John Alexander Fuller-Maitland Sir George Grove.

A dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) online

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holds a very important position indeed ; and still
more prominent is the tile accorded to it by Croft,.
Boyce, and other writers of a later generation.
In truth, the new Voice, at first an unavoidable
necessity, soon became the prevailing fashion ;
and Music was written for it, even at the time
when the Chapel Royal at Whitehall was graced
with the most talented and accomplished staff of
Choir-Boys on record. So general was the custom
of confiding the Alto part to Counter-Tenor
singers, that it was adopted, even at the ' Ora-
torio Concerts' of the 18th century. The Alto
parts in Handel's Choruses were sung chiefly, if
not wholly, in Falsetto. It was not until 1773
that Dr. Arne first had the hardihood to employ
female Voices in the Choruses of his Oratorio,
•Judith'; and it is doubtful whether, even then,
they were entrusted with the Alto parts. Happily
for Art, the value of the female Contralto is now
no less freely recognised in England than in
other countries; and it is only in Cathedral Choirs,
and Choral Societies connected with them, that
the Falsetto Counter-Tenor safely holds its ground.

In Germany, the Falsetto Voice has always
been held in very low estimation indeed ; while
the true Boy-Contralto has been almost as exten-
sively cultivated as the rich low tones of the
deeper female register. 1 We have heard the
1 Bpohr, on bis lint visit to this country, expressed tho grefttett



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VOICES.

most excellent effect produced, at the Thomas*
Schole, in Leipzig, and at the Cathedrals of
Cologne, Mayence, and Regensburg, by unac-
companied Choirs, in which the Alto parts
were entrusted entirely to the fresh young Voices
of a well-trained body of Boy-Choristers, whose
lower registers were cultivated, with success,
for some considerable time after they were pre-
vented, by the approach of the inevitable muta-
tion, from singing Treble. 1 Such Voices cannot
be effectively used in combination with the Fal-
setto Counter-Tenor ; but they combine perfectly
with the rich female Contralto, with which they
may be profitably associated, in Choral Music of
all kinds.

This extensive modification in materials was
followed by a corresponding modification of treat-
ment. Acute Equal Voices are now understood
to mean the Voices of Women and Children ;
and Grave Equal Voices, those of Men. When
the two classes are employed together, each main-
tains its own accustomed level, in the distribution
of the general harmony, more strictly, by far,
than was the case under the older system. The
contrast between the timbre of a Tenor, and that
of a Contralto, is too great to allow the two to
work together in the intimate association which
formed so marked a feature in the Polyphonic
Schools ; and even when two Voices of the same
class are employed, they seldom correspond
exactly in compass. The Second Soprano really
sings a second part, and only rises above the
firet in very exceptional cases; while the Second
Bass is always understood to be responsible for
the lowest sounds in the harmony. This dispo-
sition of the parts accords perfectly with the
timbre of the Voices employed ; and has been
proved, by long experience, to be more perfectly
adapted than any other to the requirements of
modern Music, which, during its progress towards
perfection, has demanded, from time to time,
changes in the arrangement of the Vocal Orches-
tra little less revolutionary than those effected in
the Instrumental Band. [ W .S.R.]

VOICING. A term used in organ-building
to express the method of obtaining a particular
quality of tone, in an organ pipe, and of regu-
lating a series of pipes so that their tone shall be
uniform throughout. The quality of the tone
of flue-pipes is mainly dependent on (i) their
general shape, (a) their scale; but, after the pipe-
maker has turned out a set of pipes of true propor-
tion, the 'voioer' can produce a great variety of
qualities by regulating (i) the quantity of wind
admitted to the pipe, (2) the thickness of the
' sheet of wind,' (3) the angle at which it im-
pinges on the upper lip, (4) by imparting a
special surface to the edge of the lip itself or
by cutting it higher; and in other ways. The
voicing of Beed pipes is dependent chiefly on
(1) the quantity of air admitted, (a) the shape

dislike to oar English Oounter-Tenors ; and It may possibly hare
been a similar experience which Induced Mendel nohn to Inaugurate,
tn his * St. Paul.' the practice of writing Oratorio Choruses for Soprano
1 and n. instead of Soprano and Alto.

1 The great Lablache sang, as a boy, with an exquisitely beautiful
TotceoX this kind.



VOIGT.



33fr



and thickness of the tongue, (3) its position,
(4) the relation between the length of tube and
the pitch of the note produced.

Voicing thus requires both a delicate ear and
skilful hand ; it is, in fact, the most artistic part
of an organ-builder's work. But few are equally
good voicers both of reed and Hue-pipes, and
better voicing is obtained from a specialist than
from a « general' hand. In testing the voicing of
an organ-stop, an opinion should first be formed as
to the merit of the particular quality selected by
the voicer; next, the pipes should be consecu-
tively sounded in order to trace whether the
quality of tone is uniform. This applies both to
flue and reedpipes. [J.S.]

VOIGT (pronounced Vogt), Henrietta, irfc
Kunze, born in 1809, a distinguished German
amateur musician, and prominent figure in the
musical life of Leipzig.

She was the pupil of L. Berger, and became a
remarkable performer, and the warm friend
of her teacher. 1 Schumann was introduced
to her by Ludwig Schunke, who almost lived
in the Voigts' house before his early death,
and their intimacy became very close. A cha-
racteristic story illustrating this is told in the
article on Schumann in this Dictionary, voL iii.
p. 389 and we may here quote Schumann's own
expression — 'Ich dichte, wenn ich an Sie denke,'
which may be rendered 'The thought of you
inspires me.' He alludes to her occasionally in
his ' Davidsbundler ' articles under the name of
*£leonore'; and his entry in her album was
very characteristic, consisting only of a huge
crescendo mark — - - — ' ' reaching across the
whole page, with his name below it. This, on
enquiry, he explained to predict the continual
increase of their friendship. Mendelssohn's con-
tribution to her album was the first sketch of the
Gondellied in Ff minor (op. 30, no. 6); and
though there is no mention of her either in his
collected Letters or in the 'Familie Mendels-
sohn,' there is ample testimony to his esteem for
her talents and her person in his 'Eight Letters'
to her, published in 1871.' Hauptmann 3 and
C. Lowe have also left the most appreciative refer-
ences to her ability and taste : indeed she was,
with Madame Frege, at the head of the amateurs
of Leipzig in that most brilliant time.

Her husband, Carl Voigt, to whom she was mar-
ried in Nov. 1830, was a Leipzig merchant, and as
great an enthusiast for music as herself. He died
June 15, 1 88 1, in his 76th year, leaving 300Z. to
the Gewandhaus Concerts for a performance of
Beethoven's Ninth Symphony every year, or at
the least every two years. A few words about
that Symphony, attributed to him, will bo found
in Schumann's *Ges. Schriften,' 1st ed. i. 27.

Madame Voigt died on Oct. 15, 1839, m ner
31st year. Schumann gave a sketch of her in
the 'Neue Zeitschiilt fur Musik' for the 15th
of the following November, under the title of

1 See his letter of ISM. gtren bj Schumann, K. Z. X. xl. 1U.
1 Aeht Briefe and etn facsimile, ac Leipzig, Orunow, un, Trans-
lated by M. K. Tun O. in Xacmlllan's Magazine, No. 140.
s Utters to Uauser, No. 43.



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SSB



voigt:



'Erinnerung an ©me Fretradin,* which is re-
priivted in his 'Gee. Schriften,* and contains
some charming extracts from her journal, giving
a high idea of the range of her knowledge and
the depth of her sensibility.

See Jansen*s 'Davidsbimdler'— a very interest-
ing book (Breitkopf & Hartel, 1883). [G.]

VOIX CELESTES, VOX CCELESTTS, VOX
ANGELICA, UNDA MARIS. An organ stop
with two ranks of pipes, one tuned about three
beats a second sharper than the other. The
pipes are sometimes of the Duloiana type ; some-
times (generally in the case of French organ-
builders) two small Gambas. and occasionally the
ranks are dissimilar, one a Keraulophon, and one
a Duldana. The custom is to tune one rank
with the organ and one sharper, but this has
the effect of making the organ sound disagree-
ably flat after using the stop, and the plan ad-
vocated by Mr. Sedley Taylor of tuning one rank
slightly above and one below the general pitch of
the organ is no doubt preferable, though it pre-
cludes the use of either alone, or in combination
with the other stops. The Voix Celestes has its
proper place in the swell organ, and in large build-
ings its wavy floating effect is not unpleasing.
Like other ' fancy' stops it should be used with
reserve. The name Vox Angelica is ambiguous,
some builders make it a synonym for Voix C4-
lestes, and others for the rank of pipes which is
tuned to the rest of the organ* [W.Pa.]

VOLKMANN,Friedmch RoBEBT,born April
6, 181 5, at Lommatsch in Saxony. His father,
cantor and schoolmaster of the town, taught the
boy music, with such effect that by the time he
was twelve he took the services in church. He
then had instruction from FriebeJ, the *Town
musician,' in violin and cello, and from
Anacker, music - director of the Seminary at
Frevberg, In 1836 he went to Leipzig, to
study systematically, and made the acquaintance
of C. F. Becker, and also of Schumann, who
exercised great influence on him; in 1839 ne
published his first work, 'Phantasiebilder in
Leipzig.' His next step was to visit Prague
and enter on the career of teacher and composer.
From 1854 to 1858 he resided at Vienna, but
ended by taking up his permanent quarters in
Pesth, where his principal works have been com-
posed. These comprise a Symphonies, in D minor
vop. 44), and Bb (op. 53), a Festival overture in
F 1 (op. 50), a Serenades for Strings, ops. 62, 63 ;
Concertos for Cello in A minor (op. 33), and PF.
in C (op. 43) ; a PF. trios in F (op. 3), and Bb
minor (op. 5) ; String Quartets in A minor and
O minor (op. 0), in G major (op. 14), in £ minor
(op. 34), in C minor (op. 35), and in Eb (op.
37), and many works for piano, both 4 hands
and solo. His vocal compositions are also nu-
merous: — 2 Masses for male voices (op. 28, 29) ;
3 sacred songs for mixed choir (op. 38); old
German hymn for 2 choirs of male voices (op.
64) ; ' Sappho,' dramatic scene for soprano solo

> Dared at CrjiUl Falaee. Oct. a 1M.



VOLKSLTED.

and orchestra (op. 49) ; ' An die Nacht,* for alto
solo and orchestra; songs for solo voice and
piano, etc. The overture to his 'Music to
Shakespeare's Richard the Third ' (op. 73), was
performed at the Crystal Palace Oct. 30, 1875—
the Scotch air 'The Campbells are coming* being
introduced as 'an old English war-song.' A
later composition is a 'Schlummerlied' for
harp, clarinet and horn, which is mentioned as
op. 76 in Hofineister'8 List for 1883.

As a pianoforte composer Volkmann belongs
to the romantio school. His compositions often
bear fanciful titles, but they are poetical, and
moreover so strongly marked with Hungarian
characteristics that he may truly be said to have
borrowed colour, rhythm, and embellishments
from his adopted home. His two Symphonies,
his Quartets in G minor and A minor, his PF.
Trio in Bb minor, have been acknowledged in
high terms by critics in Germany. His Cello
Concerto is also a favourite and excellent work.
In England he is little known, though his G
minor Quartet has been given at the Monday
Popular Concerts, and his two Overtures at the
Crystal Palace, and sundry of his PF. pieces bv
different artists in their recitals. [G.J

VOLXSLIED, or the early Song of the Ger-
man people, has already been treated, with
regard both to its development and its influence
on the history of music, under the head of Soko.
[See vol. iii. p. 617.] It remains, however, to
mention the principal existing collections of
Volkslieder, whether in manuscript or print, in
public or private libraries ; and a list of them is
here appended. Some collections of Minne-
singers and Meifltersingers' melodies, and likewise-
some collections of chorales must be included
in the list ; because, as the article referred to-
shows, these different forms of the Song are
borrowed from one another and have melodies
in common. Collections bearing the names of
particular composers must also be mentioned,
because many apparently original melodies of
composers of the 16th and 17th centuries are
in reality well-known Volkslieder, merely har-
monised or treated with contrapuntal devices.
The list cannot therefore be limited to collec-
tions of Volkslieder proper, but care has been
taken to enumerate only such as offer examples
of the pure Volkslied, melody or verse.

For convenience of reference, the best works
on the subject will be included in the last
section of the list, viz. Modern Collections of
Volkslieder.

Collections of Volkslieder*

A. MS&from the 10th to the nth century.

1 The Wolfenbnttel MSS. (10th century); pr esetted 1
in the Ducal Library of Wolfenbattel, and containing
some of the oldest secular songs in Germany.

2. The a Gall God. Let, No. 393 (11th century).

3. Nithart's Song-MSB. with melodies (13th century);
in the possession of Prof. Ton der Hagen, and printed by
him in his work on the Minnesingers.

4. The Limbnrg Chronicle (1347 to 1380) ; p r e set ted
in the Limbnrg library. This MS. (which has been
reprinted in 1617, 1720, 1820 and 1860) contains few real
Volkslieder, but many knights* and monks' songs.



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



VOLKSLIED.

& The Jena Minnesinger Codex, with melodies (14th
century) ; preserved in the University Library at Jena.

6. SpCrl's Song-book (latter part of 14th and beginning
of 15th cent); Imperial Library, Vienna.

7. The Prague MS. (early in the 15th century) ; in the
University Library, Prague; entitled 'Einmusikalischer
Lehroompendium des H. de Zeelandia.' Contains many
fine Yolkslieder of the 14th cent

& The Lochelm Song-book (1452-60): in the Ducal
Library, Wernigerode. Has been edited by Arnold and
Bellerman, with a most interesting preface.

9. The Dresden Minnesinger MS. (15th century) ; in
the Boyal Public Library at Dresden. A miscellaneous
volume, of which the more interesting portions are
some mystical hymns to the Virgin by Michael Behaim.

10. The Vienna Song-book (1533); in the Imperial
Library, Vienna. Consists of five part-books, with both
sacred and secular words and music.

11. Werlin's Song-book of 164C ; Boyal State Library.
Munich. Contains many thousand melodies to sacred
and secular words; some aro genuine Yolkslieder of
15th and 16th cent, others later and more artificial.

B. Printed Collection*,
L Secular Song-books of the 16th and 17th centuries.

1. Johann Ott, 121 Songs, in 5 parts ; Nuremberg,
1534. A perfect copy of this valuable song-book in the
Libraries at Munich and Zwickau.

2. Heinrich Finch's Songs, in 4 parts ; Nuremberg,
1536. Contains 55 sacred and secular songs, not all com-
posed by Finck. Perfect copies in Munich and Zwickau
Libraries ; an imperfect one in British Museum.

3. Forster's Song-books; Nuremberg, 1530 to 1556.
Five numbers, containing altogether about 380 songs in
several parts. Many scattered copies in the Munich,
Zwickau, Berlin, Leipzig, and Gottingen Libraries. In
the B. M. an imperfect one, 1549.

4. G. Bhaw's 3-part Song Collection; Wittenberg,
1542. A copy at Gottingen.

5. G. Bhaw's 2-part Songs ; Wittenberg, 1545. Copies
in the Berlin and Vienna Libraries, and B. M.

6. Jon. Ott 115 Songs, in 4, 5, and 6 parts; Nurem-
berg, 1544. Of this valuable collection only two copies
known, one in the Berlin Library, and one In the B. M.

7. Orlando Lasso. 8everal collections of songs (dating
respectively 1567, 1572, 1583, and 1590), in 4, 5, and 6
parts, in the Boyal Library, Munich.

8. JacBeynart'sVillanelle; Nuremberg, 1574. 67 songs
For three voices in Sonnet form, which were very popular
and widely sung during Beynart's lifetime. Copies in
Berlin and Munich Libraries.

9. Joh. Eccard. Two collections in 4 and 6 parts;
Mulhausen and Konigsperg, 1578 and 1589 ; an imper-
fect copy of the latter is in the B. M.

10. Hans Leo Hassler. Two collections of songs in
4, 5, 6, and 8 parts after Italian models, Nuremberg 1600,
and Augsburg 1506. A copy 1596 is in the B. M.

11. MelchiorFranck's Song-collections. 16 in number,
printed either at Nuremberg or Coburg between 1602
and 1623. Bach collection contains a variety of songs
for 4 or more voices. A copy in the Berlin Library.
Another (Coburg, 1623) in the B. M.

IL- Sacred Song-books of the 16th and 17th centuries.

(1) Lutheran.

1. Walther's Hymn-book, 1524 The first hymn-book
written in parts. Contains 32 German and 5 Latin hymns.
Copies in Vienna, Berlin, Munich, and Zwickau Li-
braries.

2. Souterliedekens; Antwerp, 154a Free metrical ver-
sions of the PsalmSfSet to secular melodies, chiefly
North German and Flemish Volkslieder, and French
Chansons. A copy in the Boyal Library, Dresden.

3. LucLossiusPsalmodia; Wittenberg, 1552. Several
later editions of this work have appeared, and a copy
of the 1560 edition is in the Library at Wernigerode.
Jt contains 429 Latin and 9 German hymns in 4 and
6 parts. Copies of 1553, 1561, 1569, and 1671 in B. M.

4. Triller's Song-book; Breslau, 1559. Contains many
Volkslieder in their earliest form, but arranged for
several voices. Copies in the Berlin and Wernigerode
Libraries.

5. Keuchenthal's Hymn-book ; Wittenberg, 157a The
richest collection of the 16th century in melodies. Copy
}n Berlin Library.

VOL. IV. PT, 3.



VOLKSUED.



837



6. Mich. Pnetorius, 'Musa? Sionin; for 4 to 8 voices
in 9 numbers. 1605 to 1610. A perfect copy in Boyal
Library, Berlin. Nos. from 1605 to 1609 in B. M.

(2) Roman Catholic

1. Beuttner's Hymn-book; Grata, 1602 and 1660. 154
hymns and 89 tunes. A copy in University Library,
Breslau.

2. Corner's Hymn-book of 1631; Nuremberg. Melodies
partly collected from previous song-books and partly
taken down from the mouths of the Austrian peasants.
Copies in the Wttrsburg and Vienna Libraries.

C Modern Collection* of VolksUeder and Chorales, and
Works relating to them, alphabetically arranged.

1. W. Arnold: 'Deutsche Volkslieder.' Elberfeld.
(In ten numbers with a well-arranged PF. part)

2. C. F. Becker: 'Lieder und Weisen vergangener
Jahrhunderte.' Leipzig, 1843-58. (A small collection
of early Volkslieder ; words and melodies taken from
the original, but the melodies in modern notation.)

3. C. F. Becker: 'Die Tonwerke des 16ten and 17 ten
Jahrhundert' Leipzig, 1854.

4. Franz M. Bdhme : * Altdeutsches Liederbuch aus
dem 12ten bis zum 17ten Jahrhundert.' Leipzig, 1876.
The best work existing on the Volkslied. Has an in-
valuable preface on the form and the history of the
Volkslied. and a very large collection of old melodies,
with words, and trustworthy history of each.

5. Franz M. Bohme : * Volkslieder f. Mannerstimmen.'

6. B. de Coussemaker: 'Chants populaires de Fla-
mands de France.' Ghent 1856. (Many N.German and
Flemish Volkslieder being identical, this collection is
named.)

7. F. W. Ditfurth : ' Volks- und Gesellsehaftslieder des
16ten, 17ten und 18ten Jahrhundert' Stuttgart, 1874.
(Many songs in this collection contain no music)

8. B. Eitner : * Das deutsche Lied des 15ten und 16ten
Jahrhundert in Wort, Melodie, und mehrstimmigen
Tonsatz.' Berlin, 1876. (A trustworthy collection.)

9. Ludwig Erk : * Die deutschen Volkslieder mit ihren
Singweisen.' Berlin, 1838-45.

10. L. Erk : 4 Deutsche* Liederhort' Berlin, 1856.

11. L. Erk : 'Deutschen Volksgesangbuoh : l Germania.'
Berlin, 1868. (Erk's collections are not always genuine.)

12. G. W. Fink: 'Musikalischer Hausschatz der
Deutschen.' Leipzig, 1843, 1862, and 1878. (Contains
more * VolksthUmliche * Lieder ' than real Volkslieder.)

13. Prof, von der Hagen : * Die Minnesinger.' (In 4
volumes, the last containing the melodies In old and
modern notation. A standard work.)

14. Hoffmann von Fallersleben and Ernst Bichter x
' Schlesische Volkslieder mit Melodien aus dem Munde
des Volkes gesammelt' Leipzig. 1842.

15. W. Lrmer : 'Die deutschen Volkslieder mit ihren
Singweisen.' Berlin, 1842.

16. 'LeipzigerCoramers-Buch.' Leipzig, 186a (This
volume contains a large number of Students' songs.)

17. B. von Lilieucron and W. Stade: 'Lieder und
Spruche aus der letzten Zeit des Minnesanges.' Wei-
mar, 1854. (Melodies arranged for 4 voices.)

18. B. von Lilieucron: 'Die historischen Volkslieder
der Deutschen vom 13ten bis 16ten Jahrhundert, gesam-
melt und erlautert' Leipzig, 1865-69. (An admirable
work. The melodies are given in an appendix.)

19. Severin Melster : * Das katholieche deutsche
Kirchenlied in semen Singweisen von fruhester Zeit
bis gegen Ende des 17ten Jahrhundert.' Freiburg,
1852. (A useful collection.)

20. F.L.Mittler: 'Deutsche Volkslieder.' Frankfurt-
on-the-Main, 1865.

21. Aug. Beissmann: 'Das deutsche Lied in seiner
bifltorischen Entwickelung.' Also :

22. 'Geschicbte des deutschen Liedes.' Berlin, 1874.
(See especially the early chapters in both works.)

23. Aug. Saran: 'Bobert Franz und das deutsche
Volkslied/ Leipzig. (Contains interesting information
on the formal structure of the Volkslied.)

24. K. Schneider: 'Das musikalische Lied in ge-
schichtlicher Entwickelung.' Leipzig, 1863. (See espe-
cially vols. 1 and 2.)

26. F. L. Schubert: 'Concordia; Anthologie Xlas-

l fiee Bone, toL 111. p. 82, eote*



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838



VOLKSLIED.



sischer Volkslieder mit Clavierbegleitnng.' Leipzig,
1863-07. (A very large but untrustworthy collection.)

26. F. Bilcher : * Deutsche Volkslieder.' Tubingen
1827-40. (Many of these Silcher composed himself ; but
they are now considered regular Volkslieder.)

27. A. Vilmar: *Handbuchlein fttr Freunde des
deutschen Volksliedes.' Marburg, 1867-68. (Useful.)

28. Philipp Wackernagel : 'Dasdeutsche Kirchenlied
▼on Luther bis auf Nic, Hermann.' Stuttgart, 1841.

29. Philipp Wackernagel : ' Das deutsche Kirchenlied
▼on altester Zeit bis zu Anfange des 17ten Jahrhun-
dert* Leipzig, 1868-76. (An important work.)

30. C. Ton Winterfeld : ' Dr. Martin Luther's deutsohe
geistliche Iieder, nebst den wahrend seines Lebens
dasu gebrauchlichen Tonsatzen Uber dieselben von
Meistern des lOten Jahrhundert' Leipzig, 1840.

31. C. von Winterfeld: 'Der evangelische Kirchen-
pesang und sein Verb&ltniss zur Kunst des Ton"at*«»« '
Leipzig, 1842-47. (A standard work.) [A.H.W.]

VOLKSTHtfMLICHES LIED. For the
explanation of this term see Song, pp. 62 1 -5. To
the examples there cited another very good one
may be added, taken from a sketch-book * of Bee-
thoven's of 181 5 and 1 8 16, and remarkable for
freshness, melody, and fitness to the words.



Was frag ton rial nach Geld und Gut, wean



=£=



Ich su - frte - dea bin? Gtebt Gott mlr our ge-








=gf=fct=t=




*d r\ t\ mZ



- sand • as Blut, so hab' Ich fro - ban



sing aui dankbaram Gemath main Morgan and meln Abeodlled.

The words of the song are by J. M. Miller.
It is entitled * Die Zufriedenheit,' and has been
set also by Mozart and C. G. Neefe.

The term Im Volktton, applied by Schumann as
a title to his five pieces for Violoncello and Piano,
op. 102, signifies that these pieces are of a popu-
lar or voHckhUmliches cast. [A.H.W.]

VOLLWEILER, G. J., born 1770, an es-
teemed professor of music in Frankfort, where
he died Nov. 17, 1847. He was the author of
two instruction-books, one in PF-playfng, and
one in singing for schools; both published by
Schotts. Yollweiler was the teacher of two re-
nowned musicians, Aloys Schmitt and Ferdinand
Hiller. His son Carl was born 18 13, and died
at Heidelberg, Jan. 27, 1848, after a long and
varied musical career in Germany, Austria, and
Russia. [G.]

VOLTA, PRIMA, SECONDA — First, or
second time; more commonly seen in the abbre-
viated forms, * 1 ma,' ' 2 da/ or with the numerals
alone — an indication that the portion of an in-
strumental movement which is to be repeated, is
to undergo certain modifications at the close of
its second repetition, instead of being repeated
exactly. In the earlier development of the
sonata- form it was soon found that when the firat



Online LibraryJohn Alexander Fuller-Maitland Sir George GroveA dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889) → online text (page 80 of 194)