John Alexander Fuller-Maitland Sir George Grove.

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op. 48, has become a favourite at the Popular
Concerts and elsewhere, and his most important
work, ' Odysseus,* has been given by the Bach
Choir, under his own direction. [M.]

BRUCKNER, Anton, organist and com-
poser, born Sept. 4, 1824 at Ausfelden (Upper
Austria), and received his earliest musical in-
struction from his father, a village schoolmaster,
at whose death he was received as a chorister
into the institute (Stift) of St. Florian, where
he afterwards became organist. In 1855 he
obtained by competition the post of organist
of Linz cathedral. From here he made frequent
journeys to Vienna to prosecute his studies under
Sechter, and from 1861 to 1863 he was a pupil
of Otto Kitzler. At Sechter' s death in 1867 he
was chosen to succeed him as organist of the
Hofkapelle, and at the same time became a
professor in the Conservator! urn. To these
functions he added a lectureship at the Uni-
versity, to which he was appointed in 1875. In
1869 he took part in an organ competition at
Nancy with such success that he was invited
to play in Paris and elsewhere; in 1871 he
gave six recitals at the Albert Hall. Three
grand masses, besides several compositions for
male chorus, are among his vocal compositions,
but his fame rests chiefly upon his seven sym-
phonies, the last of which (published in 1885)
was played at the Richter concert of May 23,
1887. His style is distinguished by great
earnestness and considerable originality, though
it may be reproached with a certain lack of
contrast, and an inordinate leaning towards the
manner of Wagner, upon whose death the slow
movement of the symphony already referred
to was written as a kind of elegy. [M.]

BRUCKLER, Hugo, born at Dresden Feb.
18, 1845, received his first musical instruction


from his schoolmaster, C. Sahr. When about
ten vears old he entered the Evangelical Choris-
ters^ Institution at Dresden, where he received
instruction in singing and the pianoforte from
the court organist, Dr. Johann Schneider. Upon
leaving the institution he devoted himself entirely
to music, and after taking violin lessons from
Herr Haase of Dessau, who was then living in
Dresden, in his sixteenth year entered the Dresden
Conservatorium of Music, where he diligently
pursued his violin studies under Herr Franz
Schubert. Bruckler's growing inclination for sing-
ing and pianoforte caused him, about eighteen
months later, to give up the violin, in order to
devote himself entirely to the study of piano-
forte-playing, singing, and composition. After
receiving instruction from Carl Krebs (piano*
forte), Julius Rietz (composition), and others,
as well as making experiments in different
branches of music, and diligently studying full
scores and literature, Bruckler left the Conser-
vatorium and began to compose industriously, at
the same time giving private music lessons. In
the latter years of his life he still studied singing
with great success under the well-known master
Herr Thiele, but continually increasing ill-health
compelled him to abandon this passionately
loved study. Rapid consumption brought the
amiable and modest artist severe suffering, and
ended his life at the age of 26, Oct. 7, 1871.
The only compositions of Bruckler's which have
been published are songs; they are as follows:—
op. I, five songs from Scheffers Trompeter van
Sakkingen (Leipzig, Eahnt), op. 2, nine songs
from the same poem, and seven songs from his
posthumous works, selected and edited by Adolf
Jensen (Dresden, Hoffarth). [W.B.S.]

BRULL, Iqnaz, pianist and composer, born
Nov. 7, 1846, at Prossnitz in Moravia, received
instruction from Epstein, Rufinatscha and Des*
soff. The first of these played a concerto by his
young pupil in 186 1, which brought the com-
poser into notice. In the following year Brull
wrote an orchestral serenade which was per-
formed at Stuttgart in 1864. He appeared as a
pianist in Vienna (where his parents had lived
since 1849) and undertook several concert tours,
performing, among other things, his own com-
positions with the greatest success. From 1872
to 1878 he was engaged in teaching at one of
the smaller institutions at Vienna. In the latter
year he came to London, and played at no less
than twenty concerts. By this time his opera
' Das goldene Kreuz * (produced Dec. 22, 1875,
at Berlin) had obtained such success in different
parts of Germany that Mr. Rosa was warranted
in producing it in London during the composer's
stay. It failed to produce any remarkable effect.
His other operas are • Die Bettler von Samar-
kand' (1864), 'Der Landfriede' (1877), 'Bianca*
(1870), and * Konigin Mariette* (1883), besides
which he has written a symphony op. 31, an
overture ' Macbeth ' op. 46, two pianoforte coo-
oertos, a violin concerto op. 41, a sonata for two
pianos, a trio, and other works for piano and
strings, besides pianoforte pieces and songs. [M.]

Digitized by VjOOQ IC

563 b note 4.

BRUNT, A. B. Line 2 of article, for in read
Feb. a.

Geva£bt, and vol. ii. 426 a.

BRYCESON, BROTHERS, oigan-buildere,
London. [See Electric Action, vol i. p. 485.]
The organ mentioned in the note, built for Mr.
Holmes, is now in the Albert Palace, Battersea
Park. [SeeOBGAK,vol.ii.p. 607$.] [V.deP.]

BRYNE, Albebtu8, organist, born about
16a i, received his musical education from John
Tomkins, organist of St. Paul's. It was prob-
ably on the death of his master that Bryne
obtained the same post, which he held until the
Commonwealth. At the Restoration he was
re-appointed, a petition having been presented
to the King on his behalf. After the great fire
he became organist of Westminster, a post which
he probably retained until the appointment of
Blow in 1669. He is said to have died in that
year, but there is evidence to prove that he
was organist and fourth fellow of Dulwich
College from 1671 to 1677. A 'Mr. Bryan' who
was appointed organist of Allhallows' Barking
in 1676, with a salary of £18 per annum, may
very possibly have been the same person. In
* The Virgin's Pattern ' (Life of Susanna Per-
wick), 1661, among the famous musicians of the
time, mention is made of ' Albertus Bryne, that
famous velvet-fingered organist.' A Morning and
Evening Service by him are in many collections,
and he wrote besides many sets of words for an-
thems, as well as dances, 'grounds,' etc. His
name is variously spelt Bryan, Brian, and as
above. (Diet, of Nat. Biog., etc.) [W.B.S.]

^ BUCK, Dudley, born at Hartford, Connecti-
cut, U.S., March 10, 1839, the son of a merchant,
who intended him for a mercantile life. But
the son, showing at an early age a taste for
music, having in fact acquired by self-instruc-
tion a knowledge of the rudiments of the art
with sufficient practical attainments to be able
to play the accompaniments for the masses of
Haydn and Mozart, the father, realising the ex-
tent of Dudley's gifts, spared nothing to cultivate
and ripen them. Dudley's first lessons on the
piano were given him by Mr. W. J. Babcock of
Hartford, at the age of sixteen . Being employed
as a substitute for the regular organist at St.
John's Church, Hartford, he gave such satisfac-
tion that he retained the position until his de-
parture for Europe in 1858. Before leaving
home he entered Trinity College, Hartford,
where he remained three years. Four years
were passed in Europe, eighteen months of
which were spent at Leipzig, where he studied
theory and composition under Hauptmann and
Kicbter, orchestration and musical form under
Rietz, and the piano under Plaidy and Mo-
scheles. Among his fellow pupils at the con-
servatory were Arthur Sullivan, J. F. Barnett,
Walter Bache, and Carl Rosa. In order to in-

* Copyright 1889 by F. H. Jones.

J Schneider of Dresden. Rietz being called
thither at the same time to direct the Royal
Opera, Buck was enabled to continue his studies
under him. A year was also spent at Paris.
Returning to Hartford in 1863, he was appointed
organist at the Park Church. His plans for
seeking employment in a larger field were frus-
trated by the death of his mother in 1862. His
father dying in 1867, Buck went to Chicago in
1868, where he held the position of organist at
St. James's Church for three years, his reputa-
tion as a performer and composer steadily
growing during this period. The great fire at
Chicago, Oct. 9, 1 871, destroyed his house, with
a large library, including several important
compositions in manuscript. Buck then re-
moved to Boston, where he was appointed
organist at St. Paul's Church and for the Music
Hall, and subsequently at the Shawm ut (Con-
gregational) Church. In 18 74 he went to New
York, where he held the position of assistant
conductor in Theodore Thomas's orchestra for
one season. He also had charge of the music at
St. Ann's Church, Brooklyn, until 1877, when
he was appointed organist at the church of the
Holy Trinity, Brooklyn; and this position he
still holds (1887).

Buck's compositions embrace nearly every
variety of music They have been received
with great favour by musicians of every grade,
and are extensively played and sung throughout
the Union. He is one of the first American
composers, with high aims, who has met with any-
thing like a proper recognition of his labours.
At the time of his first publications — during his
residence at Hartford, in 1862 — the proverb
concerning the lack of honour which a prophet
receives in his own country applied with
full force to aspiring musicians in the United
States. The wide popularity which Buck's
music enjoys is due to the fact that the strict-
ness and thoroughness of his early training have
not interfered with the play of his fancy or the
freedom of his invention. His orchestral scores
show him to be a master of the art of colouring
as well as of form, and in all bis compositions,
vocal or instrumental, there is displayed a tech-
nical knowledge of the colour and resources of
the natural or artificial means employed, com-
bined with an artistic treatment, which has
earned the warmest praise from the most critical

The following is a list of Buck's published
works : —

8clo$. Ckonu, and Orekntrat—

Psalm xlri. (op. 90).

Easter Morning, Cantata Cop. 21).

Festlral Hymn, 'O Peace, on thine npsoaring pinions • (original
words), for the Peace Jubilee. Boston. June WW (op. 97).

' Legend of Don Munlo.' Dramatic Cantata (original words) (op. 82).

' Centennial Meditation of Columbia,' by appointment or U. 8. Com-
mission. Cantata, written for the opening of the Centennial Industrial
Exhibition. Philadelphia. May 10, 1876 ; words by Sidney Lanier.

'The Golden Legend' Symphonic Cantata, extracts from Long-
fsllow's poem, prise composition at the Cincinnati Festlral. June 1880.

' The Light of Asia.' Cantata, on a text from Edwin Arnold's poem.
(KoYello, Ewer a Co., 184.)

' Columbus,' Cantata for mala TOiee (original words, German and




Ckmrek Jfinfar-Two ooOectloM of motets, tathans, etc ; Ml Mr-
vfoes for the Protestant Episcopal Church.

Focal Jfwfer-Songs; ptrtrtongs tor male and mixed Toloes ; arias,
aaered and secular, with piano, organ, and orohestral aceompanlment.

Piano and Clumber Jfavie.— Compositions tor PF. solo and In con-
junction with stringed and wind Instruments.

Orpon JTs*o^9oiiatas, concert-pieces, variations, marches, tran-
scriptions or overtures.

EdwHiiomal f-Studles on pedal phrasing (op. S) ; niustralkms In
choir accompaniment, with hints In registration.

His most important unpublished work 6 are : —
•Deter*.' Operetta, three acts, words by W. A. Oroffut: produced
at the Lyceum Theatre, New York, October. I860: ' Marmton.' Sym-
phonic overture : Symphony. E b (op. 70) : Concertino for four horns
«ndorche«tr»(op.71):StrlncQulnteU(()p.«6snd68). [F.H.J.]

BUCK, Zeohabiah, Mus.D., born at Nor-
wich, Sept. 9, 1798, became in 1807 a chorister
of Norwich Cathedral under Dr. Beckwitb, and
continued such under his son and successor, John
Charles Beckwitb. On the breaking of his voice
he became an articled papil of the latter, and,
on the expiration of his articles, his partner as a
teacher. On the death of J. C. Beckwitb in 1 828
Buck was appointed his successor as organist
and master of the choristers of the cathedral.
The degree of Mus.D. was conferred upon
him in 1853 by Dr. Sumner, Archbishop of
Canterbury. He composed some church music,
not remarkable for either quantity or quality ;
but although an indifferent player, and still more
indifferent composer, he possessed an extra-
ordinary faculty for training choir boys, and
was also an able teacher of the organ. Many
of his pupils obtained appointments as cathedral
and college organists. He resigned his appoint-
ments in 1877, and died at Newport, Essex,
Aug. 5, 1879, [W.HE]

BULOW, yon. Add that he remained two

Stars at Hanover, and was then appointed
ofmusikintendant to the Duke of Meiningen.
During the five years of his tenure of this post he
did wonders with the orchestra, forming it into
an unrivalled body of players. Since his resig-
nation of this appointment, in Oct. 1885, he
has directed various sets of concerts in Berlin,
St. Petersburg, etc., and has employed his ex-
ceptional talents as a teacher in the Raff Con-
servatorium at Frankfort, and in Klindworth's
establishment in Berlin. He also conducted
a Musical Festival at Glasgow in 1878. He has
recently taken up his residence in Hamburg. [M.]

BURDE-NEY, Jenny, whose maiden name
was Ney (said by Pougin to be a relative of Mar-
shal Ney), was born Dec 31, 1836, at Gratz.
She was taught singing by her mother, herself a
singer, and first appeared in opera at OlmtLtz
(1847), afterwards at Prague, Lemberg, and
Vienna (1 850-53), and finally at Dresden. In
the last-named city, where she first appeared
Dec. 1853, as Valentine, she attained a great
reputation as the successor of Schroeder-Devrient,
and was engaged there until her retirement from
the stage about 1868, having in the meanwhile
married, Jan. 31, 1855, Paul Burde, an actor at
the same theatre. In 1855-56 she was engaged
at the Royal Italian Opera, Covent Garden, and
Lyceum. She first appeared April 19, '55, as
Leonora (Fidelio), on the occasion of the state


visit of Her Majesty and the Emperor and
Empress of the French, on whose account no
attention was paid to the singer. She repeated
this part twice, but was very coolly received.
Professor Morley remarked her performance with
favour in his ' Journal of a London Playgoer.*
On May 10, 1855, she was better received as
Leonora on the production in England of * Tro-
vatore,' the only other part she played during her
engagement. She also sang with some success

at the Philharmonic. * It would be hard

to name a soprano voice more rich, more sweety
more even than hers. It was a voice better
taught, too, than the generality of German voices
— a voice delivered without force and inequality,—
with due regard to beauty of tone and grace
in ornament. But the new language and accent
hampered Madame Ney ; and her powers as an
actress here seemed to be only limited.* (Charley.)
She died May 17, 1886. [A.G.]

BULL, John. Line a of article, for about
1563 read in 1562. (This date is proved by
a portrait in the possession of Mr. Julian Mar-
shall.) Line 18,/or In read On Nov. 30. P. 38 a,
L 3 2, for In the same month read Two days be-
fore. Concerning Bull's residence abroad, it
should be added that he went to Brussels and be-
came one of the organists of the Chapel Royal
under GerydeGhersem. (Dict.ofNat.Biog.) His
name occurs in a list of persons to whom James I.
ordered 'Gold chains, plates or medals' to be
given, Dec. 31, 1606. (Devon's 'Issues of the
Exchequer/ 1836, p. 301.) [M.]

BULL, OLE Bobneman, a remarkable violin
virtuoso, was born Feb. 5, 1 810, at Bergen in
Norway, where his father practised as a phy-
sician. Some members of the family, especially
an uncle, were very musical, and at the frequent
meetings held for quartet-playing, the boy be-
came early familiar with the masterpieces of
Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. Without having
regular instruction he soon tried his hand at
fiddling, and made such progress as to enable
him not only to take part in these domestic
practices, but also to play first violin in the
public orchestra. His first teacher was Paulsen,
a Dane, and later on he received some instruc-
tion from a pupil of Baillot's, a Swede named
Lundholm who had settled at Bergen. In the
main, however, he was a self-taught player. His
individuality was so strongly marked as to leave
but little room for the direct influence of a
teacher. He was himself a true son of the
North, of athletic build and independent cha-
racter; and the ruling passion of his life was
the love he bore to his native land. The glo-
rious scenery of the mountains and fjords of his
home, the weird poetry of the Sagas of the North,
took hold of his sensitive mind from early child-
hood and filled his imagination. They were re-
flected in his style of playing, and gave to it that
originality and poetic charm by which he never
failed to captivate his audience. His father did
not approve of a musical career, and, after having
gone through the grammar school at Bergen, Ole

Digitized by


•~ BULL.

Bull was Bent to the university of Christiania to
study theology. Very soon however we find
him the conductor of a musical and dramatic
society in that town. At this time political
feeling ran high in Norway, and he appears to
have taken some part in the agitation. At all
events he suddenly left the country and went to
Cassel to satisfy an ardent desire of seeing and
hearing Spohr, for whose violin compositions he
had a sincere admiration. Spohr appears to
have behaved somewhat coldly to the rather ec-
centric and, to him, utterly unknown young
enthusiast, and the latter left Cassel much dis-
appointed. He made a short stay at Qottingen,
where his boisterous manner involved him in a
duel, and then returned to Norway, where he
played with much success at public concerts in
Bergen and Trondjhem. But it was not till he
went to Paris in 1831 that his powers as an
executant were fully developed. He failed to
gain admittance to the Conservatoire, but it was
then that he first heard Paganini, and this con-
stituted, as he himself used to declare, the
turning-point of his life. Pagaoini's playing
made an immense impression on him, and he
threw himself with the utmost vigour into the
pursuit of technical studies in order to emulate
the feats performed by the great Italian vir-
tuoso. Meanwhile his limited means were ex-
liausted, and being too proud to ask for further
assistance from his father, and failing to get an
appointment in one of the orchestras, he fell into
serious difficulties. According to one report he
attempted in a fit of despair to commit suicide
by throwing himself into the Seine ; according to
another he was attacked by a severe illness
brought on by low living and mental anxiety.
Fortunately at this time he came under the
motherly care of a benevolent Parisian lady, who
nursed him, and whose daughter he afterwards
married. After his recovery he made his first
appearance in Paris (April 18, 1833), assisted by
Chopin and Ernst, and then started for Italy,
where he created a perfect furore. From this
time to the end of his life he continued travelling
All over Europe and North America, taking now
and then a summer's rest in his native country.
He played first in London, May 21, 1836 ; at the
Philharmonic, June 6, and during the next sixteen
months hegave 274Coocerts in England, Scotland,
and Ireland. In 1 843 he went to America for the
first, and in 1879 for the fifth and last time.
His success and popularity in the States were
unbounded, and he began to amass a consider-
able fortune. He frequently revisited his native
land, and made himself a beautiful home near
Bergen. To the end of his life he retained a
passionate love for the North and his country-
men; and, touched by the abject poverty of
many of them, he conceived the idea of founding
a Norwegian colony in the States. With a view
to the execution of this scheme he acquired a
large tract of land (125,000 acres), but, though
he was not without natural shrewdness in busi-
ness matters, he unfortunately fell into the hands
of swindlers, who sold to him what was really



the property of a third party. Bull was in
consequence involved in a troublesome and
expensive lawsuit, by which he lost a great part
of his capital. But, nothing daunted, he resumed
travelling and playing to replace what was lost.
On Feb. 5, 1880, he celebrated his 70th birthday
in America, and on Aug. 1 7 of the same year he
died at his country Beat in Norway, where his
death was deplored as a national loss.

Ole Bull was a man of remarkable character
and an artist of undoubted genius. All who
heard him, or came in personal contact with
him, agree that he was far from being an ordi-
nary man. Tall, of athletic build, with large
blue eyes and rich flaxen hair, he was the very
type of the Norseman, and there was a certain
something in his personal appearance and con*
venation which acted with almost magnetic
power on those who approached him. The
writer of this article has been assured by per*
sonal friends of Ole Bull that his powers as
a teller of ghost-stories and other tales was
simply irresistible to young and old, and their
effect not unlike that of his violin-playing. At
the same time it cannot be denied that we find
in him unmistakeable traits of charlatanism, such
as when he seriously relates (see his Biography,
by Sara Bull) that his 'Polacca guerriera'
was ' first conceived while gazing alone at mid*
night on Mount Vesuvius flaming through the
darkness,* or when he played the fiddle on the
top of the great Pyramid !

Spohr, who was by no means prepossessed in his
favour, writes of him in his autobiography :—
' His playing in chords and the certainty of his
left hand are admirable, but, like Pagnnini, he
sacrifices too many of the noble qualities of the
violin to his tricks. His tone, on account of the
thinness of the strings he uses, is bad; and
owing to the use of an almost flat bridge he
can, on the 2nd and 3rd strings, play in the
lower positions only, and then only piano. Hence
his performances, whenever he does not execute
his tricks, are monotonous. We experienced this
in his playing of some of Mozart's quartets. At
the same time he plays with much feeling, if not
with cultivated taste.'

This criticism, as far as it goes, no doubt is
fair and correct; but it entirely ignores those
peculiarities of Ole Bull's talent which constitute
his claim to an eminent position among modern
violinists, and explain his success. In the first
place his technical proficiency was such as very
few violinists have ever attained to. His play-
ing in double-stoppings was perfect ; his staccato,
upwards and downwards, of the utmost bril-
liancy; and although he can hardly be consi-
dered a serious musician in the highest sense of
the term, yet he played with warm and poetical,
if somewhat sentimental, feeling. He has often
been described as the * flaxen-haired Paganini,'
and, as we have seen, he was to a certain extent
influenced by the great Italian. But his imita-
tion hardly went beyond the reproduction of
certain technicalities, such as an extensive use
of harmonics, pizzicatos with the left hand, and

Digitized by VjOOQ IC



similar effects. In every other respect the style
of the two men was as different as the colour of
their hair. While Paganini's manner reflected
his passionate Southern nature to such an extent
that his hearers felt as under the spell of a
demon, Ole Bull transferred his audience to the
dreamy moonlit regions of the North. It is
this power of conveying a highly poetical charm
— a power which is absolutely beyond any mere
trickster or ordinary performer — that redeems
him from the reproach of charlatanism. His
rendering of Scandinavian airs never failed to
charm and move, and his tour* deforce, if they
raised the smile of the musician, invariably car-
ried away his audience. He appears to have
been conscious of his inability to do justice to
serious music— at least he never, with the ex-
ception of one or two movements of Paganini,
played anything but his own compositions. His
private rendering of quartets is said to have
proved the wisdom of this self-imposed restraint.

He used on his violin an almost flat bridge,

Online LibraryJohn Alexander Fuller-Maitland Sir George GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) → online text (page 135 of 194)