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John Adolphus Flemer.

An elementary treatise on phototopographic methods and instruments, including a concise review of executed phototopographic surveys and of publicatins on this subject online

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far surpassing the perceptive power of the eye, and, on the other
hand, the wide angle type of camera-lens (the " positive ele-
ment ") reproduces, with an evenly good definition, views sub-
tending angles far surpassing the field of view of the eye, it will
be plain that the combination of these two elements into one
optical system will give results that cannot be obtained in any
other manner. The telephoto combination works particularly
well for picturing objects that are about equidistant from the
lens (for picturing objects that are in the same frontal plane),
but when objects are photographed that are at different dis-
tances from the instrument the image will be more or less dis-
torted by the effects of spherical aberration. This spherical
aberration may be reduced in a measure by stopping down
the camera- lens; this, of course, decreases the intensity of the
illumination of the image, reduces the rapidity of both the lens
and the plate, contracts the already small field subtended by
the telephoto combination, and consequently necessitates an
increase in the time of exposure, with the incident risk of com-
municating tremors to the camera which would be detrimental
to the definition of details in the telephoto-plate.

Dallmeyer recommends, therefore, for a " really useful tele-
photographic lens system" the combination of the rapid recti-

fF F\
linear type of lens ( or ), together with a negative lens of

half its focus. In this proportion the latter may be made of
larger diameter than the lenses of the positive element, thereby



406 PHOTOTOPOGRAPHIC METHODS AND INSTRUMENTS.

increasing both the included angle and the illumination of the
plate, as when using a negative lens of smaller diameter than
that of the positive element. With observance of this recom-
mended proportion of the foci the negative element (attached
to the positive lens) will not become inconveniently large and
heavy. Negative lenses with foci a little longer than half the
focus of the positive set may safely be used to increase the field
of view (the included angle) at a reduction in the magnification
of the image.

When using a telephoto-lens the instrument should be well
and rigidly supported, as the smallest tremors of the camera
become magnified in their effect upon the image and probably
would spoil the plate for phototopographic purposes. The
focusing should be very carefully made, using the same stop
that is to be used for the subsequent exposure. Generally speak-
Lig, the best results will be obtained on a calm day after a rain
or when the atmosphere is perfectly free from smoke and dust.
To obtain good results for distant mountain views, of course
a yellow color-screen or ray-filter will have to be provided. It
is also of great importance that the photographic plate be in
perfect contact with the metal frame of the camera, as even a
slight irregularity in this respect would spoil the negative for
iconometric purposes.

Telephotographic cameras combined with phototopographic
methods no doubt will play an important part in modern wars
and maneuvers where smokeless powder will be in general use,
to reveal the positions of hostile troops and enable the observing
officers to obtain a correct idea of the positions of the enemy,
and consequently of his plans (inasmuch as these may be
deduced from the recognized disposition of the forces in the
field). Light transportable " conning towers " supplied with
" telescoping " or extension tubes and prism reflectors will
probably form the most satisfactory support for the telephoto-
lens combination when used for strategic reconnoitering pur-
poses. For use in the army a telescoping-tube system could



GENERAL REMARKS ON TELEPHOTOGRAPHY. 407

be devised to serve in place of the center pole of the dark-
tent.

The following are some of the better-known publications on
long-distance photography and telephoto-lens attachments:

T. R. DALLMEYER. "The Telephotographic Lens," published by J. H. Dall-

meyer. London, 1892.
T. R. DALLMEYER, F.R.A.S., etc. "Telephotography: an Elementary

Treatise on the Construction and Application of the Telephotographic

Lens." London, 1899.
M. le capitaine du Genie BOUTTREAUX. "M&noire sur la telephotographie."

Nro. de Sept., 1897, Revue du Genie.
Memoire du chef de bataillon Allotte de la FUYE, commandant PEcole du

Genie de Grenoble. "Sur PEmploi des appareils photographiques pour

les observations a grande et a petite distances." Autographic a 1'Ecole

du Genie de Grenoble, 1891.
AUG. VAUTIER-DUFOUR. "Sur la Telephotographie." Bulletin de la

Societe Vaudoise des Sciences naturelles, No. 143. Lausanne, 1902.
NICODEMO JADANZA. "II Teleobbietivo e la sua Storia." Torino, Carlo

Clausen, 1899, Estratto dalle Memorie della Academia delle Scienze di

Torino, Serie II, T. XLIX.
MAX LOEHR, Chef de la maison C. A. Steinheil, Paris. "Du Teleobjectif."

Annexe du bulletin de la Societe francaise de Photographic, 1902.
MAX LOEHR. "Sur la Determination des Mesures du Teleobjectif." Bulle-
tin de la Societe frariyaise de Photographic, 1902.
Dr. P. RUDOLPH. "Anleitung zum Gebrauch des Teleobjectifs von der

Firma Carl Zeiss." Jena, 1896.
C. A. STEINHEIL. "Ueber Fernphotographie." Phot. Correspondenz,

1892.

Dr. A. MIETHE. "Photographische Optik."
LECHNER'S Mittheilungen, Feb. 1892.
Mittheilungen aus dem Gebiete des Seewesens, 1894.
Revue du Cercle Militaire, 1895.
The American Annual of Photography, 1896.
Zeitschrift fuer Vermessungswesen, 1892.
ANTHOXY'S Photographic Bulletin, 1892 to 1894, etc.



INDEX.



A.

PAGE

Abbe, Prof 178

Aberration 176

archomatic 163

chromatic 180

spherical 163

Abruzzi Mountains. 24

Academy of Sciences, Madrid 28

Paris 7

Academy, Royal Building, Berlin 14

U. S. Military, West Point 4

Swedish Military 22

Accampamento Reale 89, 103, 106

Accelerating development 357

Accelerator 357, 361

Acetate of lead 383, 384

soda 383

Acetic acid 355

Achromatic aberration 163

lens 179, 181

Acid, acetic 355

carbonic 353

citric 357, 383

hydrochloric 362, 372

muriatic 353, 385

nitric 385

oxalic 352

pyrogallic % 358

sulphuric 355, 361, 367, 385

sulphurous 366, 373

409



410 INDEX.

PAGE

Ackerblom, Ph 22, 23

Actinic action of light 338

power of light. 346

Aerial perspective 337

Alaska, southeastern 197

Alaskan boundary 31

Commissioners 31, 32, 135/197

Phototopographic Reconnaissance . 31, 135

Albumenized paper 378

Alcohol 188, 362, 382

Alidade, Danish plane-table 242

Alidade Holometrique 260

Alkaline solution 350, 35 1, 358

Alophe 8

Alpenstocks 212, 222

Almeria . . 28

Altazimuth 195

Alum 357, 367, 382, 383, 385

Aluminum camera-box 186, 189, 199, 201

Amber powder 375

Amidol 366

Amidol developer 366

Ammonia-bath 378

Ammonium chloride 370

Amrein, Prof 23

Anastigmat lens 164, 222, 226, 29, 239, 243, 247, 25, 342

Antiplanatic lens (Steinheil's) 212

Antihalation plates 342

Andreas, F. C 15

Aperture 166, 167, 176, 177, 215

Aplanatic lens (Steinheil's) 183, 222

Apua 25

Arago iv, 6

Archer, Scott iv

Architectural surveys vii

Argentic chloride iii, iv, 372

Arizard 402

Artificial horizon 188, 193

Assistant topographer 187, 193, 195, 196

Axis, optical 202, 206

perspective 65, 66



INDEX. 411



Azimutale fotografico 224, 227

Azimuth camera 226

compass 203, 223, 227, 266

photographic determination of 224, 225

B.

Backing plates 342

prints 402

Balbreck 255

Barrel-shape distortion 177

Bart Glacier 24

Base, stereophotogrammetric 323, 326

Batut, Arthur 1 1

Becker, Prof 20, 23

Beautemps-Beaupre 5,6, 223

Bennati, L 27

Benzine. . . . : 375

Benzole 375

Bernhardi, Capt 12

Berthaud, Col 1 1

Bertelli, Giuseppe 27

Bessel 61

Bicarbonate of soda 360, 386

Bichloride of mercury 296, 370

Bichromate of potassium 362, 372

sodium 379

Biconcave lens 165, 173, 174

Biconvex lens 165. 168-173, Z 79

Bildmesskunst 13, 47

Binocular microscope 318, 321

telescope 309

Blistering 378, 382

Bisulphide of sodium 365

Blue haze 337

Bluemke, Dr. A 15

Board, photograph 137, 138, 148

Bock, Major 16, 17

Boettcher, Prof 368, 372

Bohnenberger 61

Borax. . 379, 382



412 INDEX.

PAGE

Bornecque, J 1 1

Bouttreau, Capt 1 1

Brasset Freres 253

Bridges-Lee 33, 262-269

Brit sh Columbia boundary 31

Broken telescope 260

Bromide of potassium iv, 355, 356, 359, 361, 364, 365, 371

silver v

paper 365, 378

Bromo-hydrochinon developer 364

Brown stains 373

Brunner 7, 28

Buc 28

Bunsen 346

Buonome, Giacome 27

Bureau, Swiss Topographic 23

Canadian Topographic 135

Bush, E 128, 183

C.

Calotype iv

Camera -box, aluminum 186, 199

Camera clara v, 6

crosswires 202, 213, 265, 266

diaphragms 186, 205, 259 342

frame graduation 233

levels 184-192, 197, 200, 203, 205, 233

obscura 6, 42

plates, size of (Bridges-Lee) 268

(Ney) 253

(Vallot Freres) 255

(von Huebl) 253

stations, distances between 399

select'on of 388

surveying T 8 2

(Bridges-Lee's) 262-269

(Deville's) 186-196

(Doergens') 184

(Finsterwalder's) 227-230

(Hafferl's) 242-243



INDEX. 413

PAGE

Camera surveying (Italian) 211, 219-227

(Koppe's) 234-241

(Laussedat's) 244

(Le Bon's) : 184

(Lechner's) 184

(Meydenbaur's) 185, 186

(Ney's) 231-234

(Pollack's) 241-242

(U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey's) 196-200

(Vallot's) 253-262

(Vogel's) 184

(Werner's) 184

telescope (of Lechner) 244

(of Paganini) 219, 220, 229

(of Starke and Kammerer) 245, 249

Canadian Department of the Interior 29, 31, 132

Government Printing Office 132

Pacific Railroad 29

phototopographic method 132

outfit 193

surveys 340

Topographic Surveys Office 135

Carbonate of soda 358, 359, 361, 363-365, 379

ammonia 352

potassium 361, 362, 365

Carbonic acid 353

Carbutt's color-screen 340

orthochromatic films 255

Casella, L. P 262

Caucasus 209

Caustic soda 361, 368

Cazes, L n

Center, geometrical 165

Centered lenses 164, 165

Central projection 4 167

Centre linead 290

Chamounix base 262

Chemical focus 180

Chevallier, A 8, 15, 28

Chicago Exposition 8, 29

Chloroform



414 INDEX.

PAGE

Chloride of ammonium 370

gold 382-384

and sodium 384

platinum 373

potassium 372, 375

silver iii, iv, 372

sodium 381, 383, 385

Chloroplatinite of potassium 383

Chromatic aberration (secondary) 178-181

Chrome alum 367

Chromium salts 372

Cian del Lei 89, ic6

Citric acid 357, 383

Clearing solution 357, 366, 369

Cloud hoods 390

Coast pilot work, Italian 223

Cogne Valley 25

Collinear lens (Voigtlaender's) 183

Collodion iodide iv

Color-screens 187, 198, 205, 339-341

(of Bausch and Lomb) 341

(Carbutt's) 340

(Dallmeyer's) 341

(orange) 187, 340

(yellow) 198, 340, 341

Colson, Capt. R n, 44

Combined toning- and fixing-bath 379, 383, 384, 386

Commissioners, Alaskan Boundary 31, 32, 135, 197

Comparative exposures 343

diagram; 345, 346

table 345

light values 343

Compass, azimuth 203, 223, 227, 266

dial 226, 244

Dixey 203

Schmalkalder 203

Concave -con vex lens 165

Concluded points 196

Congress, IX. Geographical, Vienna 26

Conjugate foci 171-174

planes 1*71-173



INDEX. 415

PAGE

Conjugate points 174

Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers, Paris 8

Constant focal length. . . . 183, 185-186, 204

Contouring, iconometric . . . . 126, 151, 157

Convex-concave lens 165

Copal 375

Copper sulphate 371

Cross levels 233

Cross-wires 213, 214, 221, 229, 265, 266

Crown glass 180

Crystallization of films 368

water 350

Curvature 214, 399

Cyanide of potassium 371

silver 370

Cyanine 339, 340

Cylindrograph, topographic 271-274

D.

D'Abbadie 8

Daguerre iv

Daguerreotype iv

Dallmeyer, T. R 403-407

Dallmeyer's rapid rectilinear lens 183

wide-angle lens 340

Danish plane-table alidade 242

Dark-room 377

Dark -tent v

Daussy 7, 10

Davy iii

Definition, error in '. 215, 217

of bisected points 229

De Geer, Prof. G 22

De Iriarte, C 28

De La Fuye, A n

Denison's orange tissue 349

Denkmaeler Archiv 14

Density of a negative 336

Department of the Interior, Canadian 29, 31, 132

Derogy, & 402



41 6 INDEX.

PAGE

Developer 353~366

amidol 366

bromo-hydrochinon 364

eikonogen 366

eiko-cum-hydro 365

ferrous oxalate 356

hydrochinon 361, 362

metol 360

(bicarbonate of) soda 360

hydrochinon 363

pyro 358

Developing agents 350

Deville, Capt. E viii, n, 29, 30, 33, 132, 135, 136, 186, 197, 199, 228,

308, 342, 353, 355, 394, 398, 401

Deville's photographic surveying method 132

De Zea, Lieut.-Col. Dom Pedro 28

Diagram of comparative exposures 345, 346

Dial compass 226, 244

Diaphragms of cameras 186, 259, 342

lenses 166, 167, 176, 177, 201-205, 212, 215, 344

Diffused light 337

Dispersions 178, 179

Distance line 47, 51-55, 190

Distance between camera stations 399

Distilled water 352

Distortion, barrel-shape 163, 177

optical 163

pin-cushion 163, 177

radial 164

tangential 164

in backed prints 402

negatives 401

prints 401

produced by diaphragms 177

Dixey compass 203

Djamaht 15

Doergens, Dr. R viii, 12, 13, 15, 17, 184

Doergens' camera 184

Dolezal, Prof. E 19, 22

Dolland 178

Dominion land surveyors (Canadian). 155



INDEX. 417

PAGE

Dom Panunce 6

Douglas-Archibald, E 114

Driffield, V. C 353

Drouin, F . 1 1

Drying negatives 369

Dry plates 335, 336, 339

Dry-plate process v

Dubosque 8

Ducretet, E 244

Duffield, Gen. W. W , 32

Dumas, Fl 7 n



E.

Eccentric center of gravity 229

Eccentric telescope 238

Eclimetre 260

Eckholm, Nils. 22

Eder, Dr. J. W 18, 19, 340, 355

Edwards, B. J 33

Edwards' isochromatic plates ., 340

Effect of color-rays, qualitative 336

quantitative 336

light, actinic 338

optical 338

Eikonogen 264, 265

developer 366

Eiko-cum-hydro developer 365

Elements of a photographic perspective 119

Elevations, determination of 80, 88, 95, 97, 119, 125, 132, 145, 147

Emergent ray 166, 176

Emery .- 7

Engineering surveys vii

Eosine 339

Eritrea 88, 200

Error in definition 215, 217

iconometric angular measures 393~395

stereoscopic base 328

stereotelemeter readings 315

swing of stereoscopic plates 328

Erythrocine 339



41 8 INDEX.

PAGE

Exposition, Paris 7

Chicago 8, 29

Exposure, length of 177, 336

correctly timed 336

overtimed 336

undertimed 336

Exposures, comparative 343-346

test 346-348

Eyepiece, Ramsden 220, 221, 239

F.

Fahrlaender, Col. 23

Faverges 7

Fenner 26

Ferrero, Gen 24

Ferricyanide of potassium 362, 377

Ferrous oxalate 353

Films, Carbutt's 258

crystallized 365

Finsterwalder, Dr. S 15, 17, 20, 27, 157, 227, 228, 245, 400

Finsterwalder's phototheodolite 227-230

Five-point problem 55~S9

Fixed focus 183, 185, 186

Fixing-bath. . . 365-368, 377, 3$4

Fixing and toning-baths. . , -379, 382-384, 386

prints 381

Flare spots 166

Flexible prints 382

Flint glass. . . 180,181

focal length of pin-hole camera 44

constant 183, 185, 186

to compute 89, 90, 92, 98, 102, 104, 107, no, 112, 128, 129,

215, 217, 228, 233, 236

lengths 161, 170-175, 183-186, 189, 191

planes 168-175

scales . 209, 217, 220, 247

variation !8o

Foci, conjugate. . . 171-174

F ocus, chemical 180

optical. 180



INDEX. 419

PAGE

Focus, principal 168

visual 180

Foerster, Dr 15

Fourcade, T 8

Fraunhofer lines 338, 341

Freiburg 14

French ministry of culture 184

Fribourg, Commandant 8

Frilling 351, 367, 369

Fritsch, G 19

Front planes 37, 4, 3*

Fuming-box 378

G.

Galileo 25, 224

Garibaldi 7

Gassr Dachel 14

Gautier-Prandl prism 313

Gay Lussac iv

Gelatine emulsion v

General staff, Prussian 12

Swedish 22

Swiss 23

Genie corps, French 258, 271

Geographic latitude, photographic 224, 225"

Geological surveys vii

Geometric center of lens 165

Gimbal support for camera. . 225

Girard, J n, 16

Glass, crown 180

flint .:....... 180, 181

Jena 178

Gleaves, Albert 33

Glycerine 382

Goerz, anastigmat of 183, 187, 199, 201, 227, 229, 239

Gold 385

bank-envelope paper 349

solution 379-389

GolfareUI, Prof. I * . . . , 27

Goulier, Col. Th 254, 260



420 INDEX.

PAGE

Gran Sasso 24

Graphic hypsometer , 284

protractor 275-278

sector 278-283

Grenoble 9

Grimsimski, R 20

Grousillier, H 309

Guenther, Oscar 238

Guillemont 9, 402

Gum guaiacum 188



H.

Hafferl, F 16, 19, 26, 107-1 10

Hagstrom, H. L 22

Halation 166, 342

Halo 166

Haloid, silver 335~354

Ham berg, Dr. A 22

Hanot, Alfred n

Hardener and short-stop '. 385

Hard, Lieut 16

Hauck, Dr. G 15, 17, 62, 63, 80, 81, 139, 388

Hecker, Dr. 20

Heights, scale of 147

Heine, L 20

Heliography iv

Heller, Prof. J , 17

Helmholtz 312

Herring, E 20

Hess, Dr. H 15

Heun, Dr. K 21

High School, Technical, Berlin 14, 63

Prague 16

Hildebrandson, H. H 21, 22

Hintze 13

Hondaide 9, 402

Hondaille, Capt 1 1

Hood for lens 186, 194

Horn, Photographische Mittheilungen 13

Horizon, artificial 188, 193



INDEX. 421

PAGE

Horizon line 185-193, 197, 206

Horizontal angles 230

contours 126, 151, 157

intersections 115, 117, 124, 131, 140, 149

Huebl, Baron von 243, 250

plane-table photogrammeter of 250-253

Hurter, F : 353

Hydrochinon 361-365

developer '. 361, 362

Hydrographic surveys vii

Hydrometer tests 350

Hyposulphite of sodium 357, 365, 367, 370, 373, 382, 383, 385

tests 368



I.

Iconometers 275

Iconometric angular errors 393~39S

contouring 126, 151, 157

plotting 47, 49, 126, 151, 157, 215, 307

range 396-398

Iconometry. 47, 49

Identification of pictured points 138, 139

Image plane 170, 202

plate 215

stereoscopic 319

Imfeld 19

Incident ray 166-176

Inclined photographs 76, 78-80

Index-mark of stereocomparator 319, 321, 324, 326

Index, refractive 159, 161, 178, 179

Institute, Military Geographic, Italy 112

Vienna 15

Photogrammetric, Berlin 14

Polytechnic, Milan 24

Intensification 369, 370

Intensity of light 205, 346

Interocular distance 309, 317

Intersections, horizontal 115, 117, 124, 131, 140, 149

vertical 134, 142, 144, 389

Iodide of potassium 370



422 INDEX.

PAGE

Iodine, tincture of. 369

Iron developer 356

perchloride 373

sulphate 355-357

Isochromatic dry plates 339

Italian Military Geographic Institute 112

phototopographic method 88

j.

Jarret 9, 402

Javary, Capt 7, 10

Jena 178, 309

glass 258

Jesse, O -. . . . 21

Jewell, L. E 362

Johnson 13

Jordan, Dr. W 14, 16, 83-86, 394

Jouart, A 8, 10

Jungfrau 23, 238

K.

Kennett v

Kernel planes 64

points 63-68, 304

Kernpunkte 63, 64

Kerschensteiner, Dr 15

Kinberg, Ma' or H 22

King, Dr. W. F viii, 31, 135

Klotz, O. J 19, 33

Kobsa, R 18

Konistka, Dr. Karl 15

Koppe, Dr. C 15, 17, 234, 238

Krauss 258

Krifka, Col. Otto 27

L.

Lacombe 8, 402

Lambert, F. C 43, 44



INDEX. 423

PAGE

Lambert, J. H 5, 35

Lampblack 188

Laska, W 20

Latent image 334, 336, 343

Latitude, photographic determination of 224, 225

Laugier 7, 10

Laussedat, Col. A v, viii, 4, 6, 12, 15, 27, 28, 33, 34, i2j, 130, 253, 298, 308

Leather plate-holder 228

Le Blanc, Capt 6

Le Bon, Dr. G 10, 86-88, 184

Le Bon's camera 184

Lechner, R 250

Lechner's camera 184, 244

Le Conte, Prof 35

Le Cornu, J n

Le Gros, Commandant v, 156

Lejeune, L 244

Length, focal, computation of 89-92, 98, 102, 104, 107, no, 112, 128, 129

Length of exposure 117

stereophotogrammetric base 326

Lens, anastigmatic, Zeiss' 183, 187, 199, 201

aplanatic, Steinheil's 183

antiplanatic, Steinheil's 212

biconcave 165-1 74

biconvex 165-1 73

concave-convex 165

convex-concave 165

collinear, Voigtlaender's 183

combination X 66

diaphragms 166-177, 201-212, 215, 344

double anastigmat of Goerz 183

doublet 215

hood I94

negative. 165, 173, 174, 405-406

pantoscopic, of E. Busch ^3

periscopic ^5

positive . . . . 165-170

principal axis of ^

rapid rectilinear, Dallmeyer's 183

stops... 1^6-177,201-212,215,344

vertices of a



424 INDEX.

PAGE

Lenses 159, 161-163

centered 164

Liesegang, Prof. R. E 371

Light intensity 205

Light-rays, sources of 337

Light intensity, table 346

Light values, comparative 343

Lime 352

Line, distance 47, 51, 55

front 38

horizon 5i~54

principal 38, 51-54

vanishing 41

Literature, Austrian 16

English 33

French 10

German 16

Italian 27

Spanish 28

Swedish. 22

Swiss 23

Loehr, Max 1 1

Long-distance photography 402

Lowison, Major 22

Lumiere's orthochromatic plates 255

Lundal, A ' . . . . 22

Lunette d'Etat Major. 402

Lynn Canal 32

M.

MacArthur, J. J 29, 31, 32

Maddox, Dr v

Magnesia 325

Magnetic azimuth camera 226

Magnification of the stereotelemeter 313

Mallmann 340

Mandl, Julius 21

Manzi, Michele 24

Marselli Capt. Carlo 27

Martens 8



INDEX. 425

PAGE

Matthieu 8, 402

Maurer, M , 16

Measuring distorted negatives 238

Mendenhall, Dr. T. C 32

Meteorological observations vii

Method, phototopographic 82

Finsterwalder's 157

French 121, 130

German 83-86, 128

HafferPs 107, no

Hauck's 63, 80, 81, 139

Italian 88-115

Jordan's 83-86

Laussedat's 121, 130

Le Bon's 86-88

Legros' 156

Meydenbaur's 128

Paganini's 88-151

of squares 72, 294

Methods, topographic 2

Metol developer 359, 360, 363, 373

hydrochinon developer. 363

soda developer . 360

Meydenbaur, Dr. A 12, 14-16, 185, 186, 392

camera 185, 186

Miethe, Dr. A 19, 403, 404

Mikiewicz, Lieut. L 16, 17

Military Academy, U. S., West Point 4

Geographic Institute of Italy 112

Austria 15

Ministry of Culture, French 184

Moessard, Commandant P 10, 163, 271-274

Monet, E n

Mont Blanc 9, 253, 258, 261

Mont Cenis 24

Mueller, Wilhelm 250

Muriatic acid 353 , 385



426 INDEX.



N.

PAGE

Nadar 8

Nathorst, p ro f. A. G 22

Navarro, L 28

Negative 45

tens 173, 174, 405, 406

Negatives, to dry 369

measure distorted 238

intensify 369, 370

reduce 373

varnish 375

stained 370, 373

distortion in 401

Neuhauss, Dr 228

Ney's phototheodolite 231, 234

Niepce, J. N iv, 6

Nitrate of ammonia 374

lead 383

silver iv, 371

sodium 374

Nitric acid 385

Nodal planes 165, 170, 174, 175

points i6j-i68

Nonactinic paper 349

Nonhalation plates 342



O.

Oasis Dachel 14

Obernetter 340

Objective scale *. 201, 209, 217-220, 247

Observatory at Upsala, meteorological 21

Observing angles from negatives 236-241

Ocular lens of telescopic camera 219

Oetz Valley 15

Olson, K. P 22

Optical axis 202-206

center 165, 166

distortion 163

focus . 180



INDEX. 427

PAGE

Optical lens 161, 162

sensitizers 339

Oreo Valley 25

Orienting picture traces- . . 47~49 S 1 ^, 62, 78, 92-94, 99, 124, 130, 137, 226

Orthochromatic plates 339

Orthogonal projection ^ 210

Ott, Max 227

Ottawa 31, 132, 195

Overexposure 348, 356, 363, 364

Oxalate of iron 353

Potash ; 355

Oxalic acid 352

P.

Pacific Ocean 196

Packing-case, light-tight 235

Paganini, L. P.. viii, 3, 22, 25, 26, 88, 200-209, 211-227, 2 44

Paga ini's camera 200-209, 2I2

Panoramic cameras 270-274

Pantograph arms 306

Parallax 311, 318, 321, 326, 330

Paris, map of 7

Pate, E 8, 10

Peep-sights 260

Perchloride of iron . 373

Period of reversal 336

Permanganate of potash 368

Perspective axis 65, 67

elements 35, 37, 119

photographic 36-42

Perspectographs 275, 298-302, 303-307

Perspectometer, Deville's 294-297

Phosphate of soda , 352, 375

Photogenic drawings iv

Photogrammeters 182

Photog ammetric plane table of von Huebl 250-252

Photogrammetry and phototopography. 13, 387

Photograph board, Deville's 137, 138, 148, 290-294

protractor 154

Photographic azimuth compass 223-227



428 INDEX.



PAGE



Photographic determination of magnetic azimuth. ... . 224 225

outfit, Canadian . , 193

perspectives 36-42

plates, inclined. . . - 76 78-80

printing , . . 376

Photometrography 13

Phototacheometre 253

Phototheodolite of Bridges-Lee 262-269

Capt. E. Deville 186-188

Dr. S. Finsterwalder 227-230

Dr. C. Koppe 234-241

Col. A. Laussedat 244

R. Lechner 243

L. P. Paganini 211, 219

O. Ney. 231-234

V. Pollack 241- 242

Pollack and Hafferl 242-243

Starke and Kammerer 245-250

the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey 196-200

Vallot Freres 253-262

Phototopographic plane table of Chevallier 270

Picture traces 47~49> 5^54, 62, 78, 92-94, 99, 124, 130, 137, 327

Pietsch, Dr 14-16

Pie-y-Allue, Don Juan 28

Pin-cushion distortion 177

Pin-hole-camera constants 44

exposures 43

cameras 42

diameter 42

photography 42

Pizzighelli, Major 16, 1 7



Online LibraryJohn Adolphus FlemerAn elementary treatise on phototopographic methods and instruments, including a concise review of executed phototopographic surveys and of publicatins on this subject → online text (page 32 of 33)