Copyright
John] 1793-1863 [Russell.

The history of the war, betwee the United States and Great-Britain, which commenced in June, 1812, and closed in Feb. 1815 .. online

. (page 22 of 38)
Online LibraryJohn] 1793-1863 [RussellThe history of the war, betwee the United States and Great-Britain, which commenced in June, 1812, and closed in Feb. 1815 .. → online text (page 22 of 38)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


WISTOI^y OF THE WAR. 2/5

tinue to prevail. All magistrates and other civil offi-
cers are to resume the exercise of their functions ;
previously taking an oath to be faithful to the govern-
ment of the U. States, as long as they shall be in pos-
session of the country. The authority of all militia
commissions is suspended in said district, and the offi-
cers required to give their parole, in such way as the
officer, who may be appointed by the commanding
Gen. to administer the government, shall direct.

The inhabitants of said district are promised pro-
tection to their persons and property, with the excep-
tion of those cases embraced by the proclamation of
Gen. yVocfor, of the — ult. which is declared to be in
force, ar.d the powers therein assumed transfered to
the officer appointed to administer the government.

Given under our hands and seals, at Sandwich,
this 17th Oct. 1813.

(Signed; WiM. H. HARRISON.

OLIVER H. PERRY.

Gens. Wilkinson and Hampton. — These two Gen-
erals made an attempt to take Montreal about the 1st
of Nov. 1813. Gen. Hampton was stationed at
Piattsburgh, and was to meet Gen. Wilkinson at
French Mills ; having succeeded in marching
through the forest 24 miles in one day, by way of
Chatauguay, and entering upon the second large
forest, Ins guides left hmi, which occasioned the army
to halt for three or four days; in the mean time our
troops attempted the enemy's breast work, thrown up
in the woods by falling trees, digging ditches, &c. and
succeeded in cotnpletely driving him from his posi-
tion ; — a party sent round to intercept their retreat
was met by one of considerable force and oblfged to
retire. — Here some misunderstanding took place be-
tween the two Generals on account of the place of
meeting; which, finally contributed largely to the
overthrow of the expedition. Hampton immediately
ordered his men back to winter quarters. In this
farce we lost 34 men killed and missing. — Gen Wil-



276 HISTORY OF THE WAR.

kinson was stationed at Sarkett's Harbor, and con-
veyed his army flown the St. Lawrence in boats»
The enemy about 2000, from Presrott, Kmg-ston, &c.
hung- on his rear, and harrassed him continually.
They an'ived at Williamsburg- the 11th of Nov. and
was obliged io face about and attack the enemy to
save their bag-o^age. The forces were about equally
slronsr, having- from 12 to I'OO men eng-aged ; each
gave way by turns — our men getting out of ammuni-
tion, left the field of action unmolested, and passed
down the slreig-hts, without seeing the enemy again.
We lost in this battle 102 non-commissioned officers
and privates killed, and 237 officers and privates
•wounded, with one field piece and several stand of
arms: 3 officers and 2<S privates of the wounded were
taken prisoners. At Cornwall Gen. Wilkinson first
received intellig-ence of the different route General.
Hampton had taken; a council of General officers
xvas held, and it was agreed best to abandon the ex-
pedition.

AMERICAN LOSS.

Killed 102— wounded 237— missing 31— total 370.

BRITISH LOhS.

Killed 210 — wounded 248 — prisoners 17 — total 475



CHAPTER X.

CREEK W^AR.

Gen. Jackson to Gov. Blount.
Cinip at Ten Islands, JNov.4th, 1813.
SIR — W'e have retaliated for the destruction
of Fort Mims. On the 2d instant, I <letached
Gen. Coffee with a part of his brigade of cavalry and
mounted riflemen, to destroy Tallushatches, where a
considerable force of the hostile (Veekswere concen-
traled. The Gen. executed this in stile. A hun-
dred and eighty-six of the enemy were found dead on
the field, and about eighty taken prisoners , forty of



HISTORY OF THE WAR. 277;

■whoTTihave been broug^bt bere. In Ibe number left,
tbere is a sufficiency butsbgblly wounded to take care
of ibose who are badly.

I herein enclose Gen. Coffee's official report of the
action.

I have the honor to be, 'vcc.

ANDREW JACKSON.

Gen. Coffee to Gen. Jackson.
Camp at 'I en Islands^ Nov. Aihy 1813.
SIR, — I had the honor yesterday, of transmitting*
you a short account of an engagement that took place
between a detachment of about nine hundred men
from my brigade, with the enemy at T^llushatches
towns ; the particulars whereof I beg leave herein to
recite to you. Pursuant to your order of the 2d, I
detailed from my brigade of cavalry and mounted ri-
flemen, nine hundred men and officers, and proceeded
directly to the Tallushatches towns, crossnig Coosey,
river at the Fish Dam ford, 3 or 4 miles above this
place. I arrived within one and a half miles of the
town (distant from this place south-east eight miles)
on the morning of the third, at which place I divided
my detachment into two columns the right composed
of the cavalry commanded by Col. Allcorn, to cross
over a large creek that lay between us and the towns,
the left column was of the mounted riflemen, under
the command o{ Col, Cannon, with whom I marched
myself. Col. Allcorn was ordered to march up on
the right and encircle one one half of the town, and
at the same time the left would form a half circle on
the left, and unite the head of the colums in front of
the town ; all of which was performed as I could
wish. When I arrived in half a mile of the towns,
the drums of the enemy began to beat, mingled with
their savage yells, preparing for action. It was af-
ter sun- rise an hour ; when the action was brought
on by Capt. Hammond and Lieut. Patterson's com-
panies, who had gone on within the circle of align-
ment for the purpose of drawing out the enemy from



:278 HISTORY OF THE WAR.

their buildiug^s, which had the most happy effects.
As soon as Capt. Hammond exhibited his front in
viewof the town, (which stood in open woodlaHd)
ind gave a few scattering shot, the enemy formed and
made a violent charge on him ; he gave way as they
advanced, until they met our right column ; which
gave them a general fire and then charged ; this
changed the direction of charge compleleiy ; the
enemy retreated, firing, until they got around and in
their buildings, where they made all the resistance
that an overpowered soldier could do ; they fought as
long as one existed, but their destruction was very
soon completed ; our men rushed up to the doors of
the houses, and in a few minutes killed the last war^
riorofthem ; the enemy fought with savage fury, and
met death with all its horrors, without shrinking or
complaining, not one asked to be spared, but fought
so long as they could stand or sit. In consequence
of their flying to their houses and mixing with the
families, our men in killing the males, wilhont inten-
tion, killed and wounded a few squaws and ( hildren,
"which was regretted by every officer and soldier of
the detachment, but which could not be avoided.

The number of the enemy killed was one hundred
and eighty-six that were counted, and a number of oth-
ers that were killed in the weeds not found. I think
the calculation a reasonable one, to say two hundred of
them were killed, and eighty-four prisoners of women
and children, were taken ; not one of the warriors
escaped to carry the news, a circumstance unknown
heretofore.

I lost five men killed and forty-one wounded, none
mortally, the greater part slightly, a number with
arrows; two of the men kilted was with arrows ; this
appears to form a very principal part of enemy's arms
for warfare ; every man having a bow with a bundle
of arrows, which is used after the first fire with the
gun, until a leisure time for loading ofi'ers.

I have U»e honor to be, .Stc.

Ji\'0 COFFEE.



HISTORY OP THE WAR. 27&

Gen. Jackson to Gov. Blount.
Camp Ten Islands of Cossa, Nov. 11, 1813.

[Extract.] SIR — I am just returned from an ex-
cursion which I took a few days ago, and hasten t6
acquaint you with the result.

Late on the evening of the 7th inst. a runner ar-
rived from the friendly party in Lashley's fort, (Tale-
dega) distant about thirty miles below us, with the
information that the hostile Creeks, in great force had
encamped near the place, and were prepanng to de-
stroy it ; and earnestly entreated that I would lose no
time in affording relief. Urged by their situation as
well as by a wish to meet the enemy so soon as an
ojiportunity would oft'er, I determined upon com-
mencing my march thither with all my disposable
force; we encamped that night within six miles of
the fort 1 had set out to relieve. At sun rise we
came within half a mile of them, and having formed
my men, I moved on in battle order. The infantry
were in three lines — the militia on the left and the
volunteers on the right. Tiie cavalry formed the ex-
treme wings ; and were ordered to advance in a
curvey keeping their rear connected with the advance
of their infantry lines, and to enclose the eneiny in a
circle. The advanced guard whom I sent forward
to bring on the engagement, met the attack of the
enemy with great intrepidity ; and having poured
upon them four or live very gallant rounds, fell back
as they had been previously ordered, to the main army.
The enemy pursued and the front line was now or-
dered to advance and meet him ; the tire became
general along the first line, and on that part of the
wings which were contiguous. The enemy, unable
to stand it, began to retreat; but were met at every
turn, and pursued in every direction. The nght u ing
chased tliem with a most destructive fire to the moun-
tains, a distance of about 3 miles ; the victory howev-
er was very decisive — 290 of the eneniv were lefi;
dead ; and there can be no dou!)t but many more
were killed who were not found. Wherever tbev ran



280 HISTORY OB' THK VVAli.

Ihey left traces of blood; and it is believed that f elpy
few will return to their villages in as sound a condi-
tion as they left them. I was compelled to return to
this place to protect the sick and wounded, and get
my baogjjge. In the engagement we lost 15 killed
and 15 wounded, 2 of whom have smce died.
In haste, I have the honor to be, S;:c.

ANDREW JACKSON.

Gen. White to Major-Gen. Cocke.

Fort-Armstrong, Nov. 24, 1813.
[Extract.'] SIR — In mine of the 19th inst. b} Ma-
jor Outlaw, I promised you a tietai led report, respect-
ing the detachment ordered by you to the Hillibee
towns, in the Creek nation. In compliance with that
promise, 1 have now the honor to state— that under \our
order of the 11th inst, I immediately marched with
the mounted infantry, under the immediate command
of Col. Burch. The cavalry under the command of
Major Porter, and a few of the Cherokee Indians un-
der the command of Col. Morgan, with very short
rations for four days only. After destroying two vil-
lages containing 12-3 houses, we marched to the
Hillibee town, consisting of about 20 houses,
adjoining which was Grayson's farm. — Previous
to oiir arrival at that place, 1 was advised thiit a
part of the hostile Creeks were assembled there.
Having marched within six or seven miles of it on the
17th, I dismounted a part of the force under m^ com-
mand, and sent them under the eommanil of Col.
Burch, with the Cherokees under the command of
Col. Morgan, in advance, to surround the town in the
Jiijiht, and make the attack at day lii>ht on the IHdi.
Owing to the darkness of the night, t; etown was not
reached until after day light — but so complete wus
the surprise, that we succeeded in surrounding the
town, and killing and capturmg almost (if not en-
tirisly) the whole of the hostile Creeks assembled tuere.
consislinof of about 310, of which number aboul CJO
warriors were killed on the spot, and the remainder



HISTORY OP THE WAR. 281

made prisoners. We lost not one drop of blood in
accomplishing this enterprize. We destroyed this
village ; and, in obedience to your orders, commenc-
ed onr march for this post, which we were unable
to reach until yesterday,

I have the honor to be, &c.

JAMES WHITE, Brig. Gen.

Gen. Floyd to Gen. Pinhiey.

Catahouche, Dec. 4, 1813.

\Extracl.^ PIR — I have the honor to communicate
to you an account of the action fought on the 29th
ult. between part of the force under my command,
and a large body of the Creek Indians. Having re-
ceived information that the hostile Indians were as-
-sembled at Autossee, 1 proceeded thither with the
force under my command, accompanied by about 300
friendly Indians, We encamped the 28th, at night,
within ten miles of our place of destination, and the
next morning by half past 6, were formed for action m
front of the town.

It was my intention to have completely surround-
■ed the enemy, by appayiny the right of my force on
Canlehee creek, at the mouth of which I was inform-
ed the town stood ; and resting the left on the river
below the town ; but to our surprise, as day dawned,
we [>erceived a second town «500 yards below Autos-
see. The plan of attack was immediately changed ;
five companies immediately surrounded the lower
town, and the remainder attacked the upper. The
battle now became general. The Indians presented
themselves at every point, and fought with the despe-
jrate bravery of real fanatics ; but the well directed
^re of the artillery, with the charged bayonet, soon
-forced them to take shelter in their houses, and many,
*it is believed, secured themselves in caves previously
prepared in the high bank of the river. The friendly
Indians were to cross the river above the town, for
the purpose of taking such as might attempt to es-
cape; but owing to the coldiiess of the water, they
36



2^2 HISTORY OF THE WAR.

declined, after making the attenipt: they crossed ihi^
creek, thronged to our fianks, and fought with an in-
trepidity wortl»y of any troops. At 9 o'clock, tb«
eneni}« was completely driven from the plain, and the
houses of both towns wrapped in dames, to ihe num-
ber of about 4t0. It IS difficult to determine the
strength of the enemy, but the chiefs say there were
as>^embled the warriors of eight towns, for the defence
of Autossee,. it being their beloved ground, on which,
they proclaimed, no white man could approach with-
out inevitable destruction. It is believed the enemy
lost at least, 200 killed, (among whom are the Autos-
see andTvdlissee kings) and from the circumstance
of their not making an effort to molest our return,
probably they lost more. Our loss was 11 killed and
54 wounded. — The friendly Indians lost several killed
and wounded ; the number not exactly known.
I have the honor to be, &c.

JOHN FLOYD, Brig. Gen.

Gen, Claiborne J to ihe Secretary of War.

Fort Claiborne, Jan. 1st, 1814.
[Extract'] SIR— On the 13lh ult. 1 marched a detach-
ment from rhis post with a view of destroying th«
towns of the inimical Creek Indians, on the Alabama,
above the the mouth of the Cahaba. After having
marched about eighty miles, from the best infor-
mation I could obtain, I was within thirty miles of a
town newly erected on aground called Holy, occupi-
ed by a large body of the enemy, mider the command
of Wilherford, the half breed chief. On the morni
ing of the 22d the troops resumed their line ot march,
chiefly through woods without a track to guide them.
W hen near the town on the morning of the 23d, my
dispositon tor attack was made. — The troops advan-
ced in three coUuiiiiS. With the centre column I ad^
Tanced myself, ordering Lester's guards and Well's
troop of dragoons to act as a corps of reserve. About
noon the right coiumn, composed of twelve month's
volunteers, commanded by Col. Joseph Carson, came



HISTORY OF THE WAR.

in tiew of the town called Eccanachaca (or Holy.
Ground) and was immediately vigorously attacked
by the enemy, who were apprized of our approach, and
had chosen their field of action.

Before the centre, commanded by Lieut. Col. Rus-^
sell, with a part of the3dreg-iment of U. S. infantry
and mounted militia riflemen, or the left column,
which was comnosed of militia and a party of Choc-,
taws under Pushamuttaha, commanded by Maj,
Smoot oTmilitia, who were ordered to charge, could
come generaly into action, the enemy were repulsed
and were flying' in all directions, and many of them-
castin^away their arms.

Thirty of the enemy were killed, and judj^ing' from
every appearance many were wounded. Tiie loss on
our part was one corporal killed, and one ensig-n,twp
Serjeants, one corporal, and two privates wounded.

A pursuit was immediately ordered but from J he
nature of the country, nothinof was efiecled. The
town was nearly surrounded by swamps and deep
ravines, which rendered our approach difficult, and
facilitated the escape of llie enemy- In the town we
found a large quantity of provisions and immense
property of various kinds, which the enemy, flying
precipitately, were obliged to leave behind, and which*
tog-ether with two hundred houses were destroyed

The ne\t day was occupied in destroying a tuwo
consisting of sixty houses, eight miles higher up the
river, and in taking and destroying the e.iemy's boats.
At the town last destroyed was killed three Indians
of some distinction.

I have the honor to l>e, &c.

FERD. L. CLAIBORNE. Brig. Gei.

Gen. Fhyd to Major Gen. Pinckney.
SJExtract] Camp Defiance, Jan. 27, 1814.

SIR — I have the honor to acquaint your excellen-
cy that this morning at 20 minutes past 5 o'clock, a
very large body of hostile Indians made a desperate
attack upon the army under nay command. They
stole upon the ceuiinels, fired on them, and with great



284 HISTORY OF THE WAR,

impetuosity rushed upon our line : in 20 minutes the
action became ja;-ener;il, and our front, right and left
flanks were closeiy pressed, but the brave and g-a lant
conduct of the tield and line officers, and the firmness
of the men, rej)eiled them at every point.

The steady firmness, and mcessant fire of Capt.
Thomas's aitdiers, and Capt Adams' rifiemen, pre^^
strved our front hues. Tiie enemy rushed withm 30
yards of the artillery, and Capt. Brodnax, uho coni-
nmnded one of the picquet guards, maintamed his
post with great bravtry, until the enemy gained his
rear, and then cut his way through them to the army.
^s soon as it became light enough to distinguish ob-
jects, I ordered Majors Watson's and Freman's bat-
tallions to v\heei up at right angles with Majors
Booth's and Cleveland's battallions, who foinieo the
right wing, to prepare for the clrnrge. The onier lor
the charge was [>romptly obeyed, and the eiient} fled
in every direction before the ba} onet. The signal was
given for the charge of the cavalry, who pursued and
sabred 15 of the enemy, who left 37 dead on the field.
From the effusion of blood, and the number of head
dressesand war clubs found in var ous directions, their
loss must have been considerable, independent of their
wounded.

1 herewith transmit you a list of our killed and
wounded, and have the honor to l)e, Sac.

JOHN FLOYD, Brig. Gen.

f Killed, 17— wounded, 132— total 149.

Gen. Jackson to Gen. Pinkney.

Fort !*trolher, Jan. 29, 1814.
[Extract.^ SIR — I had oi-iiered 800 'i'ennessee
volunteers to join me on the 10th inst. but they did
not arrive until the 1 4th ; the next day they, with the;
force before with me, 130, marched across the river
to graze our horses. The motives which influenced
Jiie to penetrate further into the enemy's country were
many and urgent. I received a letter from Colonel
Snodgrass, informing me that an attack was soon tp



HISTORY OF TETE WAR. 2SS '

be made on fort Armstrong, by 900 of th<3 enemy,
collected fro ii New Y >uka, Oakfuskee, and Ufauley '
tovv.js, and werecouneuirated in the bend of the Tal- '
lajioosee. Ii 1 couhJ have hesitated before, I could
now hesitate no lon;^er. On the lUth I encamped
at Entochapco ; here I soon perceived how little
knowledg-e my spies had of the country, of the situa-
tion of the enemy, or of the distance we were from
them, and the insu!)ordinatioii of the new troops, and
want ol' skill in their otficers, became more apparent ;
but my wishes and my duty rema ned united.

We arrived within a few miles of our destination
the 21st, and encamped on a high piece of grou.id ;
about 10 o'clock at night our picket tired upon a few
of the enemy, and killed one. At 11 o'clock our
spies returned with imormation that a large body of -
the enemy were encamped about three miles distant,
peing prepared at all points, nothing remained to be
done, but await their approach, or be in readiness to
attack them by day light. The enemy attacked our
left tlank, about 6 o'clock in the m(>riiing, which was-
vigorously met by our troops ; the attack lasted half
an hour. So soon as it became light enough to pur-
sue the enemy, the brave Gen. Cotfee led our troops
on to the charge; the enemy was comi)letely routed
at every point, and chased two miles with great slaugh-
ter. Gen. Coffee was now sent with 400 troops to re-
connoitre the enemy's camp, who returned after sat-
isfying himself of their strength. In half an hour a
considerable force of the enemy made its aj)pearance
on my right flank, and attacked us with great spirit.
Gen. Coffee requested 200 men of me for the purpose
of turning their left flank, which was granted ; but
by some mistake, not observed at the time, only 54
followed him, who were chiefly old volunteer officers.
With this little band of heroes, the Gen. attacked it,
and drove them from the ground; at the same time
200 friendly Indians were ordered to fall upon their
right, and co-operute with the General. Tins order
was soon obeyed, and in its execution* what I expect-



iiSO lUSTORY OP THE WAR.

e<^, was realized. The enemy intended the attack
on my right as a feint, and soon attacked my left
with their main force, which they hoped to find weak-
ened and in disorder— -they were disappointed — the.
whole line met the attack with firmness and astonishri
ing intrepidity, and having given a few fires chargecj *
with great vigor; the effect was immediate and in- •
evitabie. The enemy fled with precipitation, and
■were pursued to a considerable distance with great
slaughter. In the mean time Gen. Coft'ee was con-
tending with a superior force, the Indians haying
joined my left. Jim Fife, with 100 friendly Indians
I forthwith ordered to his assistance ; he no sooner
reached the spot than the Gen. made a charge, and
the enemy routed and driven three miles, with thelos^
of 45 slain. I was determined to commence a return-
ing march the next morning, as my provisions were
nearly consumed. I considered it not necessary to
pursue them any farther, as the object of a general .
engagement would be more certamly attained by
commencing a return, which, to them, would have
the appearance of a retreat, and would inspire them-^
with new courage to pursue me ; and not prudenti«:
because of my wounded, the starving condition of
my horses, they not having neither eat corn nor cane
for two days, and of the scarcity of provisions for my
men — influenced by these considerations, I commenc-
ed my return march on the 23d and reached Etiota-
ehopcQ that night. I took a different route from the
one we came in, to avoid a deep defile between two
mountains. Having a deep creek to pass I issued a
general order pointing out the manner in which the
men should be formed, in, case of an attack. 'Ihe
front guard and the wounded had crossed, when an
alarm gun was heard in the rear. I heard it without
surprise, and even with pleasure, as 1 calculated OQ
the firmness of my troops, from the manner i>i which
I had seen them act onth©'22d. Having chosen the
ground, I expected to have entirely cut oft" the ene-
my, by wheeling the right and left columns on their



HISTORY OF THE WAR. 287

pivots, recrossing the creek above and below, and fal-
ling- npon their flanks and rear. But to my astonish-
ment, after a few guns had been fired, I beheld the
right and left columns of the rear guard give way.
This shameful retreat was disastrous in the extreme ;
drawing with it the greater part of the centre column,
and producing consternation and dismay in ihe whole
army. There was left to oppose the enemy a few of
the rear guard, the artillery, and Capt. Ilussell's com-
pany of spies : they realized aiid exceeded my best
expectations. Never was there more bravery dis-
played than on this occasion. Amidst the most gal-
ling fire from the enemy, more than ten times their
number, they ascended the hill. In the hurry of the
moment, in separating the gun from the limbers, the
rammer and picker were left tied to it. No sooner
was this discovered than Craven Jackson, and Con-
stantine Perkins, gunners, found means to replace



Online LibraryJohn] 1793-1863 [RussellThe history of the war, betwee the United States and Great-Britain, which commenced in June, 1812, and closed in Feb. 1815 .. → online text (page 22 of 38)