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John Adolphus Flemer.

An elementary treatise on phototopographic methods and instruments, including a concise review of executed phototopographic surveys and of publicatins on this subject online

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obtaining the measurements that were needed for planning
the renovation of the cathedral at Wetzlar, he had, independ-
ently of Col. Laussedat's work, conceived the idea to utilize
photographs of the building to arrive at the dimensions of inac-
cessible details.

General von Alster repeatedly recommended in his official
reports that experimental surveys be inaugurated by the Prussian
Government, to familiarize the officers of the General Staff with
the photographic surveying methods, but the war of 1866 pre-
vented action being taken in this direction. Still, Count von
Moltke, Chief of the Prussian General Staff, had soon recog-
nized the value of such methods for military and secret surveys^
and before the next war took place (which was the Franco-
Prussian war of 1870-71), a complete military phototopographic
detachment had been formed and organized. In 1870 this
reconnoitering corps was placed under the command of Capt.
Bernhardi and Lieut. R. Doergens, who furthermore had the



PHOTOGRAPHIC SURVEYING IN GERMANY. 13

assistance of the civil photographic experts Hintze, Quidde,
and Schmier.

4

During the siege of Strassburg this corps made a survey
of a part of the city and the near-by fortifications, plotting the
work in 1:250x3 scale, but the early surrender of the city made
it unnecessary to finish the survey. Only a few ranges as obtained
by this survey had been utilized by the army, principally to
concentrate the bombardment to certain districts, sparing others,
especially the noble cathedral building. During the icono-
metric plotting of this map some discrepancies were discovered,
which Dr. Doergens ascribed to defects in the camera lens and
to the unstable character of the instrument, which had been
put together too hurriedly.

No further opportunities were offered during the Franco-
Prussian war for other phototopographic surveys and the sur-
veying cameras were subsequently used for obtaining pictures
of historically interesting features, of points of strategic impor-
tance to be utilized in making corrections and additions to the
maps of France which had been distributed among the officers
that were directing the movements of the invading German armies.

Probably the first German publication on the subject of
photographic surveying maybe found in Horn's " Photographische
Mittheilungen," April, 1863, being a German translation of Col.
Laussedat's explanations given in his lecture, delivered Jan. 9^
1863, before the "Societe photographique " in Paris.

In the June number of the same magazine Dr. Meydenbaur
published his first article on photographic surveying, in which
he makes use of the term " photometrographie ". Subsequently
this was changed to " metrophotographie " and finally to "photo-
grammetrie " (" Bildmesskunst ").

The March number of Horn's "Photographische Mitthei-
lungen," 1866, contains an article by Dr. Vogel on Johnson's
photographic apparatus for making topographic surveys, in which
the method for the iconometric determination of horizontal and
vertical angles is described.



14 PHOTOTOPOGRAPHIC METHODS AND INSTRUMENTS.

Since 1882 Dr. Meydenbaur has been the Director of the
" Photogrammetric Institute" in Berlin, founded by the Prussian
Government for the collection of photographic data to bring the
German topographic maps up to date and for -the preservation
of views of ancient monuments and buildings. Dr. Meydenbaur
is now engaged with the publication of "Das Denkmaler Archiv,"
being a collection of photographic reproductions of buildings of
archeological and architectural interest.

Since 1867 a number of photographic surveys have'been made
under the auspices of the Prussian Ministry of War. The first
larger attempt was the topographic survey of Freiburg and vicinity,
scale 1:1000, including the architectural survey of the cathedral
of the same city.

From 1869 the theory of photographic surveying has been
included in the lectures on geodesy (Prof. Doergens) at the Royal
Building Academy in Berlin. In 1886, when the new Royal
Technical High School at Charlottenburg, near Berlin, had been
completed, a special chair (filled by Dr. Pietsch) was set aside
for teaching photogrammetry in all its branches, including bal-
loon surveying.

The late Prof. Jordan, as a member of G. Rholf's African
exploring expedition in 1873-74, made a phototopographic sur-
vey of the "Oasis Dachel, " including the settlement "Gassr-
Dachel," in the Libyan Desert. (Jordan, " Vermessungskunde,"
Vol. II, Stuttgart, 1893, and "Zeitschrift fuer Vermessungs-
wesen," Part I, Vol. V, 1876.)

Prof. Jordan fully appreciated the value of photography as an
auxiliary to topographic surveys, and he remarks in the article
"Ueber die Verwerthung der Photographie zu geometrischen
Aufnahmen" (Zeitschr. f. Verm., 1876): . . . "Dasz die Photo-
graphie in vielen gewissen Faellen mit ausserordentlichem Vor-
theil angewandt werden koennte, z. B. bei schwer zugaenglichen
Gebirgen und auf Entdeckungsreisen, erscheint beim ersten
Blick auf die Sache zweifellos."

The good results obtained by Dr. Meydenbaur in the valleys



PHOTOGRAPHIC SURVEYING IN AUSTRIA. 15



of the Reusz (1873) an ^ Rhine (1876) considerably increased the
number of advocates for phototopography in Germany.

Dr. Stolze in 1874, while a member of the archaeological
expedition under F. C. Andreas, used a Meydenbaur camera-
theodolite to make a survey of the ruins of Persepolis, of Pasarga-
dae, and of the ancient temple at Djamhat ("Masdjid i Djamaht")
in Shiraz, Persia.

Dr. S. Finsterwalder has made several phototopographic sur-
veys in the Bavarian Alps, including surveys of glaciers, made at
stated time-intervals, to ascertain their variations and movements
in both the horizontal and the vertical sense. During the summer
months of 1888 and 1889 he surveyed the "Vernacht" Glacier in
the valley of the Oetz, in Tyrol, having the assistance of Dr. A.
Bluemke and Dr. H. Hess ; in later surveys he was assisted by
Dr. Kerschensteiner.

Dr. C. Koppe has done much literary and practical work in
photogrammetry and phototopography. Recently he has pub-
lished the description of his new phototheodolite, made by F.
Randhagen in Hannover, that may also be used for astronomical
observations (lat. determinations).

Dr. Meydenbaur, Prof. Jordan, Dr. Doergens, Dr. Stolze,
Dr. Schroeder, Dr. Vogel, Dr. Koppe, Dr. Hauck, Prof. Finster-
walder, Prof. Foerster, Dr. Pietsch, Dr. Voigtlaender, and others
have contributed largely toward the popularization of the photo-
topographic methods in Germany.

HI. Photographic Surveying in Austria.

. Karl Koristka, having made the acquaintance of Messrs.
Laussedat and Chevallier in Paris in 1867, became interested in
photography applied to surveying, and he probably is the first
who made a phototopographic survey in Austria (survey of the
city of Prague). Still, the method met with little favor in Austria
owing to the inconvenience of the wet-plate process, until, in 1890,
the authorities of the Military Geographic Institute, in Vienna,



l6 PHOTOTOPOGRAPHIC METHODS AND INSTRUMENTS.

ordered a series of experimental photographic surveys to be made
in the vicinity of Vienna, which fully demonstrated the usefulness of
this method for the surveys of certain regions. Among the offi-
cers of the Austrian army we may mention Lieut. L. Mikiewicz,
Maj. Bock, Maj. Pizzighelli, Lieut. Hartl, Capt. Huebl, and others
who have materially aided in the development of photographic
surveying methods in Austria.

Since 1889 many engineers have adopted phototopographic
methods for the surveys of inaccessible regions, or for regions
where the other topographic methods would have been too time-
consuming or too expensive. Among these we may cite V.
Pollack (Eng'r in Chief of the Austrian Government R.R. System),
M. Maurer, F. Hafferl, etc.

Prof. F. Schiffner, Prof. A. Schell, and Prof. F. Steiner (the
latter teaches the principles of photographic surveying at the Tech.
High School in Prague) have done much as teachers, writers, and
propagators in improving phototopographic methods and instru-
ments.

LITERATURE (GERMAN AND AUSTRIAN).

Archiv fuer die Offiziere des Kgl. Preuss. Artillerie u. Ing. Corps, 1868.

Deutsche Bauzeitung, 1872.

J. GIRARD. "Laussedat's Arbeiten in Bezug auf die Anwendung der Photo-
graphic zur Aufnahme von Plaenen." Photographisches Archiv, Sept.,

1865-
Dr. A. MEYDENBAUR. "Ueber die Anwendung der Photographic zu Archi-

tectur und Terrain Aufnahmen." Erbkam's Zeitschr. f. Bauw., 1867.
Dr. A. MEYDENBAUR. "Das Photograph ische Aufnehmen zu wissenschaft-

lichen Zwecken, ins Besondere das Messbildverfahren." Unte's Verl.

Berlin, 1892.
Dr. A. MEYDENBAUR. "Zum gegenwaertigen Stande des Messbildver-

fahrens." Deutsche Bauz., 1894.
Dr. A. MEYDENBAUR. "Ueber Behandlung grosser Flatten auf Reisen."

Photographisches Wochenblatt, 1888.
Dr. PIETSCH. "Die Photogrammetrie." Zeitschr. f. Verm., Heft 23 and 24,

1887.
Prof. W. JORDAN. "Ueber die Verwerthung der Photographic zu geome-

trischen Aufnahmen." Zeitschr. f. Verm., Heft I, 1876.



PHOTOGRAPHIC SURVEYING IN AUSTRIA. If

Prof. STOLZE. " Photographisches Wochenblatt," 1881, 1882, and 1885.

Prof. STOLZE. "Photogrammetrie." "Das Licht im Dienst wissenschaft-
licher Forschung," Dr. S. T. Stein, Bd. II, 1888. Wm. Knapp.

Dr. H. W. VOGEL and Prof. Dr. G. DOERGENS. "Ueber einen einfachen
photogrammetrischen Apparat." Photogr. Mitt., 1884.

Dr. H. W. VOGEL. "Astronomische Nachrichten," 1888.

Dr. R. DOERGENS. "Zur Pruefung und Berichtigung des photogramme-
trischen Apparates." Phot. Mitth., 1886.

Dr. R. DOERGENS. "Ermittelung der Constanten des photogrammetrischen
Apparates." Phot. Mitth., 1886.

Dr. R. DOERGENS. "Ueber Photogrammetrie und Ueber die Thaetigkeit des
Feld-Photographie Detachments im Kriege 1870-71." K. Schmier.
Weimar, 1897.

Dr. FINSTERW ALDER. "Die Terrainaufnahmen mittels Photogrammetrie."
Bayersches Industrie und Gewerbebl. Muenchen, 1890.

L. MIKIEWICZ. "Anwendung der Photographic zu militairischen Zwecken."
Mitth. ueber Gegenst. d. Artillerie u. Geniewesens, 1876.

G. PIZZIGHELLI. "Handbuch d. Photographic," Bd. II, 1887. Knapp-
Halle, a./S.

G. PIZZIGHELLI. "Die Photogrammetrie." Mitth. ueber Gegenst. d.
Artillerie u. Geniewesens, 1884.

Dr. C. KOPPE. "Die Photogrammetrie oder Bildmesskuiist." Weimar,
1889.

Dr. C. KOPPE. "Photogrammetrie und Internationale Wolkenmessung."
Braunschweig, 1896.

Dr. G. HAUCK. "Neue Constructionen der Perspective und Photogram-
metrie." Journal fuer reine und angewandte Mathematik, 1883.

Dr. G. HAUCK. "Theorie der trilinearen Verwandtschaft ebener Systeme."
Journal fuer reine und angewandte Mathematik, 1883.

Dr. G. HAUCK. "Mein perspectivischer Apparat." Festschrift der Koenigl.
techn. Hochschule zu Berlin, Zur Feier der Einweihung ihres neuen
Gebaudes, am 2ten Nov., 1884, Reichsdruckerei. Berlin, 1884.

HERM. RITTER. "Perspectograph." Apparat zur mechanischen Herstellung
der Perspective, etc. Maubach u. Co. Frankfurt a./M.

Prof. J. HELLER. "Ueber Photogrammetrie." Ber. d. Ver. d. Techniker
in Ober-Oesterreich. Linz, 1800.

Prof. J. HELLER. "Ueber neue Erscheinungen auf dem Geziete der Photo-
grammetrie." Ber. des Ver. d. Techniker in Oberoesterreich. Linz,
1891.

Dr. SCHROEDER. "Archtectur u. Gelandeaufnahme unter Mitwirkung der
Photographic und der einschlagigen Instrumente." Archiv fuer Artil-
lerie- und Genie -Offiziere des deutschen Heeres. Juli Heft, 1892.



1 8 PHOTOTOPOGRAPHIC METHODS AND INSTRUMENTS.

Dr. SCHROEDER. "Die neusten Messbild-Instrumente." Arcihv f. Artil-
lerie- und Genie -Offizie re des deutscnen Heeres. October u. November
Hefte, 1892.

V. POLLACK. "Ueber Anwendung der Photogrammetrie im Hochgebirge."
Wochenschrift des Oesterreichischen Ing. u. Archit. Vereins, 1890.

V. POLLACK. "Die photograph. Terrain-Aufnahmen mit Beruecksichtigung
d. Arbeit in Steiermark." R. Lechner. Wien" 1891.

V. POLLACK. "Photogrammetrie oder Phototopographie." Mitth. d. kgl.
kaiserl. Geogr. Gesellschaft. Wien, 1891.

V. POLLACK. "Ueber Photogrammetrie." Zeitschr. d. Ver. deutscher In-
ge nieure, 1893.

V. POLLACK. "Ueber photogr. Messkunst, Photogrammetrie und Photo-
topographie." Mitth. d. kgl. kaiserl. Geographischen Gesellschaft.
Wien, 1891.

V. POLLACK. "Ueber Photogrammetrie und deren Entwickelung." Monats-
blaetter des wissenschaftlichen Clubs in Wien, No. 5, Bd. XIII,
1891.

V. POLLACK. "Die photographischen Terrainaufnahmen." Centralblatt
fuer das gesammte Forstwesen. Wien, 1891.

V. POLLACK. "Ueber Fortschritte der Photogrammetrie." Dr. Eder's
Jahrb. fuer Photographic. Wien, 1892.

V. POLLACK. "Die Beziehungen der Photogrammetrie zu den topograph.
Neu-Aufnahmen im Bairisch-oesterreichischen Grenzgebirge." Archiv
f. Artillerie- u. Genie -Offiziere des deutschen Reichsheeres, 1893.

V. POLLACK. " Photogrammetrische Arbeiten in Oesterreich." Dr. Eder's
Jahrbuch fuer Photographic, 1894.

V. POLLACK. "Ein neuer durchschlagbarer Phototheodolit mit centrischem
Fernrohr." Zeitschr. d. oester. Ing. u. Archit. Vereins, 1894.

F. STEINER. "Ueber Photogrammetrie und deren Anwendung." Tech-
nische Blaetter. Prag, 1890 and 1891.

F. STEINER. "Das Problem der fuenf Punkte, eine Aufgabe der Photo-
grammetrie." Wochenschr. d. oester. Ing. u. Archit. Vereins, 1891.

F. STEINER. "Die Photographic im Dienste des Ingenieurs." Ein Lehrbuch
der Photogrammetrie. R. Lechner. Wien, 1891-94.

F. STEINER. "Die Anwendung der Photographic auf dem Gebiete des Bau-
und Ingenieurwesens, mit besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Photogram-
metrie." Technische Blaetter, Heft III u. IV. Prag, 1891.

M. BOCK. "Die Photogrammetrie." Mitth. ueber Gegenst. d. Artillerie
und Genie Heft I. Wien, 1891.

R. KOBSA. "Die Photogrammetrie oder Bildmesskunst, und speciell deren
Verwendung im Dienste des Forsteinrichters." Oesterreich. Viertel-
jahrschrift fuer Forstwesen, Heft II, 1892.



PHOTOGRAPHIC SURVEYING IN AUSTRIA. IQ

F. HAFFERL. "Das Teleobjectiv und seine Verwendbarkeit zu photogram-
metrischen Aufnahmen." Zeitschr. fuer Verm., 2istes Heft, 1892.

F. WAXG. "Die Photogrammetrie im Dienste des Forsttechnikers." Mitth.
d. krainischen kuestenlaendischen Forstveriens. Laibach, 1893.

F. WANG. " Photogrammetrische Instrumente." Oesterreichische Forst-
zeitung, Heftc i, 2, 3, 1893.

F. WANG. "Die Anwendung der Photogrammetrie im forstlichen Haus-

halte." Oesterreichische Forstzeitung, Hefte 19, 20, und 21, 1892.

E. DOLEZAL. "Die Anwendung der Photographic in der practischen Mess-

kunst." W. Knapp. Halle a./S., 1896.
Dr. J. W. EDER und E. VALENTA. "Photogrammetrie." Dinglers Polytech.

Journal, 1892.
Dr. J. W. EDER. "Photogrammetrische Apparate und Phototheodolite."

Lehrbuch der Photographic, I. Bd., 1892.
O. J. KLOTZ. "Photogrammetrische Arbeiten in Canada." Zeitschr. des

oesterreich. Ing. u. Archit. Vereins. Wien, 1894.

G. STARKE. " Phototheodolit von Starke und Kammerer." Zeitschr. d.
oesterreich. Ing. und Archit. Vereins. Wien, 1894.

VON HUEBL. "Messbild Photogrammeter." Annalen fuer Gewerbe und
Bauwesen, 1892.

VON HUEBL. "Messtisch Photogrammeter." Lechner's Mitth. aus dem
Gebiete der Photographic und Kartographie." Graben 31. Wien.

IMFELD. "Ueber Photogrammetrie." Schweizer Bauzeitung, 1893.

Dr. A. MIETHE. " Photographische Mittheilungen." Jahrgang 24.

VOLKMER. "Das Wesen der Photogrammetrie." Wochenschr. d. oester-
reich. Ing. u. Archit. Vereins, Bd. XIV.

G. FRITSCH. "Anleitung zu wissensch. Beob. auf Reisen." Dr. G. Neu-
mayer. Berlin, 1888, R. Oppenheimer.

F. SCHIFFNER. "Ueber Photogrammetrie und ihre Anwendung bei Terrain-

aufnahmen." Mitth. aus dem Gebiete des Seewesens, 1887.
F. SCHIFFNER. "Ueber photogrammetrische Aufnahmen mit gewoehnlichen

Apparaten." Photographische Correspondenz, 1889.
F. SCHIFFNER. "Ueber photographische Messkunst." Organ, der militair-

wissenschaftlichen Vereine, 1888 und 1889.
F SCHIFFNER. "Ueber die photogrammetrische Aufnahme einer Kueste

im Vorbeifahren." Mitth. aus dem Gebiete des Seewesens, 1890.
F SCHIFFNER. "Die photographische Messkunst, Photogrammetrie, Bild-

messkunst und Phototopographie." W. Knapp. Halle a-/S., 1892.
F SCHIFFNER. "Photogrammetrische Studien." Photographische Rund-
schau, 1890 und 1891.
F. SCHIFFNER. 'Fortschntte der Photogrammetrie." Dr. Eder's Jahrb.

fuer Photographic, 1891.



20 PHOTOTOPOGRAPHIC METHODS AND INSTRUMENTS.

F. SCHIFFNER. "Die Fortschritte der photograph ischen Messkunst im

Jahre 1889." Photogr. Rundschau, 1890.
A. R. VON GUTTENBERG. "Die Photogrammetrie im Dienste der Forst-

messung." Oesterreich. Forstzeitung, April 17, 1891.
"Photographische Rundschau," Heft 7, 1891; Heft 6, 9, n, 1892. Wien.
C. TRONQUOY. "Bemerkungen ueber die [planchette photo graphique] von

Chevallier." ' Photographische Correspondenz, 1867.
"Photographische Correspondenz," No. 353, 1890; Seite 380-384, 1892.
VON HUEBL. "Die Stereophotogrammetrie." Mitth. d. k. u. k. militair-

geogr. Instituts, XII, 1903.
A. SCHWASSMANN. "Der Stereokomparator." Annalen der Hydrographie

u. maritimen Meteorologie, Juli, 1902.
Prof. BECKER. "Ueber Relieffernrohre u. Entfernungsmesser von C. Zeiss."

Schweizer Zeitschrift fuer Artillerie u. Genie, Seite 365, 1900.
E. HERING. "Ueber die Grenzen der Sehschaerfe." Berichte der mathem.

phys. Classe der koenigl. Sachs. Gessellsch. der Wissensch. Leipzig,

1899.
K HEINE. "Sehschaerfe und Tiefenwahrnehmung." Von Graefe's Archiv

fuer Ophthalmologie, No. 51, 1900.
Dr. O. HECKER. "Ueber die Beurtheilung der Raumtiefe und den stereo-

skopischen Entfernungsmesser von C. Zeiss." Jena, Zeitschr. fuer

Verm., No. 30, 1901.
VON HUEBL. "Die stereophotogrammetrische Terrainaufnahme." Mitth.

des k. und k. militair-geographischen Institutes. Wien, 1903.
W. LASKA. "Ueber eine neue Phototheodolitkonstruction." Zeitschr. fuer

Instrumentenkunde, 1903.
W. LASKA. "Ueber ein Problem der photogrammetrischen Kuestenauf-

nahme." Monatshefte fuer Mathem. und Physik, Bd. 12. Wien.
A. SPRUNG. "Ueber die allgemeinen Formeln der Photogrammetrie."

Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 1903.
R. GRIMSINSKI. "Aufnahme von Horizontalkurven durch das Nivellier-

Messtischverfahren." Allgemeine Vermessungsnachrichten, Seite 252

und 253, 1903.
S. FINSTERW ALDER. "Neue Methode zur topographischen Vermessung von

Ballonaufnahmen." Sitzungsberichte der Muenchener Akademie, 1903.
Dr. C. PULFRICH. "Ueber einen Versuch zur praktischen Erprobung der

Stereophotogrammetrie fuer die Zwecke der Topographic." Zeitschrift

fuer Instrumentenkunde, Seite 317-334, 1903.
Dr. C. PULFRICH. "Ueber neuere Anwendungen der Stereoskopie und ueber

einen hierfuer bestimmten Stereokomparator." Zeitschr. fuer Instru-

mentenk., XXII, 1902, Seite 65-81; 133-141; 178-192; 229-246.
Dr. C. PULFRICH. "Ueber die Constructionen von Hoehenkurven und Planen



PHOTOGRAPHIC SURVEYING IN SWEDEN. 21

auf Grund stereophotogrammetrischser Messungen mit Hilfe des Stereo-
comparators." Zeitschrift fuer Instrumentenkunde, XXIII, 1903.
Dr. C. PULFRICH. "Neure stereoskopische Methoden und Apparate fuer die

Zwecke der Astronomic." Topographic und Metronomic. Berlin, 1903.
Dr. C. PULFRICH. "Ueber cine neue Art der Herstellung topographischer

Karten und ueber einen haerfuer bestimmten Stereoplanigraphen."

Zeitschr. fuer Instrumentenkunde, XXIII, 1903.
Dr. C. PULFRICH. "Herstellung telestereoskopischer Landschaftsaufnahmen

mit Hilfe einer gewoehnlichen Stereokammer." Photographisches

Centralblatt, Heft 24, VIII, 1902.
Dr. C. PULFRICH. " Ueber eine Pruefungstafel fuer stereoskopisches Sehen."

Zeitschrift fuer Instrumentenkunde, Heft 9, 1001.
Dr. C. PULFRICH. "Ueber einige stereoskopische Versuche." Zeitschrift fuer

Instrumentenkunde, Heft 21, 1901.
JULIUS MANDL. "Ueber die Verwerthung von photographischen Aufnahmen

aus dem Luftballon." Mitth. ueber Gegenst. des Artillerie- und Genie-

Wesens, XXIX Jahrgang. Wien, 1898.
O. JESSE. "Untersuchungen ueber die sogenannten leuchtenden Wolken."

Sitzungsberichte der koenigl. Preuss. Akademie d. Wissensch. zu Berlin,

1890-91.
Dr. K. HEUN. "Die Bestimmung der Geschwindigkeit nach den Methoden

der Photogrammetrie." Schlomilchs Zeitschrift fuer Mathem. u. Phys.,

Bd. XLIV, 1899.



IV. Photographic Surveying in Sweden.

Swedish meteorologists made use of photographs for the
study of cloud formations in 1877, and since then H. Hildebrand
Hildebrandson, Director of the Meteorological Observatory
at Upsala, has used and recommends the photogrammetric
methods for observations to ascertain cloud altitudes and air-
currents. Identical points of the same cloud, photographed
on two simultaneously exposed plates, may be found at leisure
and with a far greater degree of certainty than such points may
be located, in nature, by two observers with transits and tele-
phone connection for a mutual guidance toward the selection
of identical points for observation.

The first attempt to apply phototopographic methods in



22 PHOTOTOPOGRAPHIC METHODS AND INSTRUMENTS.

Sweden was probably made by Prof. G. de Geer in 1882, when
he, together with Prof. A. G. Nathbrst, surveyed some glacial
fields in Spitzbergen.

Since 1890 the Swedish General Staff has been actively engaged
with phototopographic surveys, notably under the direction of
Major 'Lowison. The field work is conducted very much in
the same manner as that executed in Italy under L. P. Paganini,
restricting the use of the camera to the mountain regions above
timber-line, the valleys and wooded areas being surveyed with
the plane table.

Among those who have actively used phototopographic meth-
ods in Sweden we may cite Major H. Kinberg, Prof. Rosen,
Dr. A. Hamberg, Major N. C. Ringertz, J. Westmann, and
others.

LITERATURE.

H. H. HILDEBRANDSON. "Sur la Classification des Nuages employee a

1'Observatoire meteorologique d'Upsala." Photographies de Henri Osti.

Upsala, 1879.
NILS ECKHOLM et H. L. HAGSTROM. "Mesures des Hauteurs et des Mouve-

ments des Nuages." Rapport au Comite meteorologique international.

Lisbonne et Upsala, 1885.
H. H. HILDEBRANDSON et H. L. HAGSTROM. "Des principals Methodes

employees pour observer et Mesurer les Nuages." Upsala, 1893.
NILS ECKHOLM. "Einige Bemerkungen ueber die Anwendung der Photo-

grammeter zur Messung von Wolkenhohen." Meteorolog. Zeitschrift,

1894, Seite 377.
NILS ECKHOLM. "A new Instrument for Cloud-measurements." Quarterly

Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, XIX, 1893.
FH. ACKERBLOM. "De 1'Emploi des Photogrammetres pour mesurer la

Hauteur des Nuages." Upsala, 1894.
K. P. OLSSON. "On the Calculation of Photographic Cloud-measurements."

Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Soc., Vol. XX, 1894.
E. LUNDAL et J. WESTMANN. "Mesures photogrammetriques des Nuages a

Upsala, 1896-97. Upsala.
Prof. E. DOLEZAL. "Photogrammetrische Arbeiten in Schweden." Zeitschr.

fuer Verm., Bd. XXXII, Heft 10, 1903.
KONIGL. Krigsvetenskaps-Akademiens Handlihgar och Tidskrift, Nos. n

and 12. Stockholm, 1901.



PHOTOGRAPHIC SURVEYING IN SWITZERLAND. 23

P. ACKERBLOM. "Ueber die Anwendung der Photogrammetrie zur Messung
von Wolkenhoehen." Meteorologische Zeitschr., 1894.



V. Photographic Surveying in Switzerland.

Since 1889 Prof. Becker, Col. Fahrlander, Prof. Amrein,
and others suggested the use of photographic methods for bring-
ing the general topographic maps of Switzerland up to a standard
to meet modern requirements. The Topographic Bureau finally-
entered upon a series of experimental surveys to ascertain whether
the phototopographic methods had reached that stage of per-
fection that they should replace the plane-table methods here-
tofore in use for alpine topography.

A description of the phototopographic experimental sur-
veys, made under the auspices of the Topographic Bureau of
Switzerland, may be found in:

M. ROSENMTJND. " Untersuchungen ueber die Anwendung des photogram-
metrischen Verfahrens fuer topographische Aufnahmen." Fritz Haller.
Bern, 1896.

The Topographical Engineer, S. Simon, used the photo-
topographic method extensively in connection with the pre-
liminary surveys of location for the " Jungfrau " railroad and
for improving the terrene representation of some of the General
Staff maps of Switzerland.

The following publications bearing on this subject may
be cited:

S. SIMON. "Le Projet de Chemin de Fer de la Jungfrau, examine au point
de vue scientifique, technique et financier." F. Schultheiss. Zurich,
1897.

S. SIMON. "Photogrammetrische Studien und deren Verwerthung bei den
Vorarbeiten fuer die Jungfrau Bahn." Schweizer Bauzeitung, Hefte
23, 24, u.. 25, 1895.

S. SIMON. "Photogrammetrische Arbeiten fuer die Jungfrau Bahn." Schwei-



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