John Alexander Fuller-Maitland Sir George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) online

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continuations see Boston Musical Societies in
Appendix, vol. iv. p. 555.

P. 658 a, as to the question of the date of the
composer's death, see p. 651 b. line II, read
Royal Society of Musicians.

HANDEL FESTIVAL. V. 658 5, 1. 21
from end of article, for six read ten, adding the
dates of the four latest festivals, 1880, 1883,
1885 (the festival of 1886 being anticipated in
order that it might coincide with the bi-centenary
of the composer's birth) and 1 888. Line 8 from
end, after all add down to 1880, and that after
this date the festivals were conducted by Mr.

of Handel's entire works in score, for which this
society was formed in 1856, is now approaching
completion, so that a full list of its contents can be
given, which is at the same time the most com-
plete list of the composer's works. Dr. Friedrich
Ohrysander has been sole active editor from the
commencement, having for some few years at the
beginning had the little more than nominal co-
operation from Rietz, Hauptmann, and Gervinus.
The editor has paid frequent visits to England to
consult Handel's original manuscripts, upon
which the edition is based throughout ; and has
acquired the scores written for the purpose of
conducting by Handel's secretary J. C. Smith,
which previously belonged to M. Schoelcher.
Vols. 1-18 of this edition were issued by Breit-
kopf & Hartel of Leipzig ; but in the year 1864
the editor terminated this arrangement, and en-
gaged engravers and printers to work under his
immediate control on his own premises at Berge-
dorf near Hamburg. All the volumes from
vol. 19 have been thus produced; and with vol.
20 an important improvement was made in the
use of zinc (as a harder metal) instead of pewter
for the engraved plates.

In the following list, vols. 45, 48-53, 84, 95,
96, and 08-100, are not yet published. An
asterisk is prefixed to those works which are
now published for the first time, at all events in
complete score. Vol. 97, in a different form
(the oblong shape of Handel's manuscript), con-
tains a facsimile of ' Jephtha,' which is of espe-
cial interest as showing the composer's style of
writing when blindness was rapidly coming on,
and making evident the order in which he
wrote — the parts of the score first written ex-
hibiting his ordinary hand, while those which
were written in later, when he was struggling
with dimness of sight, can be readily distin-
guished by their blotched and blurred appear-

The English Oratorios, Anthems, and other
vocal works, are provided with a German version,
executed by Professor Gervinus, and after his


death bv the editor ; and the few German vocal
works nave an English translation added.
The Italian Operas and^ other vocal works, and
the Latin Church Music, have no translation.
The Oratorios, Odes, Te Deums, • Acis and Ga-
latea,' 'Parnasso in festa,' Italian duets and
terzets, and Anthems, have a PF. accompani-
ment added to the original score ; but not the
Italian Operas, nor vols. 24, 38, 39. These ac-
companiments are partly by the editor, partly by
Im. laisst, J. Rietz, E. F. Richter, M. A. von
Dommer and E. Prout*

Dr. Chrysander has also published the follow-
ing articles on certain works of Handel's, which
should be combined with the information con-
tained in the prefaces to make the edition com-
plete: on vol. 13 ('Saul'), in Jahrbucher fur
musikalische Wissenschaft, vol. 1 ; on vol. 16
( l Israel in Egypt'), ibid. vol. a; on vol. 47
(Instrumental Music), in Vierteljahrsschrift
fur Musikwissenschaft for 1887. The promised
article on ' Belshazzar ' has not yet been pub-

The account of this edition would not be cora-

{rtete without mention of the munificence of the
ate King of Hanover, who guaranteed its suc-
cess by promising to provide funds to meet any
deficiency in those received from subscribers ; as
well as of the liberality of the Prussian govern-
ment, which took the same liability after the
absorption of r the territory of Hanover.


L Oratorio: Susanna, 174a

8. Pieces pour la clavecin. (1. Mght falter 1750. 2. Nino sult-t.
first published 1788. a Twelve pieces, tome hitherto unpub-
lished. 4. Six fugues, about 1720.)

a Masque : Acis and Galatea, about 1720.

4. Oratorio : Hercules. 1744.

6. Do. Athalla, 17S3.

6. Do. L'Allegro. U Penslerooo, ed il Moderato, 1740.

7. Do. Bemele. 1748.

a Do. Theodora, 1749.
•9. Do. Passion according to St. John (German), 1704.

10. Do. Samson, 174L

11. Funeral Anthem for Queen Caroline, 1787.

12. Ode : Alexander's Feast. 1788.
18. Oratorio: Saul. 1788.

14. Coronation Anthems (Zadok the Priest ; The king shall rejoices

My heart Is inditing ; Let thy hand be strengthened), 1727.
•15. Oratorio > Passion, by Brockes (German), 1716.
18. Do. Israel in Egypt, 1738.

17. Do. Joshua. 1747.

18. Musleal Interlude : Choice of Hercules, 1750.

19. Oratorio: Belshazzar, 1744.

20. Do. Triumph of Time and Truth. 1797.

2L Concertos (8 ' Hautbols Concertos ' ; Concerto grceso In C, 1788 j
4 Concertos, early works ; •Sonata In Bb, about 1710).

23, Oratorio: Judas Maccabeus, 1748.

28. Ode for St. Cecilia's Day. 1739.

•24. Oratorio: 11 Trionfo del Tempo • della Verita (Italian), 170*.

28. Dettlngen Te Deum, 1748.

28. Oratorio: Solomon, 174a

27. Bonate da camera (16 solo sonatas, first published about 1724 ;

6 sonatas tor 2 oboes and bass, earliest compositions, 1896 ;
9 sonatas for 2 violins etc. and bass ; 6 sonatas for 2 Tiollns etc.
and bass, 1788).

28. Twelve Organ Concertos, 1788, etc

29. Oratorio: Deborah, 1738.

80. Twelve Grand Concertos, 1799.

8L Utrecht Te Deum and Jubilate, 1713.

32. Duett I e Tercet tl (22 Italian vocal duets and 2 trios, 1707—8,

1741—5, six never before printed).
38. Oratorio t Alexander Balus, 1747.

84. Anthems, vol. 1. ('Chandos' with 3 voice-parts, with some

now first published). 1716—18.

85. Do. vol. a ('Chandos 'with 4 voice-parts.)

36. Do. voL 3. (' O praise the Lord ' ; • Wedding Anthems, 1784 ;
Wedding Anthem. 1736 ; •Dettlngen Anthem, 1743 j
•Foundling Hospital Anthem, 1749.)
87. Three Te Deums (in D. about 1714 j In Bb, about 1718—20 : In A.
perhaps 1727).

Digitized by



SB. Latin Ctaorch Music, •boat 1700. 1707. 1718, 1788-46.
89. Oiatorlo : Rasurrezlone (Italian). 1706.

40. Do. btbar. 1st Torsion C Hunan and Mordscal.' * MasaiM).

about 1790.

41. Do. Ssthar. 2nd vorsloo, 1788.
48. Do. Joseph. 1748.

48. Do. Occasional. 1746.
44. Do. Jtphtha. 1751.
48. Do. M mslah. 174L

46. BtrthdajrOdeaad Aloesta.

47. Instrumental Music for full orchestra (•Concerto In F. about

171ft j Water Music. 1710; •Concerto* In F end D; Firework
Music 1746 1 Double Concerto In Eb. 1740-60 {?>; •Double
Oonoerto In F. 1740-60 (?) ).

48. Orfau and miscellaneous Instrumental music
40. German, Italian, and English songs and airs.
6a Italian Cantatas, with bass, rol. L

61. Do. vol.2.

68, Italian Cantatas, with Instruments, vol L

68. Do. voL2.

64. Sercnata: II Pamasso In festa.1784.
•66. Opera: Almlra (German), 1704.
•66. Do, Bodrlgo. 1707.

67. Do. Agiippmc 1708.
•68. Do. Blnaldo. 1711.
•08. Do. II Pastor Fldo. 1711

80, Do. Teseo. 1718.
•61. Do. SMa.1714,
•88. Do. Amadlgi. 1718.
Dc Badamlsto, 1720.
Do. Musio Seevola. Act 8. 1781.
Dc Floridante. 1781.




Do. Ottone.1798,
•67. Do. Flavlo, 1728.

68. Do. Glullo Cesare. 1728.
•88. Do. Tamerlano, 1724.
•70. Do. Budellnda. 1726.
•71. Do. Bclplone. 1726.
•72, Do. Alrssandro. 1726.
•78. Do. Admeto.lTJft.
•74. Do. Blceardo, 1727.
•78. Do. Slroe, 1726.
•76. Dc Tolomeo. 1726.
•77. Do. Lotarlo. 1729.
•79. Do. Partenope, 1730.
•79. Do. Poro, 1781. /

•SO. Do. Kilo. 1732.

M. Do. Bosarme, 1782.
•&. Do. Orlando, 1732.
•68. Do. Arlanna. 1788.

84. Do. Terpsichore and second Pastor Fldo. 1784.
•A Do. Arlodante. 1784.
•». Do. A)clncl785.
•€7. Do. Atalanta. 17S6.
•88. Do. Glustlno. 1736.
•^9. Do. Armlnlo, 1736.
•90. Do. Berenice. 1737.
•91. Do. Faramondo, 1787.
•92, Do. Sane. 1798.
•98. Do. lmeneo. 17SK-40.

94. Do. Deidamla. 1740.

9ft. Ael e Galatea (Italian). 1706 and 1733,

96. Miscellaneous Vocal pieces.

97. Oratorio: Jephtba. facsimile of Handel's MS. score

9« and 99. Facsimile of Handel's autographs. r T> itr ~l

100. Thematic Catalogue of Handel's works. l_K. Jtt. J

HANOVER. This spirited tone has been
frequently ascribed to Handel, but cannot be by
him, as it is found in * A Supplement to the
New Version of the. Psalms/ 6th ed. 1708, two
years before Handel arrived in England. In
the Supplement it is given as follows : —
Psalm lx vii.
A new Tune to the 249th Psalm of the New Version
and the 104th Panlm of the OkL

The tune is anonymous, but is not improbably
by Dr. Croft, the reputed editor of the 6th edi-
tion of the Supplement. [6 .A.C.]

L 9, for details of the concert see vol. ii. p. 3^6 a,
note I. Line 39, for 1866 read 1869.

p. 691.

HARMONIC MINOR is the name applied
to that version of the minor scale which contain*
the minor sixth together with the major seventh,
and in which no alteration is made in ascending
and descending. Its introduction as a substitute
for the old-fashioned or ' Arbitrary ' minor scale
was strongly advocated by Dr. Day and others
[see Day, vol. i. p. 436 a], and of late years it
has been very generally adopted. It is true
that its use is calculated to impress the learner
with a sense of the real characteristics of the
minor mode, but its merits are counterbalanced
by the awkwardness arising from the augmented
second between the sixth and seventh notes,
while it is difficult to regard it as a diatonic scale
at all, in spite of its theoretical correctness, [M.]


Handel's variations on the air known in England
as * The Harmonious Blacksmith ' were originally
printed in No. 5 of his first set of ' Suites de Pieces
pour le Clavecin,' in Nov. 1 720. As no name is
there given to the air, and even down to the time
of the late Robert Birchall it was still published
only as 'Handel's Fifth favourite Lesson from
his first Suite de Pieces/ it has been generally
assumed to be Handel's composition as well as
the variations. Upon this point, however, doubts
have arisen since Handel s death, and various
claims have been put forth, of which at least one
still remains undecided. The first claim was in
' Anthologie Francaise, ou Chansons choisies
depuis le treizieine siecle jusqu' a present* (Paris,

5 vols. 8vo, 1765). The editor of that work was
. Monnet, and, according to M. Fetis, *oe recueil
est estimeV In the first volume are the follow*
ing eight lines, printed to the air, and ascribed
to Clement Marot:—

Pins ne suis que j**l 6t6,

Et plus ne saurais jamais TOtre;
Hon beau printems et man ete,

Ont fait le saut par la fenetre :
Amour! tu as ete mom mature.

Je t'ai aervi tor tons lea dieux:
Ah I si je pouvais deux foia nattre,

Oombiea je te servirats mieuxl

Digitized by VjOOQ IC


Although these lines might pass for one of
the extravagant love-songs of Clement Marot in
his earlier years, if we allow for their being
presented in a modernized form, yet no trace of
them is to be found in his published works, nor
of any song like them. A thorough search has
been made through the long poems as well as the
short pieces, lest these lines should prove to be
an extract. The name of Clement Marot is
therefore an assumed one. The air itself is not
at all like music of the 1 5th century. When there-
fore Professor J. Ella informed his readers in the
'Supplement to Programme of Musical Union/
June 6, 1865, that this melody ' was first pub-
lished in a collection of French Chansons printed
by Ballard in 156*5 to words of Clement Marot,
who died in 1545, there was some misunder-
standing between his informant, M. Weckerlin,
and himself. On writing recently to Mr. Wecker-
lin to inquire whether there was such a book
in his custody, he being Librarian to the Con-
servatoire de Muaique, in Paris, the writer was
informed that nothing was known of such a
work, and that the earliest French edition known
to him was in the above-named 'Anthologie
Erancaise,' not of 1565, but of 1765. Professor
Ella thought also that he had seen the melody
in a French collection, a copy of which was sold
in the library of the late Wni. Ayrton, F.R.S.
On tracing it through the sale catalogue to its
present resting-place in the British Museum, it
proved to be ' Lot 38. Ballard (J. B. Chr.)
La Clef dee Chansonniers, ou Beeueil des Vaude-
villes depute cent am et plus, notez et reeueillie
pamr la premiere foil* (a vols. 8vo, Paris, 171 7).
Here we find the name of Ballard, suggested by
Professor Ella, but not the melody in question.

The next claim is for 6. C. Wagenseil, an
eminent clavecinist of Vienna, who was born
three years after Handel. The late Br. Wm.
Crotch, Professor of Music at the University of
Oxford, informed the present writer that he had
seen the air in a piece of music for the clavecin
composed by Wagenseil.

Dr. Crotch made a similar communication to
the late Richard Clark, adding that the volume
in which he saw it was one in the possession of
Dr. Hague, who was then Professor of Music at
the University of Cambridge. In 1836, Richard
Clark published a book in folio, entitled ' Remi-
niscences of Handel/ and in it he referred to the
information he had received from Dr. Crotch
and to the liberty given to him to use it (p. 65).
Clark then published a new edition of the piece,
giving to Wagenseil the credit of the air, and to
Handel that of the variations. The difficulty in
proving priority between the two contemporaries
arises from the fact that published music was,
and is, undated. We know the date of Handel's
publication only from an advertisement by his
publisher. In Vienna music was copied, not
printed, even so late as 177a or 1773, when Dr.
Burney visited that capital.

4 In his youth,' says M. FCtis, 'Wagenseil was
the fashionable composer for the clavecin, and
his music was much sought for long afterwards.'



Wagenseil's op. 1, a, 3 and 4 are all sets of six
pieces for that instrument, like Handel's two
sets. But the circulation of Wagonse'il's music
was limited to manuscripts from the copyists of
Vienna until he was fifty-two years old, His
op. 1 was then first printed — not in Vienna, but
at Bamberg — in 1740, when the copyright had
probably expired. He wrote five other sets for
the clavecin, of which manuscript copies were in
the hands of Breitkopf & Hartel of Leipzig at the
end of the last century. We 'know very little
of Wagenseil in England — for Handel eclipsed
all competitors— but he was highly esteemed on
the continent.

As to the question of priority it is far more
probable that Handel copied from Wagenseil
than vice versd, because Handel borrowed sys-
tematically from other authors, dead and living,
whenever he found anything to suit his purpose.
Dr. Crotch was an enthusiastic admirer of
Handel, and yet he published a list of twenty-
nine of the best composers from whom Handel
* quoted or copied,' with an et ceteris to indicate
that he had named only the principal sources
(Lectures on Music, 8vo, 1831, p. 12 a, in note).

The story of Handel's having heard the air
sung by a blacksmith at Edgware, while beating
time to it upon his anvil, and that Handel there-
fore entitled it ' The Harmonious Blacksmith,' is
refuted by the fact that it was never so named
during Handel's life. The late Richard Clark
was the propagator, if not. also the inventor, of
this fable. In Clark's edition of the lesson he
has gone so far as to print an accompaniment for
the anvil, as he imagined Handel to have heard
the beats. He states that the blacksmith was
also the parish clerk at Whitchurch. A few
months after Clark's publication the writer saw
the late J. W. Winsor, Esq., of Bath, a great
admirer of Handel, and one who knew all
his published works. He told the writer that
the story of the Blacksmith at Edgware was
pure imagination, that the original publisher of
Handel's lesson under that name was a music-
seller at Bath, named Iintern, whom he knew
personally from buying music at his shop, that he
had asked Lintern the reason for this new name,
and he had told him that it was a nickname
given to himself because he had been brought
up as a blacksmith, although he had afterwards
turned to music, and that this was the piece he
was constantly asked to play. He printed the
movement in a detached form, because he could
sell a sufficient number of copies to make a profit,
and the whole set was too expensive. It is
worth mentioning that Beethoven has taken the
theme, whether consciously or unconsciously, for
the subject of a two-part organ fugue published
in the supplementary volume of his works issued
in 1888, [W.C.]

HARMONY. The inference suggested on
p. 681 a has been happily verified by Mr. H. E.
Wooldridge, who found the two forms of the
seventh on the subdominant in a succession
which strongly points to their common origin, in
the following passage by Stradella :—

Digitized by




in which the minor seventh, arrived at in the
manner usual at that time, is seen at (a) ; and
the modified seventh in which the bass is
sharpened so as to produoe a diminished seventh
appears at (b). [C.H.H.P.]

HAROLD EN ITALIE. The last sentence
but one is to be corrected, as the first performance
of the work in England took place at Drury
Lane Theatre in the winter of 1847-48, when
Berlioz conducted and Hill played the viola part.

HARP. P. 686 a, 1.30-34. The Lamont harp
carried 3a strings. The Queen Mary harp had
originally 29, and a later addition made 30 in all.

Add the following notice of an innovation in
harp manufacture: — The difficulties attending
performance of the harp, the constant tuning
necessitated by the use of catgut strings, and the
absence of any means of damping the sounds,
have induced M. Dietz, of Brussels, to invent a
harp-like instrument with a chromatic keyboard,
which he has named the Claviharp. It has been
introduced into England through the advocacy
of Mr. W. H. Cummings, but the introduction
(1888) is too recent to admit of a just compari-
son being made between this instrument and
the ordinary double-action harp. It is sufficient
to say that the action of the Claviharp is highly
ingenious, the strings being excited mechanically
much in the same way as the strings of the harp
are excited by the player's fingers. There are
two pedals — one being like the pianoforte damper
pedal and the other producing the harmonics of
the octave. The Claviharp is of pleasing appear-
ance. [A.J.H.]

HARP-LUTE. See Dual Habp, vol i.

HARPSICHORD. P. 688 a, 1. 6from bottom,
for spinetto read spinetta. P. 688 0, 1. io, The
Correr upright spinet or clavicytherium that was
in the Music Loan Collection at Kensington, 1885,
now the property of Mr. G. Donaldson of London,
is perhaps tne oldest instrument of the harpsi-
chord and spinet kind in existence. This instru-
ment preserves traces of brass plectra, not leather.
See Spinet vol. iii. p. 651 a, footnote. P. 688 0,
1. 3 from bottom, add that hammered music wire
existed but could not have been extensively used.
P. 689a, 1. 27, Respecting upright harpsichords, see
Upright Grand Piano, vol. iv. p. 2086, 1. 1-19.
Line 26 from bottom, for 1555 read 1521.


Line 23 from bottom, For the oldest known harp-
sichord see Spinet vol. iii. p. 652 a, footnote. The
second harpsichord mentioned in the footnote, now
(18S8) belonging to Mr. Hwfa Williams, is not
nearly so old as the South Kensington instrument,
the date of it being 1626 (not 1526). A restorer
has unfortunately altered the interesting long
measure keyboard which it lately retained, to
the modern chromatic arrangement of the lowest
octave. P. 6906, L 18 from bottom, correct
statement as to the Venetian swell being an
adaptation from the organ, by Shudi, vol. in.
p. 489 6, 1. 37-45. P. 091 a, L 4, The number
of existing Ruckers harpsichords and spinets
catalogued by the present writer is (1888) 68.
line 14, Both the Shudi harpsichords at Potsdam
are dated 1766. See Shodi, vol. iii. p. 4896,
1. 9-27. Line 35, for the number of Shudi and
Broadwood harpsichords existing, see Shudi, vol.
iii p. 4896, 1. 46-7 ; and p. 400, list of Shudi and
Shudi 8c Broadwood harpsichords. The latest
instrument by these makers now (1888) known to
exist is numbered 11 37 and dated 1790. [A.J.HJ

HARRIS, Renatus. For reference at end of
first paragraph read [Smith, Father].

HARTMANN. A family of German origin
who have lived in Copenhagen for some four
generations. J OH ann Ernst (i 726-1 793) was
a violinist and composer, who after holding
several musical posts at Breslau and Rudolatadt
became capellmeister to the Duke of Ploen, and
went with him to Copenhagen. Here he wrote
much music, now completely forgotten, with the
exception of the song ' Kong Christian,' which
first appeared in an opera 'Der Fischer,* and
has since been adopted as the Danish National
Hymn. He died in 1791. His son,

August Wilhelm, born 1775, neld &* P°**
of organist to the Garrison Church in Copen-
hagen from 1800 to 1850, and was the father of

Johann Peter Emil, born May 14, 1805,
who has for many years held a high place among
Danish composers. His opera 'Ravnen' (The
Raven), to words by H. C. Andersen, was pro-
duced Oct. 29, 1832. It was followed by 'Die
Corsaren' on April 23, 1835, * n d *Liden Kir-
sten' ('Little Christie*), on May 12, 1846.
Besides these he has written much for the theatre
in the way of incidental music, etc., as well as
choral works, songs, a symphony in Q- minor,
dedicated to Spohr, and many piano pieces,
mentioned in vol. ii. p. 729 0. His son,

Emil, born Feb. 21, 1836, studied with his
father and with N. W. Gade, his brother-in-law,
held between 1 861 and 1873 various appoint-
ments as organist, but on account of weak health
has since that time devoted himself entirely to
composition. Among his works, which have
obtained great success both in Denmark and
Germany, may be mentioned the operas : — * Die
Erlenmadchen,' 'Die Nixe,* and 'Die Korsi-
kaner'; a ballet ' Fjeldstuen • ; 'Nordiscbe
Volkstanse * (op. 18), a symphony in Eb (op, 39),
an overture ' Ein nordiscbe Heerfahrt ' (op. 35),
a choral cantata ' Winter and Spring ' (op. 13),
concertos for violin and violoncello, a serenads

Digitized by VjOOQ IC


for piano, clarinet and violoncello (op. 34), and
many songs. His most reoent compositions are
a symphony in D, and an orchestral suite,
' Scandinavische ¥01100™^^ [M.]

HARTMANN, Ludwio (no relation to the
above), born at Neuss in 1836, studied the piano-
forte at the Leipzig Conservatorium under Mo*
scheles and Hauptinann, and subsequently with
Liszt at Weimar. He appeared at a concert given
by SchrSder-Devrient at Dresden in 1 859, and has
resided in that city ever since. Latterly he has
been almost exclusively employed in musical
journalism: he is an ardent supporter of the
advanced school of German music. He has
published songs, etc which have obtained con-
siderable success. (Mendel's and Riemann's
Lexicons.) [M.]

HARTVIGSON, Frits, born May 31, 1841,
at Grenaae, Jylland, Denmark, received in-
struction in music and on the piano from his
mother, and at Copenhagen from Gade, Gebauer,
and Anton Bee. At the age of fourteen he
played in concerts in Copenhagen, and made
a tour through Norway in 1858, at Christiania
being personally complimented by Kjerulf. By
assistance from the Danish Government he
studied at Berlin from 1859-61 under von Billow,
with whom he played there at a concert Liszt's
A major Concerto and Hungarian Fantasia, ar-
ranged for two pianos. He next played Rubin-
stein's 3rd Concerto at the Gewandhaus Concerts
in *6i, and Schumann's Concerto at Copenhagen
under Gade in '63. On the death of his father in
the Prusso-Danish war, he came to England and
played with great success Men delssohn's ' Serenade
and Allegro giojoso ' at the Philharmonic, June
37, '64. From that time until the present Mr.
Hartvigson has lived in England, with the excep-
tion of two years between 1873 and '75, when he

Online LibraryJohn Alexander Fuller-Maitland Sir George GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) → online text (page 158 of 194)