Johann Peter Lange.

A commentary on the Holy Scriptures: critical, doctrinal, and homiletical, with special reference to ministers and students online

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Leb's Heb. Lex.: "very acc^iable, or, ready to be found") is grammatically wrong (XlfQJ belonging to DTI /K). as are all
renderings which make 71*1 TJ^ the subject. Moll, Hitzio, Ewald, Hoppelo, erfunden sehr (or sehr erfunden, or erfunden
gar sehr). On the contrary, Delitzsoh, bewdhrt gar sehr ; VAiHiNGiia, sehr bewUhrt ; De Wette, sehr erprobt ; J. Olshau-
BEN, gar sehr ist er (v(m uns) als Beistand in Nothen erprobt.

Yer. 5. At the, taming of the morning. At the crisis, when darkness begins to give place to light, and morning la about
to dawn.


To the Chief Musician. A Psalm of the Sons of KoraJu

1 All ye peoples clap your hands ;

shout unto God with the voice of triumph.

2 For Jehovah, Most High, is terrible ;
a great king over all the earth.

3 He will subdue peoples under us,
and nations under our feet.

4 He will choose for us our inheritance,

the pride of Jacob, whom he loved. (Paicse).

5 God hath gone up with shoutings
Jehovah with sound of trumpet.

6 Sing praise to God, sing praise ;
sing praise to our king, sing praise.

7 For God is king of all the earths-
sing praise, in instructive song.

8 God reigneth over the heathen;
God sitteth on his holy throne.

9 Nobles of the peoples are assembled,
the people of the God of Abraham.

For to God belong the shields of the earth:
he is greatly exalted.

Ver.9. FvipUs: a frequent designation of the tribes of Israel, together constituting "the people of the Godot.


A Song. A Psalm of the Sons of Korah,

1 Great is Jehovah, and greatly to be praised,
in the city of our God, his holy mount.

2 Beautiful in elevation, the joy of the whole earth,
Mount Zion, the sides of the north,

the city of the great Bang !

3 God is known in her palaces for a refiige.

4 For lo, the kings were assembled,
they passed along together.

5 They saw ; then they marveled ;
they were dismayed, they fled away.

6 Trembling took hold on them there,
pain, as of a woman in travail,

7 With an east wind,

thou breakest the ships of Tarshiah.


8 As we have heard, so have we seen,

in the city of Jehovah of hosts, in the city of our God ;
God will establish it forever. {Pause.)

9 We have thought of thy loving-kindness, O God,
in the midst of thy temple.

10 As is thy name, O God,

so is thy praise, unto the ends of the earth ;
thy right hand is full of righteousness.

11 Let Mount Zion rejoice,

let the daughters of Judah exult,
because of thy judgments.

12 Walk about Zion, and go round about her ;
number her towers.

13 Mark well her rampart,
go through her palaces,

that ye may tell it to the generation following.

14 For this God is our God forever and ever ;
he will guide us, until death.

To the Chief Musician. A Psalm of the Sons of Korah.

1 Hear this, all ye people,

five ear, all ye inhabitants of the world ;
oth men of low and men of high degree,
rich and poor together.
^3 My mouth shall speak wisdom,

and the meditation of my heart is understanding*
4 I will incline my ear to a parable ;
I will open my dark saying on the harp.

6 Wherefore should I fear in days of evil;,

when the iniquity of my supplanters compasseth me about ;
'6 who trust in their might,

and glory in the abundance of their wealth ?

7 A brother can no one by any means redeem,
or give to God a ransom for him ;

8 (for costly is the redemption of their soul,
and it forever faileth ;)

9 that he should live on forever
should not see the pit.

10 For he shall see it. Wise men die,
alike, the fool and the brutish perish ;
and they leave their wealth to others.

11 Their inward thought is, that their houses are forever,
their dwellings to all generations ;

they call their lands after their own names.

12 But man, in honor, continueth not;
he is like the beasts that perish.

13 This is their way, to whom folly belongeth j

and they that come after them will delight in their sayings. {Pause.")

14 Like she^p they -are laid in the grave ;
death shall feed on them ;

and the upright shall rule over them in the morning ;

.and their form shall ^consume in the grave from its dwelling.


15 But God will redeem my soul from the power of the grave ;
for he will take me. (Pause.)

16 Do not fear, because one becoraeth rich,
because the glory of his house increaseth.

17 For, when he dieth, he shall take nothing away ;
his glory shall not descend after him.

18 Though in his life he bless his soul,

and men praise thee that thou doest well for thyself,

19 it shall come to the generation of his fathers ;
they shall never see light.

20 Man that is in honor, and understandeth not,
is like the beasts that perish.

Ver. 5. Supplanters: the Heb. word regarded here aa a verbal adj. from the verbal stem 3pj; (prop, to take by the hed,

Hos. xii. 13, compared with Gen. xxv. 26) to supplant, as correctly rendered in Gen. xxvii. 36, and also in Jer ix 4 " w^Jl
utterly supplant, '—not merely, aa Naeoelbaoh (Ltyoe's Bibelwerk) treibt Sinterlist. The form maybe taken as well
suggested by Dbutzsoh, both as verbal adj. and as substantive ; and we need not (with Bottcher) point the word here as a
participial form. GESENins, Zea;. "verbal adj. a lier-in-wait, a tracker;" Pubrst, lex., "a persecutor, or lier-in-waW'* De
Wette, Delitzsoh, Molt, mexner Untertreter. Lenoerke, meiner NachstelUr. Bwald, der Laurer. Hitmo meiner Wider-
gacher. Of the ancient versions, the Syriachas, of my enemita. '

others, taking DpJT in the only signification 'it has elsewhere with the pointing given it here, translate, the iniquity of

my heeU (that which follows closely upon my heels, dogs my steps) encompasses me. By some this is understood to mean
the iniquity of my steps, of my (own) ways, which com/passeth me about, leaving no escape from my guilt. To this concep-
tion of the meaning Hupfeld justly objects, that 3p^ never has this moral sense.f Hence, with some others, he un<1er-

Btands by this phrase, the wickedness of persecuting enemies, following close on their victim's footsteps ; and he translates
weren Frtvel mich aufmeinen I'ersen umgiebt (2d ed. more exactly, wmn Prevel anf meinen Firsen mich umgiebt). The ob-
jection of Delitzsoh is well grounded : Aber abge.iehen von dem unpassenden IW wird damit der gemt. Verbinduna Un-
mSgliches zugemuthet. I "^ ^

In the old English versions the words are rendered as follows : Coverdale, Matthew, Cranmiw, Taveener When the
wickedness qf my hf^ls crnipaxseth me round about. GE>fBVAN. [when] iniquity shall compass me about, [as at] mine heels.
Bishops', Wherefore should I fear in evil days f The wickedness of my heels {then) would cmnpassme round ahmt. Marg. note :
All their doings be wicked, who despair of God's goodness in adversity.

Ver. 7. Redeem : from temporal death, which is meant by "redemption of their soul," in ver. 8.

Vers. 14, 15. Contrast betw.^en the end of the wicked and the righteous. The former are laid in the grave like brntes
with no hope of a joyful morning after the night of death, when the upright, oppressed in this life, shall triumph over them.'
The latter shall be redeemed from the power of the grave; he shall not remain under it forever. It is absurd to suppose
BB some interpret the writer's language, that he looked for exemption from temporal death, declared in v. 10 to be the lot
common to all.

From its dwelling : from its abode in the material substance which bore their organized shape and form.

Ver. 18. Bless his sold: count himself happy.

A Psalm of Asaph.

1 The Mighty One, God, Jehovah, hath spoken,
and hath called the earth,

from the rising of the sun unto its going down.

2 Out of Zion, the perfection of beauty,
God hath shined forth.

3 Our God will come, and shall not keep silence;
a fire will devour before him,

and round him tempests rage with violence.

4 He will call to the heavens above,

and to the earth, that he may judge his people ;
6 " Gather to me my saints,
who have made a covenant with me by sacrifice."

6 And the heavens declare his righteousness ;
for God, he is judge. (Pause.)

7 Hear, my people, and I will speak,
Israel, and I will testify against thee ;

* On 2ppt Josh. viii. 13, Keil says (more correctly than Gesbwius and Fobrst in their lexs.), beieutet eigentlich den Hin-
krlisten (Ps. xllx. 6) von 3pJ^ insidiari, und ist synonym mit 31X; and Hitzig (on this passage, p. 269) Jos. viii. 13, iel
*'• 3p;? was 311N "Vers. 12, 14, 4.

t In his Ist ed, ; omitted, as is the whole discussion of this point, in the 2d ed. by Riehm.


I am God, thy God.

8 Not for thy sacrifices will I reprove thee ;

and thy burnt-offerings are continually before me.

9 I will not take a bullock from thy house,
nor he-goats from thy folds.

10 For mine is every beast of the forest,

the cattle on a thousand hills.
Ill know every bird of the mountains,

and the beasts of the field are before me.

12 If I were hungry, I would not say it to thee ;
for the world is mine, and the fulness thereo£

13 Will I eat the flesh of bulls,
and drink the blood of goats ?

14 Sacrifice to God thanksgiving,

and pay to the Most High thy vows.

15 And call upon me in the day of trouble ;

I will deliver thee, and thou shalt honor me.

16 And to the wicked God saith,

What right hast thou to declare my statutes,
and take my covenant into thy mouth ;

17 while thou dost hate instruction,

and cast my words behind thee ? »

18 If thou seest a thief, thou delightest in him,
and with adulterers is thy portion.

19 Thy mouth thou hast given up to evil,
and thy tongue contriveth deceit.

20 Thou sittest, and speakest against thy brother ;
at thy mother's son thou dost give a thrust.

21 These things hast thou done, and I kept silence.
Thou thoughtest I was surely such as thyself.

I will reprove thee, and will array them before thine eyes.

22 O consider this, ye that forget God,

lest I tear in pieces, and there be no deliverer.

23 He that sacrificeth thanksgiving shall honor me ;
and he that directeth his way,

to him will I show the salvation of God.

Ter. 23. He that saerificeih thanksgiving: compare ver. 14.


To the Chief Musician. A Psalm of David; when Nathan the prophet came to him, after he went in

to Bathskeba.

1 Be gracious to me, O God, according to thy loving-kindness ;
according to the greatness of thy compassion blot out my transgressions.

2 Wash me thoroughly from my iniquity,
and from my sin make me clean.

3 For my transgressions I know,

and my sin is before me continually.

4 Toward thee, thee only, have I sinned,
and done the evil in thy sight ;

that thou may est be just when thou speakest,
be pure when thou judgest.
6 Behold, in iniquity was I brought forth,
and in sin did my mother conceive me.


6 Behold, thou desirest truth in the reins,

and in the hidden part thou wilt make me know wisdom.

7 Thou wilt purge me of sin with hyssop, and I shall be clean ;
thou wilt wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow. ♦

8 Thou wilt make me hear joy and gladness ;
the bones thou hast broken shall exult.

9 Hide thy face from my sins,
and blot out all my iniquities.

10 Create in me a clean heart, O God,
and renew a right spirit within me.

11 Cast me not away from thy presence,
and take not thy holy Spirit from me.

12 Eestore to me the joy of thy salvation,
and with a free spirit uphold me.

13 I will teach transgressors thy ways,
and sinners shall return to thee.

14 Deliver me from blood-guiltiness, O God,

O God of my salvation ; ^ ^i , -

my tongue shall sing aloud of thy righteousness. '

15 Lord, thou wilt open my lips,

and my mouth shall declare thy praise.

16 For thou desirest not sacrifice, else would I give it ;
in burnt-offering thou delightest not.

17 The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit ;

a broken and contrite heart, O God, thou wilt not despise.

18 Do good, in thy good pleasure, to Zion;
thou wilt build the walls of Jerusalem.

19 Then wilt thou be pleased with sacrifices of righteousness, with burnt-offering, and

whole burnt-offering.
Then shall they offer bullocks upon thine altar.

Ter. 12. Free spirit. Freely bestowed.


To the chief Mmician. Didactic [Psalrn] of David, when Doeg the Edomite came and told Saul, and

said, David came to the house of Ahimelech.

1 Why dost thou boast in evil, O mighty man ?
The goodness of God is continuaL

2 Thy tongue devises mischiefs,

like a sharpened razor, working deceit.

3 Thou lovest evil more than good ;

lying, more than to speak righteousness. (Paused

4 Thou lovest all devouring words,
deceitful tongue.

6 God will also destroy thee forever.
He will lay hold of thee, and pluck thee out of the tent, ^

and uproot thee from the land of the living. (Pause.)

6 And the righteous will see, and fear,
and will laugh at him ;

7 " Behold the man,

that raaketh not God his strength,

and trusteth in the abundance of his riches,

is strong in his wickedness."


8 But I am like a green olive-tree in the house of God ;
I trust in the mercy of God forever and ever.

9 I will praise thee forever, because thou didst it ;

and will wait on Ifcy name, for it is good before thy saints.

Ps. lii. (title.) See 1 Sam. xxii. 9.

Yer. 5. Tent. See the remark on Ps. xci. 10.

To the Chief Musician. Of [moral'] disease. Didactic [Psalni] of David.

1 The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God.
Corrupt and abominable are they in iniquity ;
there is none that doeth good.

2 God looked down from heaven upon the sons of men,
to see if there is any that understandeth,

that seeketh after God.

3 They have all turned back ; one and all are they polluted;
there is none that doeth good, not even one.

4 Have the workers of iniquity no knowledge,
who eat up my people as they eat bread,

call not upon God ?

5 There were they in great fear, where no fear was ;
for God hath scattered the bones of thy besiegers.

Thou hast put them to shame, because God despised them,

6 Oh for the salvation of Israel out of Zion !
When God turneth the captivity of his people,
Jacob will exult, Israel will rejoice.

Ps. liii. A Psalm of David (Ps. xiv.) adapted, by slight changes, to some later national occurrence.

Ver. 5. There : pointing to some recent and familiar occurrence. JVo fear : either uo occasion of fear, or no apprehen-
sion of coming evil. Of the former case an illustration may be found in 2 Kings ch. vii. (compare vers. 6, 7, and 14, 15); of
the latter, in Is. xxxvii. 36.

Ver. 6. Turneth the captivity. Compare the writer's note on Job xlii. 10. Israel is another name for Jacob, with the
accessory idea of "prevailing with God;" se^ (ien. xxxii. 28. Jacob, on the contrary, is expressive of weakness; see, for
example, Amos vii. 2. By both are meant God's people ; one implying their weakness in themselves, the other, their
strength in God.


To the chief Musician. With stringed instruments. Didactic [Psalm] of David, when the Ziphitea

came, and said to Saul, Is not David hiding himself with us ?

1 O God, by thy name save me,
and in thy might judge me.

2 O God, hear my prayer ;

give ear to the words of my mouth.

3 For strangers have risen up against me,
and the violent seek after my soul ;

they have not set God before them. (Paii^e.)

4 Behold, God is a helper for me ;

the Lord is with them that uphold my souL
6 He will return the evil to my enemies ;
in thy truth cut them off.

6 With a free-will offering will I sacrifice to thee ;
I will praise thy name, Jehovah, for it is good.

7 For out of all distress hath he delivered me,
and my eye hath seen its desire on my enemies.



Pa. liv. (title). When the Ziphites came. For the historical allusiou see 1 Sam. xxiii. 19.
Ver. 1. ITiy name: as representing God, and in him all in which the believer trusts, and finds safety.
+i7^m?' '*'"""^^'' ' * foreigner, not an Israelite ; and also one estranged in spirit, an enemy, thus including those named

Ver, 4. Or, The Lord is he that upholdeth my soul.

Ver. 5. Or, The evil will return to my enemies.

Ver. 6, 2d member. In thy truth: as faithfuln'>ss to his word requires.

Ver. 7. 2d member Hath seen its desire. The Hebrew verb, in its construction here, means to gaze intently and to
look upon with satisfaction as in this caae on a vanquished enemy. See the remark on Ps. xviii. 50, Ind compare the arti.
cle "Psalms, Imprecatory," in Smith's Bible Zhcttonary (American edition, p. 2625), particularly divisions iv and v


To the chief Musician. With stringed instruments. Didactic [Psalm] of David.

1 Give ear, O God, to my prayer,

and do not hide thyself from my supplication.

2 Attend to me, and answer me.

I am restless in my complaining, and disquieted;

3 because of the voice of the enemy, on account of the oppression of the wicked.
For they cause mischief to impend over me,

and in anger lay a snare for me.

4 My heart quaketh within me,

and terrors of death have fallen upon me.
6 Fear and trembling enter into me, •

and horror overwhelmeth me.

6 And I say, Oh that I had wings like the dove ;
I would fly away, and be at rest !

7 Lo, I would wander far away,

I would lodge in the wilderness. (Pause.')

8 I would make haste to escape,

from the stormy wind, from the tempest.

9 Destroy, O Lord, divide their tongue ;

for I have seen violence and strife in the city.

10 Day and night they go about her on her walls,
and trouble and sorrow are within her.

11 Corruption is within her,

and from her market-place depart not extortion and deceit.

12 For it is not an enemy that reproacheth me, else I could bear it;
not one that hateth me hath acted proudly against me,

else I would hide myself from him ;

13 but thou — a man esteemed my equal, '
my associate and my familiar friend.

14 Together we hold sweet familiar converse,
walk to the house of God in the festal crowd. '

15 Desolations are upon them ; they shall go down alive to the underworld;
for wickedness is in their dwelling, in the midst of them-

16 As for me, I will call upon God,
and Jehovah will save me.

17 Evening, and morning, and noon, will I lament and sigh,
and he will hear my voice. I

18 He redeemed my soul in peace from the war against me ;
for many were [engaged] with me.

19 God will hear, and he will answer them, —
even he that sits [as judge] of old, — (Pause')
to whom there were no changes,

and they feared not God.

20 He put forth his hand against those at peace with him ;
he profaned his covenant.


21 Smooth are the buttered tones of his mouth,
but his heart is war.

Softer than oil are his words,
but they are drawn swords.

22 Cast thy burden on Jehovah,
and he will sustain thee,

he will never suffer the righteous man to be moved.

23 But thou, O God, wilt bring them down to the pit of destruction;
bloody and deceitful men shall not live half their days.

But as for me, I will trust in thee.

Ver. 3. Impund over me. The image is of a wall, or a tower, tottering and ready to fall. So do they keep me in con-
tinual apprehension of coming evil.

Ver. 9. Divide their tongue. The tongue being the instrument of commnnication, the meaning is, make division in
their counsels; set them at variance, and thus thwart their purposes.

Ver. 11. Markei-ploux : where the people assembled for the transaction of business, and where magistrates sat to ad-
minister justice. Compare Neh. viii. 1 (properly, "into the broad space that was before the water-gate "), 2 Chron. xxxii.
6 (properly, "in the broad space at the gate of the city "), Job v. 4 (with the references in the writer's note on the passage)
and xxix. 7.

Ver, 14. We hold. Many, as De Wette, Lbngerke, Mauser, Ewaxd, Hdpfeld, Dewtzsch, Moix, translate the Imvf. by
the past tense (of customary action, were wont to hold.)* On the contrary, the use of the Impf. is most readily explained
on the natural supposition (as suggested by Dr. Algxaitder) that " the false friend, of whom he is complaining, seems to be
one with whom he was still intimate, but whose defection he clearly foresaw."

Ver. 15. Go down alive. As they who opposed the authority of God in the person of his servant Moses (Numb. oh. uvi.).

Ver. 15, 2d member. In the midst of them. Or, within them (in their heart.)

Ver. 19. Will annwer them: in the just reward of their misdeeds.

Ver. 19, 3d member. No changes : no vicissitudes of fortune.

Ver. 20. He put forth: individualizing the many opposers (vers. 18, 19), orreferring especially to the sabject of vers.
12-14. Profaned hu covenant ; violated its sanctity, by a breach of its obligations. Compare Mai. ii. 10.


To the chief Musician. After \the melody'\ TTie mute dove in far-off lands. Memorial[Psalrn\ of David,

when the Philistines seized him in Gath.

1 Be gracious to me, O God, for man would devour me.
Continually fighting he oppresseth me.

2 Daily would my enemies devour me ;

for many are they that proudly fight against me.

3 What time I am afraid,

I will put my trust in thee.

4 In God will I praise his word ;

in God do I trust, I will not fear;
what can flesh do to me ?

5 Every day they wrest my words ;
against me are all their thoughts for eviL

6 They gather together, they lie in wait ;
they, my supplanters, watch,

as they have waited for my soul. *

7 Shall they escape by iniquity ?

In anger bring down the peoples, O God.

8 My wanderings hast thou numbered.
Put thou ray tears in thy bottle ;

are they not in thy reckoning ?

9 Then shall my enemies turn back when I cry ;
this I know, for God is for me.

10 In God will I praise the word ;

in Jehovah will I praise the word.

11 In God do I trust, I will not fear;
what can man do to me ?

12 On me, O God, are thy vows ;

I will pay thanksgivings unto thee.

* Impf. expressing "constantly repeated acts, customary or habitual action" (QBaENros, Gram, g 127, 4, 6).


13 For thou hast delivered my soul from death.
Wilt thou not [deliver] my feet from stumbling,
that I may walk before God,
in the light of life ?

Ver. 4. In God. The ground of praise being in htm, as is also the ground of trust:

Ver. 6, 2d member. Or, They who watch my heels (to trip me).

Ver. 8. Numbered. As in Job xxxi. 4, " Doth he not see my ways, and number all my steps? " That is, does he not
take account of all, so that none escape observation ?

Ver. 9. 2d member. Or,, This I know, that God is for me.

Ver. 10. The word. The word of promise, that God is for me, as expressed in the preceding sentence. — In Ood — in Je-
Jiaoah: as in ver. 4.

Ver. 13. 4th member. Light of life : in contrast with the darkness and gloom of the realm of death. Compare Job


3b the chief Musician. Do not Destroy. Memorial \^Psalm] of David, when he fled from Saul,

in the cave.

1 Be gracious to me, O God, be gracious to me;
for in thee hath my soul sought refuge.

And in the shadow of thy wings will I seek refuge,
until the calamities shall pass by.

2 I will cry unto God Most High,

to the Mighty, who completeth [the purpose] concerning me.

3 He will send from heaven and save me,

whom he that would devour me hath reviled. {Panose.)
God will send his mercy and his truth.

4 My soul is in the midst of lions ;

I will lie down with them that breathe out flames,
sons of men, whose teeth are spears and arrows,
and their tongue a sharp sword.

5 Be thou exalted above the heavens, O God,
thy glory over all the earth.

6 They prepared a net for my steps ;
he bowed down my soul.

They dug a pit before me;

they fell into the midst of it. (Pause.)

7 My heart is fixed, O God, my heart is fixed ;
I will sing, and will sing praise.

8 Awake my glory, awake lute and harp ;
I will awake the dawn !

9 I will praise thee among the peoples, O Lord;
I will sing praise to thee among the nations.

10 For great, unto the heavens, is thy mercy,

and unto the clouds thy truth.
U Be thou exalted above the heavens, O God,

thy glory over all the earth !

Ps.lvii. (title). Do noi destroy. A designation (perhaps suggested by Dent, ix 26) of a group of P^lm^^^
fvii-lix.) and of Ps-lxxv. Asa motto, it is appropriate to the subject, or the occasion, of th^m&n.^Wtw.nneJtea.

' ''Ver.t Sp&.^"^.n^ n.e. Does not leave unfinished what be bas purposed and begun. This specific idea, of a

''""'ilT.'i, 2d member. I will lie down : the language of cheerful confidence in God's protecting care.-Or, With them that

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