ and the year 1622 stands on the
title-page. The book is well executed ; the Syriac
types are good : the editions, of which he made use,
are, according to his enumeration of them in the
catalogue of various readii^, edit. Viennens. IW
mel. Guido (Fabric, de la Boderie), and the text of
the Antwerp Polyglott: Parisiense exemplar, aim.
1684. N. T. Syriac. Plantini in 8.

9. The Syriac text in the 9th and 10th parts of
the Parisian Polyglott, 1646, is taken from the Ant-
werp, as Vitrfe apud Le Long maintains ; but Gabriel
Sionita made some alterations in it, whether from
books or conjectures we know not. The Apocalypse
and the second of Peter, the second and third of
John, and the Epistle of Jude, here for the first time
appear after the editions of Ludovicus de Dieu and
Edward Pocock,

10. The London Polyglott promises an improved
text, as the Prolegomena declare : nan ex proprii^
c<nyeeturis, sed secundum exemplaria M8S. The
history of the Adulteress is taken from a M SS. of the
Philoxenian version belonging to Usher : the Apo-
calypse is printed after de Dieu; the four Catholic
Epistles wanting in the Peschito, after Pocock.

11. wrtn Kp^/n, Novum Testam. Syriacd, Sul*-
baci, ex offic. Job. Hoist 1684-12, by Christian
Knorre of Rosenroth, is an impression of Plantin's
edition in 8. or in 16., after Schaafs text.

12. iEgid Guthier in his edition of the Syriac New
Testament, has &r exceeded some of his predeces-
sors in diligence and acumen, and all in utility. It
first appeared with Syriac types, at Hamburg, in the
year 1664. In the year 1667, a small Lexicon, with
various readmgs from the Parisian and London

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386 AH nurROUuenon m mis

<Pol7glott,'imi«Med The taris ^ lite edkiaii Wad
that of Trostius, in addkioii to It he ttviuled himself
*of a MS., whidi he frequently menNdons iia the Ap-
pendix Lezici Syriad e3diibeiffi variaiites puntfta^
tiones, ftc— Who wffl net give him credH ibr ho-
msty^if he even speakB in the preface, of tiro MSS^
ofwhidihehflBiaadeiise? What he hais orvetlooked
idstive to the history of the Adidteress, and 1 Jeini
V. 7. and in other places, Bnms has remarked \

18. Schaaf, for the most pait, followed l^m in the
^ditiowi of 1709 and 1717. ^ovnm Domitti nostii
Jesu Christi Testamentum Syriacum cam versione
Latinft, cur& et studio Johannis Leusden et Cttoli
45chaaf editum, ad omnes editiones diligenter recen^
situm, et variis Lectionibus, magno labore collects,
adomatum. Secunda editio k mendis purgata. Lug->
duni Bat Typ. Jo. MuUeri. Joh. fil. apud Vid. et fil.
Cornel. Boutesteyn, Samuelem Luchtmans. 1717-4.

14. Biblia Sacra quadrilinguia N. T. Greci, cum
versione Syriadt, GrscA vulgari, Latind, et Germa-
nioft, accurante M. Christ Reineccio, Lips. 1713. fol.
follow Schaafs text

Two editions were added to this, intended as pre-
sents to the East, of which the one is unknown to
us, and the other will shortly appear.

16. Nov. Testam. Syriac. et Arabic, tom. Imus.
Uoilo iLiiofioliiiLo ]l^ \saJ^n U^;^ M^* This is
in Estrangelo : on the following page, an explidt in-
scription is found, Sacrosancta Jesu Christi Evan*
gelia jussA congregationis de propaganda fide ad
usum Ecclesiae nationis Maronitarum edita.
}t£ii )ALi-^ Sdqoi;^ qSdAj^ I]} K»,o IftmiS^ol UoM
U^ 1|^ ^1 UcuSoaOI 2oio;a ^? lAaoiO} l Anftio

• In the Repertory for Biblical and Eastern Literature. Pt. xv.

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m )/\mm > V> ^l] Amo )sa ^ Remap typos S, Ckmg.
de prop. f. 1703. foL

The^second part is, Norum Testamentum Syrian
cum et Arabicum. Tom. Sdus. Then, as in the firnt
¥oliune, the same words follow in Eatrangelo. The
foil inscription on the next page is. Acta Apoato-
loniniy Epistote Catholicae ad usum Ecclesis na-
tionis Maronitarom edita cam Apocalypsi D. Jeannis.
ouaI^o fioaiMmfO jsuaoa;^ \otD. The rest is, as

in the first part, 1o£lmZH U^nA^o] ^Lm a«;. Rom«

typis Sacr. Cong, de prop. fide. A. 1703. foL

The book has two columns, one of which con-
tains the Peschito, the other the Arabic version in
Syriac characters, commonly called the Karshuni
text, therefore it is a Diglotton. The Peschito (for
we shall speak of the Karshuni text in its place) is
taken ex codice Bibliothecae Collegii Maronitarum
de urbe, quem Patriarcha, Antiochiae ejusdem na-
tionis— cum permultis aliis Ecclesiasticarum rerum
joluminibus transmiserat, &c. Faustus Naironus
Banensis Maronita superintended the edition, who
has given to us full information in the preface re-
specting the undertaking and its execution.

The Catholic Epistles foUow the Acts of the Apos-
ties, as is commonly the case in Syriac MSS. : — and
are seven in number, of which the 2d of Peter,
the 2d and 3d of John, and that of Jude, agree with
Pocock's text except in some few readings. The
Apocalypse is the same as De Dieu has given firom
Scaliger's MS.

The Verses in Luke xxii. 17, 18, are marked with
an asterisk at the beginning and at the end: the
history of the Adulteress also is admitted with one
asterisk at the beginning, and with another at the
end. Neither the verse in Acts xxviii. 29. nor

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1 John v. 7. appear. He reads the p a wa g e ia Acts
XX. 28. like all the early Syriac editions, vovuuirBv mv
'EncXiKnav Xpurrov. The reading, which 1 Cor. v. 8. is
found in the Nestorian books, and another, which is
found in Heb. ii. 9. or^c x^P^ Ocov, do not occur here.
We sometimes meet in this text with other less im-
portant variations, as each MS. presents them. The
impressions went to Asia, two foulty copies were
placed befcHre me in the Propaganda, from which I
could still make one entire work.

16. The edition of the English Bible-Society, espe-
ciaUy designed for the East, has also received a Latin
title, out of complaisance, as I suppose, to some
Europeans, who might obtain the book as a gift.
Novum Testamentum Syriace denuo recognitum,
atque ad fidem codicum manuscriptorum emenda-
tum. Londini impensis Societatis ob Biblia sacra.
1816. 4. The University-Library possesses it, as a
friendly gift of the Bible Society '.

^ In anwer to the Translator's commumcation of this critique io
his friend the Rer. S. Lee, Professor of Arabic in the University o€
Cambridge, who was the editor of this Testament, he has received
the following remarks : —

<*•••••• Dr. Hug says, that ^this edition, more especially de-
signed for the East, has also received a Latin tide, out of compUi-
sance^ as I suppose, to some Europeans, who might obtain it as a
gift.' The supposition, however, is not quite correct. A number
of copies were printed for distribution in Europe, but these were,
principally, intended for sale, and to these a Latin title was prefixed.
The University, to which Dr. Hug belongs, might probably have re-
ceived a copy of this work, as a gift, but it will not hence follow,
that all such copies were intended to be given away. The copiea,
however, which were designed for distribution in the East, had only
a Syriac title prefixed, which title must also have been in Dr. Hug^s
copy, but of which he takes no notice.

" The next question touched upon (for it is merely touched upon)
by Dr. Hug, relates to the manuscripts and readings used in this
edition : and here he is neither correct, nor copious. But, in order

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We are soon convinced that this edition is not a
mere impression from others, hut that it is executed

to meet this part of his statements, it wiU perhaps be better first to
say what MSS. &c. were used, and then to notice the readings re«
ferred to.

^The MSS. &c. were these — 1. That brought by Dr. Buchanan
from the Syrian Church in Travancore, now in the Public Library of
this University, and bearing the class-marks OO. 1. ft. — 2. A MS.
also in the Public Library marked Ff. ft. 15. noticed in Ridley's Dis-
sertatio de Syriacarum Novi Faederis versionum indde, dec p. 46.
No. 14. — ^The collations of two very ancient MSS. of the Syriac
Gospels published by Jones at Oxford, in 1805. — The collations
found in the work of Ridley, just noticed, as abo those of Wetstein
and Schaaf. — ^The citations found in the works of Ephrem Syrus,
and also those of a Syriac Lectionary lent to me by Dr. Adam Claike.
With the aid of these MSS. &c continual reference being made to
die other ancient versions, the Greek MSS. &c., those readings only
were admitted which appeared to have an undoubted claim to pre-
forence. To classify so small a number of authorities as these
seemed superfluous, especially as the MSS. if we ^icept one only,
yiz. the Lectionary of Dr. A. Clarke, were all of the Jacobite or Mo*
nophysite communion.

'** The passages cited by Dr. Hug, viz. Matt, xxvii. S5. Lukexxii.
17, 18. Acts viii. 37. xv. 34. xviii. 6. 1 John v. 7. 1 Cor. v. 8. Acta
XX. 28. are either to be found at the foot of the page, have been ex-
jpunged, or otherwise marked, as he has said. ...

*' The word jy.j^gm placed in the lower margin at 1 Cor. v. 8.
was not found in any of the MSS. collated, and, as other circumr
stances concurred in attaching suspicion to it, the other reading, vis.
IjiVlKi, which was fouiid in the MSS., was put in its place. It;i|i
somewhat strange, that Dr. Hug should have supposed from this
.circumstance, that Nestorian MSS. had been used. If it could have
proved any thingf surely it must have been that Nestorian MSS. wer^
not used, as the reading preferred is manifestly Jacobite.

** On Heb. ii. 9., Dr. Hug aays, * the editor do^ not appear iq
jhave met with another reading (x**P^f Btov) accounted Nestorian ifi
foM MS.' Here Dr. Hug is again wrong in more points of view thap
one. InSchaafwehave,&cual^ itlSu OlZoAi^filaill ;^00l
'Ipee enim Deus per graiiam mam pro omnibus, Ac. ; but in the
edition in question we have, &c. loi2^1 pi^fkfi^k^ ^^* ^^

VOL. I. B b

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from mannscript-docmnents. Matt, xxvii. 35. Iwa

irXfipcbidy icXiipov is placed in the under-ma^n

with the remark in Syriac : '* this addition is
found in some Greek copies*" Luke xxii. 17^ 18.
is included in brackets, and John yii. 53., viii. 12.«
bears the Syriac inscription, as in the English Poly-
glott: "This titular reading is not found in the
Peschito." The words in Acts yiii. 37^ «vf Sc o <tiXiir-

enim per gratiam Dei^ Arc. just as it is in the Greek, so that Xci^ptc
8eov, which he dtes as being in this edition, and whidi he also 8a3r8 tt
Nestorian, is not found there. If you will take the trouble to turn
to Schaafs collations, printed at die end of his Syriac Testament^
jtm win find that this reading occurs only in three editions of the
Syriac Testament, and that it was the first introduced by Tremd-
litts. Nor is it quite «o obvious, as Dr. Hugseems to diink, that it is
a Nettorian reading. But further there is a variation o^ considerable
moment in the reading introduced in this place, which it is rather
extraordinary Dr. Hug should have overlooked, wliich has the au*
thority of the MSS. coUated by me, as well as that of the Greek to
▼ouch for its accuracy.

<« The reading in Acts zxviii. %^. }p^} Ol2^ Chmreko/God
occurs in the Travancore MS. noticed above, as also in a MS. col-
lated by Adler (see Versiones Syr. p. 17.), and I had the good
fortune to find it in another in the Bodleian library at Oxford,
marked Dawk. ftS. The Vatican copy was written in the 11th cen-
tury. The Travancore is periiaps 500 years oM, and the Oxford
copy appears to be much older. This edition too, was undertaken
expressly for the Jacobites, who, it should seem, preler diis reading.
It was on these accounts introduced in the text

** With respect to the collations, which have not yet appeared, I
emtmly say, that as I undertook and completed an edition of die
Syriac old Testament; also, after collating several MSS. for die
purpose, I postponed publishing them untO I should be aUe to print
the whole. But as a most valuable collection of Syriac MSS. has
lately been deposited m the British Museum, I now feel disposed to
wait a little longer, in order to add the riches there to be found to
Bsy former f^eamngp. The time and labour necessary for auck m
work will be great, and it is more than doubtfol whc^^er aiich an
undertaking wouU not leave me to regret, that the fame to be ac-
quired would all be but a poor rcfcompeilse."

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TToc -X{H<rrov, and Acts XV. 34, cSo^c & ry 2iX^i 67ri-

/uavai avroi/ appear in the lower margin ; also xviii.
6. TO alfjLa vfiuiv kiri rrfv KttpaXriv vfMav is preceded by the
remark : *' these words are found in Greek books'*
as well as xxviii, 29. in the lower margin. The cele-
brated passage in 1 John v. 7. is wanting. A small
note is pasted at the end of the book (in calce) which
says, brevi prodibunt Codicum MSS. collationes, ad
quorum fidem emendata est hsec editio. I do not
know whether or when this has appeared. Probably
the Syriac MSS. which Dr. Buchanan brought from
the East Indies, and presented to the University of
Cambridge, were the basis of the text ^. Among these
some are Nestorian, as it is evident from 1 Cor. v. 8. :
in the lower margin stands the reading l;iftf>n with
the addition, '^ this is found in some copies." Adler
found it in books, which, according to the subscrip-
tion, belonged to the Nestorians (Novi Test, ver-
siones Syriacse 1. i. p. 36.), and the Nestorians have
the Ecclesiastical custom of persevering in a sacra-
ment of leavened bread. Asseman. Bibl. Or. T. iii.
P. ii. dissert, de Syris Nestorianis, § xii. The Editor
does not appear to have met with another reading
(Heb. ii. 9. x^P<c Oeov) which is accounted Nestorian,
in his MS. Besides the Nestorian, the MSS. of the
Jacobites were also used. There is an evidence of this
in Acts XX. 28., where all the hitherto known books
of the Peschito read, the Church of the Messiah,
but the editor received loiL]} oiZ^ into the text,
with the remark below in the margin : ** other copies
in this place read of the Messiah.'' According to
the testimony of Sabariesu, the received reading was

' The most recent inquines into the present state of Christianity in
Asia by Dr. C. Buchanan, translated by M. Chr. Oottl. Blumhardt.
Stuttgart. ISIS. P. 139 — ^5.

B b 2

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the common one in the books of the Jacobites (A&-
aem. BiU. Or. T. iii. in Append, ad CataL Ebed
Jeiu C. xxxix.) and is also found in the Philoxeiuaa
version. For it has something corresponding to
the monophysitical confluence of both natures; in
which the human merges into the divine, as into the
ocean ; on which account, God is said to do human
actions, to sleep, to weep, and with his blood to re-
deem his people.

The existing editions are therefore from MSS. of
three different ecclesiastical communities, the Nes-
torian, the Eutychian, and the Maronite. Each of
these communities has indeed one or other of the
readings, to which it gives a preference : but none
of them possesses a particular recension of the text;
•neither the Nestorians^ near the Maronites: we how-
ever draw this conclusion in favour of the Euty-
chians, because the edition of the Bible Society,where
peculiarities in the monophysitical text might have
been distinguished, would have at least imparted
them in the lower margin.



The MSS. of this version have a postscript afitcr
the Gospels, which furnishes us with information as
to the time in which the version was made, and other
historical circumstances relative to it. As far as it
relates to matter, the postscript is of the same im-
port, in the very many MSS. which have been care-
fully examined, and in different copies only varies
more or less in some phrases. Thus far, it is Ter-

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baUy the same: THIS BOOK OF THE FOUR

The translation was therefore made in the days of
Philoxenus, or A' 508 of the Christian sera. This Phi-
loxenus, or Xenaias, presided over the bishoprick of
Mabug, Manbej, Mangeb, or Hierapolis in Syria from
the year 488 to 518 \ In this postscript the trans*
lator of the version is not named, but another Syriac
writer has preserved his memory. According to
him, it was Polycarp, a Chorepiscopus of Philoxenus^
who undertook the labour, and dedicated it to Phi-
loxenus, who had summoned him to the office, and
from whom the version received its name ^ It was
made from the Greek, and contains the whole New

^ Dtm armen. llfim&D. — ^T&anslator.

^ Adler Nov i Test. Versiones Syriacse — denuo examinatfie, Hafhiie
1789. 4. L iL p. 45S. Repert. of Bibl. and On Lit. vii. Pt. p. 1^54,
▼liL Pt p. 89—90. Storr Obsa. super versioiubus Novi Test. Syr,
P. 114 § 19. p. 45.

^ Assemani BibL Or. T. ii. p. 10—46.

* Moaei AghelsBUs apud Assero. Bib. Or. T. ii. p. 83. Adler loc.
cit 48.

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Philoxbnus, called also Xenaias, was a favourite
of Peter Gnaphey, who had forced himself into the
Patriarchate of Antioch^ and knew how to maintain
himself in this exalted post^ by means of the con-
nexions which he had, and the creatures, with whom
he surrounded himself. Among the latter was Phi-
loxenus, whom he consecrated Bishop of Mabug, and
used as a tool. The Patriarch was attached to tiie
doctrines of Eutychius, and as he appeared somewhat
to modify the dogmata of the Monophysites, a great
part of Syria came over to him. He indeed found
opponents, for generally such a change could not
take place without great commotion ; yet, the
court at Constantinople seemed to favour him and
his opinion so much, that the Emperor Zeno put>-
lished on the subject a proposition of union or a
Henoticon, which the Monophysites, received wHh
approbation, and to which the Patriarch, with Phi-
loxenus and his party, and Peter Mongus, Patriarch
of Alexandria, subscribed. From this time they con-
stituted one individual sect, which was attached to
the New doctrine "*. This, as it appears, occasioned
them to resolve upon a Church- version of their own,
which, for the sake of imparting to it every possible
advantage with regard to the text, they executed
(as I conjecture) after the copies of Origen.

" Asseman. Bibliolh. Orient. T. ii. p. 10 — 46. Evagrius, H. E,
L. iii. c. 31. 52.

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A HUNDRED and eight years afterwards, viz. in the
year 927 of the Greeks, or 616 of our era, the poor
Thomas, as the j^tscript after the Gospeb declares,
bestowed renewed diligence on this church-document
of the Monophysites, and collated it with two (or as
some MSS. say, with three) old MSS. in the monas-
tery of the Antonians at Alexandria.

He collated the Acts of the Apostles, and the Ca-
tholic Epistles, as the subscription after them avers,
witli a Greek MS. He, however, appears to have
collated Paul with two ; for this number is quoted
on the margin of his Epistles ^

Several transcripts of this version call this poor
Thomas, Thomas of Charkd, (in the subscriptions
which the transcribers have added) like the Parisian
Codex : '^ Thus ends with God's help, the holy book of
the discourses of the adored Christ our God, accord-
ing to the four Evangelists,from the Gharkelian emen-
dation," &c. And under the catalogue of chapters in
Matthew : '' Thus end the chapters of Matthew,
seventy in number, after the correction and emenda-
tion of Thomas of Charkel.'' Other MSS. have
several other subscriptions of this sort ''.

We are, howev^, in less di£Sculty about the person
of Thomas, than about another circumstance relative
to his labours. For he says in the postscript after
the Gospels : '* it was afterwards very carefully col-

■ WeUteini Ptol^g. in Nor. Test. P. i. p. 11«— IS.
** Adler, Vers. Nov. Test Syr. dcniio exon. L ii. p. 56. 56. 59^
63. 66.» &c.

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S76 All nfTmoMrctiM «o ns

lated by me, the poor Thomas, .... it was twice
written and coOated in this place," ftc Hence some
would conclude, that a double coOation of it took
pUce, that the ftrst Was by Thomas, and the second
by some unknown indiyidual, in the year of Alex-
ander 927.

Yet it is not unusual tat a perscm to coQate me
MS. twice, nor was it so amoqg the ancients;
Thomas may twice have done this ; and it is evident
that the second coDation A' 927. is the work of no one
but Thomas of CharkeL Thus Bar Hebrseus informs ua
in his Syriac Chronicon : ^ At this period (says he), ad
Ann' 927. of the «ra of the Sdeuddae, lived Thomas
of Charkel, a Monk of the monastery of Tarill^ who
in his youth applied himself to Greek literature ii^
the monastery of Kenserin, and was afterwards Bi-
shop of Mabug : when he was banished from thence^
by Domitian, Bishop of Melito, he went to Egypt,
and dwelt in the Antonia of Alexandria^ in the numas^
tery of the Antonians, where, with praise-worthy
diligence, he restored the four Gospels, and other
books of the New Testament, by means of a careful
and accurate revision, of which Philoxenus had be-
fore caused a version to be made at Mabug." Thus
far. Bar Hebraeus ^

Thomas was, therefore, a cotemporary of Paul of
Tela, who in the same place executed a Syriac ver-
sion of the Old Testament from the Hexaplar text of
Origen. From this circumstance, I explain to my
own mind the undertaking of Thomas of Charkd»
which yet continues to have something pin gnH f in it.

I* AMenum. Bib. Or. P. ii. p. 554. Eicfahmi in R^ert BiU. and
Or. Lit. vii. P. § «S4. Brans, Undem, viiL Pt. p. 69. 90. Piobably
the passage b in Ae second part not yet printedf which contains <he

Online LibraryJohann Leonhard HugAn introduction to the writings of the New Testament, Volume 1 → online text (page 39 of 42)