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John] 1793-1863 [Russell.

The history of the war, betwee the United States and Great-Britain, which commenced in June, 1812, and closed in Feb. 1815 .. online

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Online LibraryJohn] 1793-1863 [RussellThe history of the war, betwee the United States and Great-Britain, which commenced in June, 1812, and closed in Feb. 1815 .. → online text (page 1 of 38)
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/



WA/? ^

THE f \t,T^ je.



.^^^ \



historW %^^^-^<^^

OF \^v V ^ , ^^

THE W^ ^

BETWEEN THE "^

irmTEB STSTES AJ^D GBEAT-BHITAIX,

■WHICH COMMENCED IN JONE, 1812, AND CLOSED IN FEB. 1815 ;

CONTAINING
THE CORRESPONDENCE WHICH PASSED BETWEEN
THE TWO GOVERNMENTS, IMMEDIATELY PRE-
CEDING, AND SINCE HOSTILITIES COMMENC-
ED ; THE DECLARATION OP WAR, AND
THE OFFICIAL REPORTS OF LAND
AND NAVAL ENGAGEMENTS.

COMPILED OHIEKliY FR(>M

PUBLIC DOCUMENTS.



APPENDIX,



CONTAINING

THE CORUESPONDENCB WHICH PASSED BETWEEN OUR COMMISSION-
ERS, AND THOSE APPOINTED BY GREAT-BRITAIN, IN TBEATING FOR

PEACE.

TO WHICH IS ADDED,

THE TREATY OF PEACE,

AND A LIST OF VESSELS TAKEN FROM G. BRITAIN
DURING THE WAR.



HARTFORD :
PUBLISHED BY WILLFAM S. MARSH



1815.
B, ^' J, Rii^sell, Printer?,






District of Conrtecticut, ss,

luSy ^^^^' tlEJMEMBERFD. Thai on the
yc.vi^^T^ tenth day of July y in the Forlietii yea) of
the Jndepencltnce of the ilniV^d (States of imet ,ca,
B. Sf J. Russell^oj the sa'id District, deposited in this
office the title of a Hook, the riyht whereof they claim
as Proprietors, in the words foUorviny, to wit,

* The History of the ^^ ar, between the Unded Slater,
^ and Great Brdain, which commenced in J une^ 1812,
' and closed in Feb 18 lo, conlaminy the correspondence
- which passed between the two Governments immedi-
« ately pi ecedmy and since hostilities comnu need ; the
' declaration oj War, and the ojjicial reports 'j land

* and novcd engagements^ comjyiled cldejiy fr,m public

* documeiits. \\ Uh an appendix, containing the r.nr-
*respondence which passed between our Cotnniissioners

* and those appointed l)y (jrtat Britain, in treating for

* peace. Tonhich :s added the Treaty of Peace, and

* a list of vessels taken from Great Britain during
^ the War. Compiled by J. RLSSELL, Jr.'

In conf.rmity to the act of the Congress oJ the Uni -
ted States, enitiled,." An act for tlie encouragement of
^■^ learning, by securing the copies ojAiajjs, Charts, and
" Boohs, to the autiiors and proprietors of such copies,
** during the times therein mentianed.''

HLMiY W. EDWAUDS.
Clerk oj tlie District of Connecticnl.
A true ropy of lievord, examined and sealed by me,
H. \y. Edwards,

Clem of the District of Connecticut

By tranatei




TNT



AN history of recent transa7tlTTn?J7n'>"*'t always
be executed under many, and great disadvantages.

In a time of war, mart)' imporlant occurrences are
butiini'erfecll) known, till llic Irutli is elicited h\ It-g-ai
investigation ; and, in addition to this, t]*e feelinos of
men are so ardent, that an author cannol be expected
to be wholly impartial, \vh< n recountinij;' those events,
in which himself, or his friends, have acted a conspi-
cuous part.

The publishers were, therefore, of opinion, that al
the present time, the most useful History of the War,
would be a faithful collection of Officii^l State Papers,
and accounts of Military operations, ^'uch a work
cannot be taxed with paitialit} ; and, it is presumed,
will be perused with intercsl by every Am(rica"n, who
values his national rights, and whose bosom glows, at
the recital of those deeds of valor, which have exalt-
ed the honor of his country.

If, in some instances. Commanding' Officers liave
seemed to manifest a want of candor, it ought slill to
be remembered by the public, that they wrote in the
heat of the occasion ; and, often, while agoiuzing U!\-
der wounds received trom an exasperated enemy.
Modern Histories of Campaigns, are not, to say the
least, more candid, and are, surely, less entitled to
apology. This collection of Documents can never
become a useless volume ; for, besides lurnishing the
best evidence of fact to the inquisitive reader, and fu-
ture historian, it is a ready mannel, by which every en-
quirer after truth, can at once adduce the best evidence
on questions which affect the character of the Ameri-
can nation, relative to her military prowess. Our
readers will feel satisfied, after its perusal, that they
possess all the Official information, which can be ob-
tained, relative to the mihtary movements, and bra-



3V INTRODUCTION,

very and skill of our countrymen in the field of baltle.
Perhaps, in some instances, the losses and sufferino-&
of the armies of both nations, have not been fully as-
certained ; so wide is the tield, that it is somewhat
difficult to collect all the facts. On the water, where
■we have been peculiarly successful, the official ac-
counts more fully and explicitly state the loss, as well
as the comparative skdl and, bravery of the contend-
ing parties.

In the list of public and private vessels taken from
the enemy during the war, we have not given the
whole number of men and guns, on board of a laro-e
proportion of the merchant vessels, as it was never
officially stated. In every instance of this kind,
•where we could not obtain correct information, we
Lave left the number blank. We are sorry to say it is
wholly out of our power to accompany the list of
prizes with a correct list of the vessels we have lost i
the enemy never having made a public statement
of their prizes, we could not collect them from any
authentic source.



CHAPTER 1.

Page.

President's Message, 9
Messrs. Monroe and Foster's Official Letters, relating to the
.^ Orders in Council, Blockades, and Impressment of Seamen,

1 6. 2b, 26. 27, SO, 43, 52, 63, 60

Adjustment of the affair of the Chesapeake Frigate, 66
Monroe and Foster's Letters relating to the Ch«^sapeake affair,

67,68,69 70

" " relating to the Berlin and IVLIan Decrees, 7i, 82



CHAPTER II.

President's Message, 75

Monroe and Foster's Letters relating to the Non-Importation
Act, 76/80

CHAPTER III.

The President's Manifesto, 85

Report of the committee on Foreign Relations, 94f

Declaration of War, 109

Yeas, and Nays, on the Declaration of War, in the Senate, and

House of Representatives, ibid.

Promulgation of the Declaration of War, 111

CHAPTER ly.

The 6rst Prisoner, 1 12

The first Prize, 113

Monroe and Foster's Letters, relating to the Orders in Council,

and Berlin and Milan Decrees, 113,117, 119

president's Message, 122

Mr. Russell and Lord Castlereagh's Letters relating to the

Orders in Council, 122, 123

Order in Council, 131

Loss of Gen. Hull's baggage, 133

Hull's Proclamation, to the Canadians^ ibid.

Skirmishing, near Sandwich, 135



VI CONTENTS.

Cinat'itn Mifitia joio G^n. Hull, 13^

Capt HalI'>.TictorT, ibid.

Orders in Council Revoked, j38

Gen Hall's Statenient of his Sotrender, 141

Vauhonj'? Defeat, 143

Battle at the river Rakin, I5q
Articles of capitulati. d of HnFl's army, and Michigan Territory, 1 53
Colooeh Cas5. M'Arthur. Findley and Miller remonstrate

aeainst Gen HulTs conduct, 154
Gen Br^K-k's Proclamation, to the Inhabitants of Michiaian

Terrifory. ^ 16i
A card frum Cnl. Svmmes to Gen. Brock, 1 62
Capt Porter'. Virtory. ibid,
" '' Letter, 163
D*r««ee of Fort Harrison. jg:^
Majors Jessup and Taylors' cofroboratiou of Col. Cass' state-
ment, , go
SkirmishiBg at St. John's river. ibid

" " at Cananoque and Otdensbars, 169

Affair at St Regis, ^ j.q

CJaj»L Eltior's victory, s^.

Evaruat!0o of Fort Chicaco. 274

C .m Chaancey's battle in Kingston harbor, 177

Battle of Queenston, j -^^

CHAPTER V.

Monroe, Graham, Russell, and Castlereagb's Letters,

la xf ^ e- , » ,^ ^^^' '^^- '^'' *^5' 1»S,200 20i

Mr Monroe and Sir J. B Warren's Correspondence, 202. 204

Bntish Challange, and American Acceptance, ' 208

CHAPTER VI.

Capt. Jones' Victory and Captare, 209

Com. Decatur's Victory, 2ii

Com Bainbriilge's Victory, 2i2

Capt, Lawrence's Victory, ^27

CHAPTER YII.

^^^J"^ ?"'" 7l!^l 220, 223, 225

Gen. \\ mchester's Defeat, 226

Blaseacre of Winchesters Army, 229
Indian Expedition,



231
« ^ - ' 232

C^ Forsyth's E5pediU0D,_ 283.



Gen. Smyth's Expedition, 232



CONTENTS.

CHAPTER VIII.

Uamsoo's Battle at Lower Sacduskj, 2S3 ;

CaiMore of Fort George, 2:j7.

Capture of Fort Erie, jj

Com Cbauocey's Letter to the Secretary of the Navy cod-

Teyiog tbe BriiUh Siaodanl, taken at York, j

Battle at forty mile rreek,
Attsick on J?ackeft's Harbor.
Naval Expedition fr-^m Sackett's Harbor,
Maj>r Cruzban's Victory,
Li'ss of the Frigate Che>ap^ake,
Capture of Litrie York, tbe second time.
Borning of S.>du5, i

Ats^k on Crar^ty Island, j

Capture of Hampton, 250

Murder of John B Graves,

Skinni.ihiDg at Fort George, ibid.

Destruction of Indian tOKie, 253

A Yankee Tnck. y^^

CapL Burrows' Victory, 4^54

CHAPTER IX.

Peny 's Victory, 255, 256, 257

Capture of the Dominico, 259

Capture of Maiden, jj^^

Gen Harri?ori*5 Victory. 2€0

Fruits of Harrison's Virtory, 2*^7

Tecumseh's Speech to G«n. Proctor, ib.J.

Com. Cbauocey's Victory-. 2^3

Something Sinjular 2~0

Com. Rogers' cruise, j^;^

Col Clarke's Expedition, 271

Matsacrp at Fort Teasair, ^^

Harrison and Perry's Proclamation, 274

Wilkinson and Hampton's Expedition, 275

CHAPTER X.

Gens. Jackson, WhHe, and Coffee's Victories, over tbe Creek

^ '"^^Sr-^ ^ ^^' ^"' 278, 2a0, 264, 288

tr^c Hordes Victnry, 281 28S

CJen. Claiborne's Victory * 2S2

CHAPTER XI

Capt. Porter's crntse, 2S0

L. r> of Fort Niagara, 292

Burning of Bufikio, and Black Rock, 293



"^iii CONTENTS.

Capt. Holmes* Victory,

Battle at Stonoy Creek, # ^^^

Capt. Warriuat-m's Victory, .^?^

Loss of tbe Essex frigate, *'"**•

Capture of Oswego, ^^^

Gen. Brown's Victories, „^, ^?2

' 304, 306

CHAPTER XII.

Capitulation of Alexandria,

Capture of Washington City, «,„ ^"®

Com. Macdonough's Victory, ^ia ?!?

Burning of Petfipauge, J14, 315

Attack on Stonington, ^*^

Gen Gains' Victory, .f.|?

Attack on Baltimore, *°"'-

Attack on Fort Bowyer, ^^*

Gen. Brown's Victory, .??*

Gen Macomb's Victory, '°'°'

Capt Blakeley's Victory, ^^^

Destruction of the Avon, ^^*

Expedition from Detroit. ^^^

' 330

CHAPTER XIIL

Capture of Pensacola,

Gen Jackson's Victories at New Orleans, 333 of!

L.eu Shield's Expedition from New-Orleans, ' 3^

L.eut. Johnson's Exr>edition from New-Orleans, ^#

Gen. Jackson's A-ldres. to his army, ' .f?J

Capture of the frijiate President, ZT,'

Capt Boyle's Viatory, ^^^

Capt. Mickler's Victory, ^**

Gun Boat No. 168, and'the Erebus frigate, o*^

Capt. Stewart's Victory, ' ^*^

•^' 349

APPENDIX.

Correspondence, which passed between the Commissioners of

Secretary of State, 350, ^68, 359. 064, 367. 374,

Treaty of Peace, ' '''^' ^''' *^'' ^^*' ^'^' ^^l, 422

Li.r of Ve.sscis taken during the War,
Capt. Biddle's Victory,



424.
435
463



HISTORY



OP



THE WAR.



CHAPTER I.
PRESIDENTS MESSAGE.

WASHINGTON CITY, Tuesday, November 5, lail.

The President of the United Stales this day commu-
nicated by 31r. Edward Coles, his private secre-
iary, the foUowiny Message to Conyress —

Fellon'-Cilizcns of the Senate, and of

the House of Representatives,

IN calling" yon together sooner than a separation
from your homes would otherwise have been required,
1 yielded to considerations drawn from the posture of
our foreign affairs ; and in fixing the present for tlie
time of your meeting, regard was had to the probabil-
ity of further developements of the policy of the bej-
ligerent powers towards this country, which might the
more unite the national councils, m the measures to
be pursued.

At the close of the last session of Congress, it was
hoped that the successive confirmations of the extinc-
rion of the Frencli Decrees, so far as they violated
our neutral commerce, wgnld have induced the gov-
ernment of Great-Britiiin to repeal its Orders in
Council ; and thei*eby authorise a removal of the ex-
isting obstructions to her commerce with the United
States.

Instead of this reasonable step towards satisfaction
and friendship between ihe two nations, the Orders
were at a moment when least to havp been expected,

2



10 HISTORY OF THE WAR.

put into nioie vigorous execution ; and it was com-
municated through the British Envoy just arrived,
that whilst the revocation of tlic Edicts of France, as
officially made known to the British government,
was denied to have taken place ; it was an indispen-
sable condition of the repeal of the British Orders,
that commerce should be restored to a footing, that
would admit the produi^tions and manufactures of
Great-Britain, when owned by neutrals, into markets
shut against them by her enemy ; the United States
being given to understand that, in the mean time, a
continuance of their non-impurtation act would lead
to measujes of retaliation.

At a later date, it has indeed appeared, that a
communication to the British govermnent, of fresh
evidence of the repeal of the French Decrees against
our neutral trade, was followed by an inlimation, that
it had been transmitted to the Bi itish Plenipotentiary
here ; in order that it mio lit receive full consideration
in the depending discussions. This connnunication
appears not to have been received ; but the transmis-
sion of it hither, instead of founding on it an actual
repeal of the Orders, or assurances that the repeal
would ensue, will not permit us to rely on any elect-
ive change in the British cabinet. To be ready to
meet with cordiality satisfactory proofs of such a
change, and to proceed, in the mean time, in adapt-
ing our measures to the views which have been dis-
closed through that minister, will best consult our
whole duty.

In the unfriendly spirit of those disclosures, ind*^r.!-
nity and redress for other wrongs have continu.^d to
be withheld, and our coasts and the mouths of out-
harbors have again witnessed scenes, not less dcroo-
alory to the dearest of our national rights, than vexa-
tions lo \]}c regular course of our trade.

Among the occurrences produced by the conduct
of British ships of war hovering on our coasis, wa**
an encounter between one of them and the American
frigate eomniiindrd !»y Captain Boo-pis. nr.dired



HISTORY OF THE \S A.R. 11

unavoitlabie on the part of the kilter, by a fire com-
menced without cause by the former; whose com-
mander is therefore, alone charii'eable with the blood

....

unfortunately shed in nuiinlaininu;' the honor of the
American tlai^f. Tlie proceedings of a court of en-
quiry, requested l)y Captain Kot;ers, are communicat-
ed ; togetlier with the correspondence relating- to tlie
occurrence, be tween the Secretary of State, and his
Britannic Majesty's Knvoy. To thes(; are added,
the several correspondences which ]ia\e passed on
the subjeti*; of the British Orders in Council ; and to
both the corres|)ondencc relating to the Floridas, in
which Congress will be made acquainted with the
interpositi(Mi which the government of Great-Britain
has tliouiiht proper to make against the proceedings
of the United States,

The justice, and fairness which have been evinced
on the part of the United States towards France, both
before and since the revocation of her Decrees,
authorised an expectation tliat her government w ould
have followed up that measure by all such others as
were due to our reasonable claims as well as dictat-
ed by its amicable professions. IS'o proof, however,
is yet given of an intention to repair the oUicr w rongs
done to the United Slates : and |)«rlicularly to re-
store the great amount of American projierty seized
and condemned under Edicts, which, though not af-
fecting our neutral relations, and tiierefore, not ( iiter-
ing into (piestions between the United States and oth-
er belligerents, were nevertheless founded in such un-
just principles, that the reparation ought to have been
prompt and ample.

In addition to this, and other demands of strict
right, on that nation; the United States have much
reason to be dissatisfied with the rioorous and unex-
pected restrictions, to wliich their trade with the
French dominions hasf been subjected : and which, if
not discontinued, will require at least corresj)oriding
restrictions on importations from France into the
United Stales.



12 HISTORY OF THE M'All.

On all those subjects our Minister Plenipotentiary,
lately sent to Paris, has carried with hnxx the neces-
sary instructions ; the result of which will be commu-
rjicated to you, and by ascertaining- the ulterior policy
of the French government towards the United States,
will enable you to adapt to it that of the United States
towards France.

Our other foreign relations remjiin without unfa-
vorable changes. With Russia they are on the bef>t
footing of friendship. The ports of Sweden have
afforded proofs of friendly dispositions towards our
commerce, in the councils of that nation also. And
the information from our special Minister to Denmark,
shews that the mission had been attended with valua-
ble effects to our citizeiis, whose property had been
so extCTi<3:\ely violated and endangered by cruisers
under the Danish flag.

Under the ominous indications which commanded
attention, it became a duty, to exert the means com-
mitted to the Executive Departme^it, in providing for
the general security. The works of deience on our
maritime frontier have accordingly been prosecuted,
with af) activity leaving little to be added for the com-
pletion of the most important ones ; and as particu-
larly suited for co-operation in emergencies, a portion of
the Gnu'-Boatshave, in particular harbours, been order-
ed into use. The Ships of war before in commission,
with the addition of a Frigate, have been chiefly em-
ployed, as a cruising guard to the rights of our coast.
And such a disposition has been made of our land
forces, as was ihouglit to promise the services most
appropriate and important. In this disposition is in-
cluded a force, consisting of regulars and militin, em-
bodied in the Indiana Territory, and marched towards
our North Western frontier. — This measure was
^nade requisite by several mm'ders and depredations
conmiitlod by Indians ; but more especially by the
Dienacing preparations and aspect of a combmalion of
them on the Wabash under the influence and direc-
tion of a fanatic of the Shawanese tribe. Wkhtbes^



HISTORY or THE WAR. 1^

exceptions the Indian tril>€s retain their peaceable dis-
positions towards us, and tlicir usual pursuits

I must now add, that tlie period is arrived which
ckims from the Legislative Guardians ot the National
ri«''hts a system ot niore ample provisions tor maintain-
ii^o- them. Notwithstanding the scrupulous justice,
th? protracted moderation, and the multiplied eftorts
on the part of the United States, to substitute tor the
accuimilating dangers to the peace of the two coun-
tries, all the mutual advantages of re-est.;blished
friendship and confidence; we have seen that the
British Cabinet perseveres not only in withholding a
remedy for other wrongs so long and so loudly caUing
for it r"but in the execution brought home to the thresli-
hold of our Territorv, of measures which under
existing circumstances", have the character, as well as
the effect of war on our lawful conuuerce.

With this evidence of hostile inflexibility, mtramp-
Invr on rights which no independent nation can re-
linquish, Congress will feel the duty of putting the
United States into an armor, and an attitude de-
manded by the crisis, and corresponding with the
national spirit and expectations.

I recommend accordingly, that adecpiale provision
be made for filling the ranks and prolonging the eii-
listiuenls of the regular troops : for an auxihary torce,
to be engaged for a more limited term ; tor the ac-
ceptance of volunteer corps, whose patriotic ardor
may court a participation in urgent services ; for
detachments, as they may be wanted, of other por-
tions of the militia ; and for such a preparation ot the
great body, as will proportion its usefulness to its in*
Uinsic capacities. Nor can the occasion fail to remmd
you of the importance of those military Seminaries,
which, in every event, will form a valuable and frugal
part of our military establishment.

The manufacture of cannon and small arms has
proceeded with due success, and the s^tock and re-
sources of all the necessary munitions are adequate to
emergencies. It will not be inexpedient, however,
for Conro-ess to authorize an enlargement of them.



14 illSTOKV OF THE \V AR.

Your altention will of course be tliawji to sucb
provisions, on the subject of our naval force, as may
be required for tbe services to wliirh it may be best
adapted. I submit to C'>ng^ress the seasonableiiess
tilso, of an aulliority to augment the stock of such ma-
terials, as are imperishable m their nature, or may not
at once be attainable.

Ju contemplating the scenes wliich disting-uish this
momentous epoch, and estimating' their claims to our
attention, it is impossible to overlook those tleveloping
themselves among' the great communit.es which oc-
cupy tlie southern portion of our own hemisphere, and
extend iiito our neighbourhood. An enla^'ged philaLi-
ilu'opy, and an enlig-htened forecast, concur in impos-
ing on the National Councils an obligation to take a
deep interest in their destinies : to cherish reciprocal
sentiments of good will ; to regard the progress of
events ; and not to be unprepared for whatever order
of things may be ultimately established.

Under another aspect of oiu* situation, the early at-
tention of Congress w ill be due to the expediency of
further guards against evasions arid infractions of our
commercial laws. The pi-acticc of smuggling, which
is odious c\ciy where, and particularly criminal in
free governments, where, the laws being made by all,
for the good of all, a fraud is committed on every in-
dividual as well as on the state, attains its utmost guilt,
when it blends, with a pursuit of ignomii»ious gain,
a treacherous subservijency in the transgressors, to a
foreign policy, adverse to that of their own country.
It is then that the virtuous indignation of the public
should be enabled to njanihst itself, through die regu-
lar animadversions of the nu>st competent laws.

To secure greater respect to our mercantile flag,
and to the lionest interest which it covers, it is ex-
[*t;di«nt also, that it be made punishable in ourcitizens,
to accept licences from foreign govenmients, for a
trade mdawfully interdicted by them to other Ameri-
can citizens ; oj* to irade under fabe colours or papers
<»1 auv soli.



tllbTORY OF THE WAR. 1-3

A piohibilion is equally called for, against the ac-
ceptance, l>y ©ur citizens of special licences, to be
used in a trade with the United States; and ao^anist.
the admission into particular ports of the Unifed
States, of ^essels from foreign countries, aulhorized to
trade with particular ports only.

Although other sul»jects w ill |iress more iiiimedi-
'ately on your deliberations, a poriion of them cannot
but be well bestowed, on the just and sound policy of
securing- to our nuinufactures the success they have
attained, and nre still attaining-, in some degree, undev
the im[)ulse of causes not permanent; and to ournavi-
g^ation, the iair extent of which it isat pn.sent abridg-
ed by the uuecpud regnlalions of foreign govern-
merits.

Besides the reasonableness of saving* our manufac-
turers from sacrifices which a change of circumstan-
ces mig'ht bring on them, the nalional interest requires,
that, with respect to such articles at least as belong' lo
our delence, and our primary wants, we should not be
left in unnecessary dependence on external supplies.
And whiLst foreign governments adhere to the existing-
discriminations m their ports against our navigation,
and an equality or lesser discrinunalion is enjoyed by
their navigation in our ports, the eftcct cannot Uf.
mistaken, beciiuse it has been seriously felt by our
shipping interests ; anel in proportion as this lakes
place, the advantages of an indej)endent conveyance of
our products to foreign markets, and of a growing*
hotly of mariners, trained by their occupations for the
service of their country in limes of danger, nuist be
diminished.

I'he receipts into the Treasury, during the year, cn-
diiig on the thirtieth of September last, have exceeded
thirteen millions and a half of dollars, and have ena-
bled us to defray the current expences, including tjie
interest o)i the public debt and to reimburse more than
live millions of dollars of the principal, withoiit reciir-
fing to the loan authorized by Ihe act of the last Ses-
sion. The temporary loan obtained in the latter end
<^f the year one thousand eight hundred and ten, has



Online LibraryJohn] 1793-1863 [RussellThe history of the war, betwee the United States and Great-Britain, which commenced in June, 1812, and closed in Feb. 1815 .. → online text (page 1 of 38)