Johann Peter Lange.

A commentary on the Holy Scriptures: online

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(3) wholly incapable of appreciating His spiri-
tual greatness. — The mocking wit of the polite
adversaries of the Lord in union with gross
ignorance. — ^The testimony of Christ concerning
His heavenly origin hardens tho proud. — The
divine origin of the doctrine of Christ in its
connection with the divine origin of His being.
— How imagined greatness is embittered and en-
raged before the evidences of true greatness. —
They sought to take Him: but no many efc.-^Im-
potence of the adversary against the Lord : 1.
His impotence in the most diverse designs (they
sought to take Him themselves, they sought to
take Him through instruments). 2. Its impo-
tence in the presence of true power : (a) of the
faithftil adherents of Christ; (b) of the Lord
Himself; (c) of the overruling of God (His houc
not yet come). 8. His impotence fully displayed
just when His hour is come, when it seetne al-
mighty. — With the enmity of unbelief ripens
also the heroism of faith, vers. 80, 81. — The first
decided attempt of the Jewish rulers upon the
life of the Lord, brought on by tho whispering
of the people that He was the Christ. — This first
attempt at the feast of tabernacles in the autumn
related to the last attempt at the passover of the
next year. The exalted words of Christ to the
people, addressed to the servants of the chief
priests in partioolar, vers. 83-3(5: 1. An expres-



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254



THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO JOHN.



sion of His security ia the full presentiment of
His insecurity. 2. The language of simplicity,
and yet of double meaning. 8. To the Jews an
occasion of mockery, and yet at the same time
a momentous riddle.

Yet a Utile while am I with you (yer. 33) : the
groat importance of the Zt/Z^fffAiZtf; 1. The period
of grace. 2. Tue year of grace. 3. The day
of grace. 4. The hour of grace.— ^The death
of the Lord and of His people, a Toluntary going
home.— Killed at last, and yet even thereby escap-
ed from His murderers. — How the Jews cannot
get away from tire word of Jesus : *< Ye shall seek
Me/' etc. — The divergent paths which separate
the Lord from His despisers: 1. The path up-
ward. 2. The path downward. — Christ perfectly
inaccessible to His adversaries : 1. They seek Him
and do not find Him. 2. They find Him, and
bind Him, and have Him not. 8. They nail Him
up, and bury Him, and seal the stone, and keep
Him not. — Acts zxvi. 7. The tragical hope of
Israel for the Messiah : 1. H-ow noble in its truth.
2. How vain in its perversion. 3. How prophetic
in spite of its delusion.

Starkb : God knows the true and better time
to appear and help. — That neither He nor His
apostles were instructed by men, shows the
heavenly origin of His doctrine.— -Cram br: In
Clfrist are hidden all treasures of wisdom; but
we must go the ordinary way, go to school,
study, ask, etc,, that we also may be wise. — nu
that tent me: 1. Because it [His doctrine] con-
tains the whole counsel and pleasure of the Fa-
ther, Jno. vi. 89, 40. 2. Because it was in sub-
stance one with Moses and the prophets, through
whom the Father bad spoken, Heb. i. 1. 8.
Because Christ was filled with the Spirit of the
Father, oh. xvii. 8. 4^ Because His doctrine
aimed at the glory of the Father. — Zbisius : l^e
test of orthodox and righteous teachers : 1. Their
being able to say with Christ in some measure
and truth : My doctrine is not mine, but, etc.;
taking their doctrine not from their own reason,
but from the holy, revealed word of God. 2.
Thoir seeking therein not their own glory, but
the glory of God and of Christ, and directing
everything towards this purpose of glorifying
the name of God. Hearers also are bound on
their part to obey them, on peril of their salva-
tion. — 1/ any man wUl^ etc. As much as to say :
I appeal to the experience of all tho devout. —
Majus : He who uses not the word of God with
the true purpose of learning and doing it, will
not be sure of its divinity. — In divine and spi-
ritual things we must believe no one absolutely
(blindly), but try every one's doctrine, whether
it be of God, or whether tho man speak of him-
self. — Hedinqbr: Many are ever learning, and
yet cannot oome to the knowledge of the truth.
Why? They hear much, and do it not.— Qubs-
NBL : A preacher must seek not his own glory,
but only God's. — Majus : He whose words and
works aim only to honor God, is faithful and
true, and worthy to be believed. — It is good to
remind people of their evil deeds, and convince
them of them: perchance some will lay it to
heart and be converted, Mark ii. 27. — Nova
BibL Tub,: .It is a sure mark of envy and malice,
when a man censures in others, and condemns
others for, what he does himself. — Ibid,: Whence



come so many uncharitable, false judgments of
our neighbor's conduct ? From our not seeing
to the bottom of the heart, etc. — Zbisius : How
can preconceived opinions but blind us, and pre-
vent our true understanding of the Scriptures ?
— To the pretentious and fine-talking, who boast
so much of their knowledge, we must show thai
they lack the best.— /6u/.: Satan with bis tools
cannot hurt a hair, without the will of God. —
Qitesnbl: Simplicity and humility open the
heart to divine truth, but pride and boastfulness
close it. — When Christians are persecuted, open-
hearted confessors are commonly very few ; men
keep themselves so concealed, that the confession
of Christ is rather a murmuring than a true
confessing. — Shame, that in spiritual things
carnal means are thought of, and the power of
the Spirit is opposed by the arm of secular an-
thority. — Hbdinqer : The season of grace lasts
not forever: follow its drawing!— ^akstbih:
It is but a little while that the pious are in the
world ; afterwards they will be forever separated
from it by death. Therefore they can for tho
little time bear a little from the wicked world. —
Qubsnbl: The death of believers is a retnrn to
their Father. — Majus : In heaven there is peace
for all trouble and rest from all labor. — What
the world says in mockery will often prove tmo
to its hurt.

Von Gbrlaoh: A sublime disposition would
enable them to know divine things. — This is
still the proper way to attain to the knowledge
of the divine origin and matter of Christianity ;
to follow with the heart all traces of the divine,
and thus with honest purpose to endeavor to do
what God requires. — Jesus implicated the whole
people, because He made all responsible for these
purposes and acts of the rulers ; without the
consent of the people, the rulers, even after-
wards, could not have put Jesus to death. — Pene-
trate to the spirit of my words, and contradio-
tions resolve tnemselves !

Lisoo : Obedience to Jesus leads to experience
of the divine virtues of His doctrine and His
gospel (Rom. i. 16^, of which there are three,
corresponding to tho three principal faculties of
tho human spirit: power to enlighten (mind), to
sanctify (will), to bless (heart). (From Pascal).
Human things we must know iu order to love
(only conditionally true), divine we must love
in order to know. — The Jews know indeed the
true God, but they knew Him not as the trueund
real (they knew Him not truly in His true na-
ture^. — The lost opportunity of graco cannot be
regained. — Bracnb : Therefore not the doing of
the will of God, but even before that> the will to
do the will of God, enables one to experience the
truth of Christ's assertion that His doctrine is
of God. If thou only hast tho will, art decided
in thy wish, to do the will of God as thou know*
est it from conscience, nature, education. Scrip-
ture, — this leaning of will and heart to the wUl
of tied gives (as a condition) the knowledge of
the truth. — ^Ambition makes a man dull and un-
susceptible to knowledge.

Gossner: Where it He f might one often ask
in bustling church-solemnities, or in learned,
flowery sermons. Where is Ue^ the chief per-
son ? — There wat much murmuring among the people
concerning Bim, — So Christ and His truth must



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CHAP. VII. 87-44.



255



be canvassed by perverse opinions. Tliis is so
to this day. — How men must avoid speaking evil
of any other, but speak as much evil as possible
of Jesus. — Christ comes forth at the right mo-
ment. — The world calls it learning and educa-
tion, only when one has passed through many
classes in a school ; of another way of learning
it knows nothing. — The doctrine of Jesus puts
us already in heaven, and thereby evinces clearly
and visibly enough its divine origin. — Those who
must uphold the letter of the law, and form, and
would banish the Spirit from it, most sadly break
the law and the form.

HEunxsa: Humanly speaking, Jesus was an
uneducated man, but He towers infinitely above
all the educated. — If any man will, etc. Without
religious need, without longing for 'God and sal-
vation, no conviction of the truth of Christianity,
no faith in Christ, is possible. To the conscience
all proofs must appeal. — And it follows — which
few think of — that this declaration of Jesus con-
tains rebuke and condemnation of the strongest
kind : He who cannot be convinced of the divi-
nity of the doctrine of Jesus, etc., has no earn-
estness in regard to his salvation. The propo-
sition of Christ is universal; here the univeraio
lo^ea holds. — Ambition is a betrayer of a call-
ing not divine, of a self-commissioned prophet,



Deut xviii. 16. — Thou hasl a devil. How those
who now 80 impudently clear themselves, soon
after convict themselves of falsehood; for the
people loudly demanded His death. — Wickedness,
enmity, always judges according to appearances.
Righteous judgment is only with the friends of
God. — All religion is indififerentism, when men
govern themselves in it by the authority of rulers ;
this is contrary to the principle of Protestantism.
— But I know mm. The heart of the believer is
an inaccessible sanctuary, from which the world
cannot tear out the consciousness of salvation. —
ScHLBiERMACHEa : Having never learned. Lite-
rally taken, this is certainly false ; for from the
beginning of our Lord's life the history informs
us that He increased in wisdom, which means
that He learned. They think there were at that
time particular institutions, etc. In such a school
the Lord had not learned. — We also can make a
distinction between what is brought into our
souU by others and developed from their own
power, and what in them is the gift of the Spirit
of God. — Unless man hears the voice of the
divine will, he cannot know whether the doctrine
of Christ is of God or not. — There is no more
dangerous enemy of the true welfare of man, of
the pure salvation which we have in Christ, than
spiritual pride.



(&) CnSIST AS TUB DISPBKSEH 07 THE SPIEIT, THE BEAL 8IL0AM WITH ITS WATER OF LXFX. UT-

CEEASINQ FBBMENT IN THE PEOPLE.

Ch. VII. 87-44.

37 pTow]* In the last day, that [the] great day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried,
33 saying, If any man [any one] thirst, let him come unto me, and drink. He that

believeth on [in] me, as the Scripture hath said, out of his belly [body]' shall flow
S9 rivers of living water. (But this spake he of the Spirit, which they that believe"

on [in] him should [were about to] receive, for the Holy Ghost [the Spirit] was

40 not yet giv&n, [pmit givenlf because that [pmU that] Jesus was not yet glorified.)

Many^ [some] of the people [multitude] therefore, when they heard this saying

41 [these words],* said. Of a truth this is the Prophet [This is truly the Prophet]

42 Others said. This is the Christ. But [pmit But] some [Others]^ said. Shall Christ
come out of Galilee [Doth the Christ then come from Galilee] ? Hath not the
Scripture said. That [the] Christ cojmeth of [from] the seed of David, and out of
the town of Bethlehem [from Bethlehem, the town]* where David was?

43 So there was a division among the people [the multitude] because of him. And

44 some of them would have taken him [wished to seize him] ; but no man [one]
laid hands on him.

TEXTUAL AND QBAMMATICAL.

* Ver. 37.— [The li after iv Is not without force, and shonld not hnre boon omitted In the B. V.— P. 8.]
^* Ver. 38.— {« r^ x o t A t a $ auroO. Alford and Conant retain the strong term of the A. V. Noyes translAtea : from
wlBtHi him ; Lnthor and Lange : body. KoiAi'a properly means belly ^ abdomen, bowds, stomach, as the receptacle of food,
tet tropically also, in Hellenistic usage, the inward parts, the inner man, the fUotrt (KapSia ; comp. the Lat. viscera), and bo
Uis taken here by Chrysoatom and others. The LXX. often interchange icoiAta and icapSia. See the Exeo.— P. S.]

' Ter. 39.— Lachmann [Alford] reads mtrrtvcayrtf [those who belleYedj instead of wivrtvoyrtt, on the authority of B. L,
T. rx. D. rel. TischeikL: vt«Tcvoyrc^— P. S.]

. ^ Ver. 39.— ^AYteir [Hotv before ^rit] is omitted by Lachmann and Tischendorf, after the Vnlgate, Itala, most rersions
K. T. As B. D. aad other* hare the word, we may suppose the omission of ayior to hare been ocoasloned by doctrinal con-



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256



THE GOSPEL ACCORDING ^0 JOHN.



sfderations, which, howeTor, hare rather mado the paasnge more difflcnlt than msier. AcSo/a/kov Tgiv-en] trhich Lachroann,
after Oxl. B., retains, staudti Ipso firm. [Both ayiov and 6tSofii¥0¥ are wanting in Cod. Sin. which simplj readi ovwu yio
^v vvtviia (without tho articio). So Tischendorf in the 8th ed. Alford omit* itSofUyoy and retains iyiov, bat pots it in
braclcctd. "WesU- ott and Qort put [ayioi'J StBoniyoy on the niarg:in. — P. 8.J

» Vcr. 40. — Ejc tow oxAov oSr oKovaayns* The roAAol [text. roc. J or nvh [expUnatory] are dropped, according to
D. D. L. T. Ac.

• Vcr. m—TStv X6ytav, Lachmann, Tischendorf, according to [H] B. D. E. G. Ac. [Cod. Sin., TLschend., Alt: rir Aoyvr
rovTcov, I^at. hoi g^rmnnr*, vfrba illtt, hxr verba. Tho text. nn;. reads rhv koyov — P. 8. J

7 Vcr. 41.— Instead of oAAot <i, Lachmann has oi 6i, after B. L., etc. [Tischend. after God. Bin.: oAAoi— oAAoc wlthoat
6€.—V. 8.]

• Vor. 42.— [This is the position of the Greek, dir2> BifiX. i% iM/ti}« ovov.— P. S.]



EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL.

Vcr. 87. In the last day .—Meyer : "Asthe
eighth (lay (the 22d Tisri according to Ley. xxiii.
34; Numb, x.xix. 35; Neh. viii. 18) was reck-
oned in with the seven days of the feast proper,
and as, Succak, foL 48, 1, the last day (j'l'^nX) of
the feast is the eighth, John certainly meant this
day and not the seventh (Theoph., Duxtorf, Ben-
gel, Roland, Paulus, Ammon); especially as it was
customary at a later period to speak of an eight
days* celebration of the feast of tabernacles ('2
Mace. X. 6 ; Joseph. AnL III. 10, 4; Gem, Eruvin,
40, 2; M'ldr, Kohel. 118, 8). To this corres-
ponds, too, the translation t^66iov (finale of tho
feast), by which the Septuagint expresses tho
designation of the eighth day, HliT]^, [solemn
assembly] in Lev. xxiii. 86; Num. xxix. 35;
Nch. viii. 18. Comp. Ewald, Alterth'dmer, p.
481." Tholuok: "A general jubilee (Plutarch
calls it a Bacchanal) and splendid ceremonies of
many kinds took place at this feast, so that the
Babbis were accustomed to say: He who has
not seen these festivities, knows not what jubilee
is. See n. Majus: Diss, dehauatu aquarum."

[Alford takes the same view as to the day, and
then tries to solve the difficulty which attaches
to it. ** The ei(/kth day seems here to be meant,
and the last of the feast to be popularly used.
But a difficulty attends this view. Our Lord
certainly seems to allude here to the custom
which prevailed during the seven days of the
feast, of a priest bringing water in a golden
vessel from the pool of Siloam with a jubilant
procession to the temple, standing on the altar
and pouring it out there, together with wine,
while meantime the Hallel (Ps. oxiii.-cxviii.i
was sung. This practice was by some supposed
— as the dwelling in tabernacles represented
their life in tho desert of old — to refer to the
striking of the rock by Moses: — ^by others, to
the rain, for which they then prayed, for the
seed of the ensuing year :— by the elder Rabbis
(Maimonides, cited by Stier, iv. 831, ed. 2), to
Isa. xii. 8, and the effusion of the Holy Spirit
in the days of the Messiah. But it was univer-
sally agreed (with the single exception of the
testimony of R. Juda Hakkadosh, quoted in the
tract Succa, which itself distinctly asserts the
contrary), that on the eighth day this ceremony
did not take place. Now, out of this difficulty I
would extract what I believe to be the right in-
terpretation. It teas the eighth day, and the
pouring of water did not take place. But is
therefore (as LUcke will have it) all allusion to
the ceremony excluded? I think not: nay, I
believe it is the more natural. For seven days
the ceremony had been performed, and the Hal-
lel sung. On tho eighth day the Hallel was



sung, but the outpouring of the water did not
take place: *• desideraverunt aliquidJ' * Then Jesus
stood and criedf* etc. Was not this the most na-
tural time? Was it not probable that He would
have said it at a time, rather even than while
the ceremony itself was going on?'' This ac-
cords with tlK) view taken by Lange (see below
and DocTR. and Ethical No. 1), but Words-
worth, Owen and others defend the usual opinion
that on the eighth day as well as on those pre-
ceding, and with louder and more general ex-
pressions of joy, the priest brought forth, in a
golden vessel, water from the spring of Siloam,
and poured it upon tho altar, and that Jesus at
that very time proffered the water of life to all
who would come unto Him and drink. — P. S.]

The last day of the feast of tabernacles was an
especially high day, being the close of the feast
(as well as of the festal season of the year), and
being a Sabbath, a day on which the congrega-
tion assembled according to the law (Lev. xxiii.
86), and which was therefore distinguished by a
special sacrificial ritual. But one thing the day
lacked, which distinguished the other days. On
each of the seven preceding days, in the morn-
ing, occurred tho festal water-drawing. A priest
drew waterdaily with a large golden pitcher (hold-
ing about two pints and a half ) from the spring of
Siloam on the temple hill, brought it into the
temple, and poured it out mingled with sacrifi-
cial wine, into two perforated dishes at the altar.
The ceremony was accompanied with the sound
of cymbals and trumpets, and the singing of the
words of Isa. xii. 8, which Rabbi Jonathan para-
phrased: "With joy shall ye receive' the new
doctrine from the chosen righteous." This was
the celebration of the miraculous springs which
God opened for the people on their pilgrimage
through the wilderness. But because the eighth
day marked the entrance into Canaan, the water-
drawing ceased. On this day the springs of the
promised land gave their waters to the people;
an emblem of the streams of spiritual blessing
whioh Jehovah had promised to His people. To
this symbolical performance the words of Jcsns
on the last day of the feast evidently refer {Lt-
ben Jesu, III. p. 619). It is of no account that,
according to Rabbi Juda, the pouring out of the
water took place on the eighth day also. This
was probably a later supplement, if tho state-
ment is not an error.

The great day [ry ^yciAT?].— That is, espe-
cially great in comparison with the other days.*
See the preceding remarks. Philo also [De Sep-
tenaris II. 298] observes that it was the close of
the yearly feasts ; t. e. of the three great feasts,
not of all.

Cried, saying. — Jesus had not hitherto so-

• [Meyer: The |ieyaA($n}f of tho eighth day consisted Just
in this, that it brought the great feast to a solemn closs.]



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CHAP. Vn. 87-44.



267



OTenlj presented Himself as the personal object
of a saving faith.

If any one thirst [i. e. whosoever thirsts]
let him come to me and drink. — See the
observations on ver. 87. The reference of this
• preaching of salvation under the promise of a
miraculous draught and fountain of water to the
water-drawing is groundless! j considered bj
Meyer to be dubious. It agrees entirely with
the character of the fourth Gospel, in which
Jesus presents Himself in the most varied ways
as the fulfilment of the Old Testament symbols.
The spiritual import of the water-drawing ap-
pears in Isa. xiL 8 [** with joy shall ye draw
water out of the wells of salvation "J. This
water^drawing must be distinguished from the
devotional water-drawing on days of humiliation
and fksting, 1 Sam. vii. 6.

[The invitation first given to the Samaritan
woman at Jacob's well, is here extended to all the
people on the great feast in Jerusalem. The
N. T. closes with a similar offer of the water of
life'(Rev. xxii. 17). There is an inner thirst as
there is an inner man, and the former is deeper
and stronger than the thirst of the body, and
can only be satisfied from the fountain of life in
ChrisL *» Under the imagery of one thirsting
for water, which everywhere, and especially in
countries like Palestine where the want of water
is so frequently experienced, would be well un-
derstood, our Lord proffers to all such persons
that which will forever satisfy the longings -of
the soul and give it permanent rest.*' Owen.
"An allusion to the water drawn in a golden
vase ft-om the pool of Siloam and poured on the
altar in the temple ... as a memorial of the
water from the rock smitten in the wilderness,
and typical of the living water of the Spirit from
the true Rock (1 Cor. x. 4)." Wordsworth.— P. S.]

Yer. 88. He that believeth* in me, etc,^
— ^Explaining the expression: '*Come unto mo*
and drink." — As the scripture hath said. —
These words are not to be connected with 6 ma-
rrifuv, as if the meaning were: "He who ac-
cording to the scripture believeth in Mo " (Chry-
sostom, Calovius, and others). An iou may bo
understood. Meyer: «0 viortbuv is nominat.
abiol. The question then is, what words of
Scripture the Lord means. The expression
[which follows: "out of his body shall flow
rivers of living water "] does not occur literally
in the Old Testament ; so that Whiston and others
took up the idea that it was from some canonical
or apocrjphal sources now lost. Against this
are (1) the usage of the New Testament, (2) the
general reference to " the scripture,** which, as
such, seems to be intended to point rather to a
promise running through the Old Testament than
to any particular passnge (see Isa. xliv. 3; Iv. 1 ;
especially Iviii. 11 ; Ezek. xlvit 1 ff.; Joel ii. 23;
Zech. xiii. 1 ; xiv. 8). Olshausen fixes particu-
larly on those passages which promise a flowing
forth of living water from the temple, the be-

*r'0 «t9T«M»y is an empbfitic absolnte nomlnatire. The
preiucato U not expreeted, but implied In the words irorofio^
• -. pwcowair. Soch IrregalaritY is not unft^qnent In the
best Greek classic*. It is intended to give greater promi-
1 to the nonn, hence to the nooessity of Wth. SimiUr



M John Ti. 89 (irar); xrll. 2; Acts vU. 40; Apoc
II. 9S (i riKMK— 6M<rM ain^) ; iii. 12, 21 ; comp. Bnttmaun,
Jftidetitmnia, Qrmmmitik, p. 325.— P. S.]



liever being consiilered as a living temple.* And
undoubtedly Christ at least would as surely have
Himself considered the true templc-(ountain, as
He in oh. ii. presented Himself as the true tem-
ple. The notions of the temple (ch. ii.) and the
fountain (ch. iv.) here run togetuer. The ques-
tion is whether the believer also will himself bo
a temple-spring. See the next paragraph.

Out of his belly (body). — 'E/c Tijg KoOJac
ttvTov, That KoiXta ([!?3) may denote in Hebrew
usage the inward part, the hoart, is proved by
Prov. XX. 27, and similar passages ^sce Brot-
schneider*8 Lexicon); hence Ghrysostom [his
successors] and others have taken KotXia as equi-
valent to Kapdia, [Augustine: the inner man,
the heart's conscience. — P. S.] The only ques-
tion is, why the Lord chose the strong term.
Meyer [p. 812] thinks it should be strictly un-
derstood of the abdomen [Bauckhohle^ as the
receptacle of water taken into a man], and
then this should bo taken figuratively. His
body shall give forth living water as a stream of
a fountain (through the mouth!); without the
figure, the divine grace and truth which the be-
liever has taken from the fulness of Christ into
his inner life, remains not shut up within him-
self, but imparts itself in overflowing abundance



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