John Alexander Fuller-Maitland Sir George Grove.

A Dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889): with ..., Volume 1 online

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or section. In old music for the clavecm they
are used as an indication of the Bebung. [ Ab*

DOm, Akna, a distinguished seoonda donna
who formed part of HandeFs company at the
King's Theatre in London for some years. She
appeared first as Lrene in 'Tamerlane' with
Cozzcmi in 1724, and as Agamira in the ' Arta-
serse' of Ariosti. In 25 she sang in 'Rodelinda '
and 'Giulio Cesare,* as well as in the anony-
mous ' Elisa,* the ' Dario* of Attilio. and YincTs
'Elpidla.* During the next season she plaved
in the 'Ottone' and 'Alessandro* of Handel;
and in 37 was again in London, and took the
part of Orindo in the first representations of
*Admeto/ and that of Pilade in 'Astianatte.'
After 1727 her name does not occur again in the
Ubretti. [J.M.]

DOTZAUER, JuffTUs Johaitk Fbiedbioh, one
of the greatest composers,, players, and teachers of
the violoncello ; bom at £(Udburgfaau8en, Jan. 20,
J 783. His teadiers were HenscUcel, Gleichmann,
and Blittinger— a pupil ^f KitU's, and therefore
only two removes Trom J. S. Bach. For the cello
he had Kriegk of Meiningen, a fiMnous virtuoso
and teacher. He began his career in the Mein-
ingen court band, in 1801, and remained there
tm 1805. He then went by way of Leipzig to
Beriin, where he found and profited by B. ^>m-
berg. In 181 1 he entered the King^ band at
I>re8den, and remained there till his death, March
9, i860, playing, composing, editing, and, above
all, teaching. His prind[MJ pupils were Kum-
mer, Drechaler, C. Schu berth, and his own son,
C. Liudwig. His works comprise an opera (' Gra-
ziosa,* 1841), a maaR, a symphony, several over-
ti|res, 9 quartets, la concertos for ceUo and or-

chestra, sonatas, variations, and exercises for the
cello. He edited Bach*s 6 sonatas fbr cello solo,
and left an excellent Method for his instrument.

DOUBLE BAR divides a piece or a movement
into main sections, and when accompanied by
dots indicates that the section on the same sidle
with the dots is to be repeated.

(D (g) (8)

The double bar is a principal feature in the
symphony or sonata. In the first movement it
occurs at the end of the first section, which is
then repeated, and is followed by the working
out, or Durdifiikning, In the symphonies before
Beethoven, and in Beethoven*s own earlier
sonatas, the second section was often repeated
as well as the first. In the minuet, or scherzo,
with trio, both sections of each are repeated, and
then after the trio the minuet is given again
without the repetitions.

DOUBLE BASS (Ital. Contrdbauo otViolime)
is the laigest of the stringed instruments played
with a bow. Whether it was invented before or
after the violin is still an unsettled question.
In its forms it has some of the chxuracteristics
of the older garaba tribe, viz. the flat instead of
the arched back, and the slanting shoulder ;
while, on the other hand, it has the four comers,
the /-holes, and in every respect the belly of the
violin, thus appearing to be a combination of the
gamba and the violin, and therefore probably of
a date posterior to boUi.

The double bass was originally mounted with
three strings only, tuned thus (a). At the
present time, however, basses with four strings,
tuned thus (6), are used by all, except the Italian

Italian, (a) English.

and some EnffUsh players, who still prefer the
three • stringed instrument on account of its
greater sonority. For orchestral playing, how-
ever, the fourth string has become an absolute
necessity, since modem composers very frequently
use the contra E and F in obligato passages. In
England, up to a very recent period, a phrase like
that which opens Mendelsscmn's ' Meeresstille*
(c), owing to tlie absence of the fourth string
and the consequent impossibility of producing
the low ^F, had to be altered to the octave (d).
(0 (^L

This and other similar musical barbarities were
committed, until at the Crystal Palace the sensible
plan was adopted of having half the number of
the basses with four, and the other half with three
string?, thus avoiding the mutilation of phrases
like the above, without sacrificing the greater

1 In th* FiMtonl SrmplM»7, wtMra Uw bMS« fo to low C. tiMy
plaj In imlMSi wUb Um GoUoi.

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richness of tone which is claimed for the three-
stringed instrument.

If the violin is the leader of the orchestra, tl^e
doable bass is its foundation. To it is given the
lowest part, on which both harmony and melody
rest. The English term 'double bass' has probably
been applied to the instrument because it often
doubles in the lower octave the bass of the
harmony, given to the bass voice, the violoncello,
the bassoon, or some other instrument. In a
similar way the 3a-feet stop of the organ is
termed double diapason because it doubles a l6-
feet diapason in the lower octave.

This doubling of the bass part was for a long
time, with rare exceptions, the sole function of
the double bass, and it is only since the beginning
of the 19th century that we meet, in the scores
of Haydn, and more frequently in those of Bee-
thoven, with independent double-bass passages.
The double bass from its very nature — its tone,
when heard alone, being somewhat rough, and
its treatment, owing to its laive dimensions, very
difficult — is essentially an orchestral rather than
a solo instrument, and as such it is with the
violin the most important and indispensable one.
The solo performances of Bottesini and a few
other celebrated double-bass players, are ex-
ceptions which prove the rule for any one who
has heard them. In fact these virtuosi do not
play on full -sized double basses, but use the
basso di camera, an instrument of considerably
smaller dimensions.

As double bass -players Dragonetti, MlUler,
and Bottesini, have the greatest reputation. Most
of the great Italian violin- makers, from Gaspar
da Salo downwards, have made double basses
of varioos sizes^ a £ur number of which are still
extant. [P. D.]

DOUBLE BASSOON (It. Contra fagotto \ Fr.
ContrebaMon\ Grer. Contrafagottf Doppdfagott).
The contrafjAgotto or double bassoon, in pitch an
octave below the ordinary bassoon, is not by any
means a new instrument ; but the older instru-
ments were of feeble rattling tone, rendered un-
wieldy by unsuccessful attempts to obtain the Bb
of the 3 a -foot octave. It has been considerably
improved by Heir Haseneier of Coblenz, and
subsequently by the writer, who has introduced
it into English orchestras.

The double bassoon as made on the writer's
design by Haseneier consists of a tube 16 feet
4 inches long, truly conical in its bore, enlarging
from i inch diameter at the reed to 4 inches at
the bell. It is curved four times on itself for
convenience of manipulation, so that the length
of the instrument is about equal to that of the
ordinary bassoon. Its extreme compass is three
octaves, Scorn CCO upwards to middle — see ex-
ample (a). Its ordinary range, however, should
be limited to the tenor G, the notes above this
being rather difficult to produce.

It possesses every semitone of the diatonic
scale throughout its compass, and is therefore
able to plav in any key with moderate facility.
The scale is foitoded on the octave harmonic,
and continued by means of the twelith. From


CCC to FF (h\ only a single sound is obtained by
each key. Between the latter note and its double
octave {c), the same fingering produces two sounds
of an octave, simply by change of embouchure
and greater pressure of wind. With the four-
foot F| a new harmonic sound begins, using the
fingering of the eight-foot Bi^ and again ibcreasing
the wind-pressure. Seven semitones thus procured
carry the tone up to the C above {d), which ia the
fourth C inclusive from the foundation note. It
must be remembered, however, that the orchestral
part for this instrument, like that of the double
bass, is alwavs written an octave higher than
the real sound, to avoid ledger lines*

(«) (b)

The holes from which the sound issues are of
graduated size, increasing downwards with the
size of the bore. They
are placed as a rule in
I their correct positions, so
as to cut off the proper
portion of tube corre-
sponding to the elevation
of the note. Mechanism
is adapted to them, to
bring them within reach
of the fingers. To enable
the player to distingtiish
what are called 'open'
from closed holes, a ^Uf-
ferent shape is given to
the terminations of the
levers. The first three
fingers of each hand,
which have to keep dosed
the six open notes of the
ordinary bassoon, fall into
saddle - shaped recesses
worked in the brass of
the key; whereas the
two little fingers and the
thumbs touch the cush-
ion -shaped surfiAce of keys
j similar to. those used on
other wind instruments.
It is, in consequence, very
easy for any person ac-
customed to the ordinary
bassoon to adapt his play*
ingtothis. The saddle^
shape of the key also
serves to support the
upper joints of the finger,
and to throw the labour of closing the hole more
on the powerful muscles of the forearm than on
the weaker fabric of the hand itself.

Although this instrument was formerly nsed
in military bands, and was played at the first
Handel commemoration in Westminster Abbey,
it had gone completely out of use until the
Handel Festival of 187 1. It is however abon-

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<5antly written for by the great maaters. Haydn
^vee it an important part in the ' Creation/ the
Fasdon music, and other of his works. Mozart
OSes it in a nonet for wind instrmnenta (already
mentioned under Clabinbt), as also does Spolnr
in a similar combination. Beethoven employs it
largely in his greatest works. It reinforces £he
March in the finale of the minor symphony,
takes a leading part in the choral symphony, and
in the Grand Mass in D. It also appears in the
overture to *King Stephen,* and haa obbligato
passages in the grave-digging scene of * Fidelio* —
apropos to which see a characteristic anecdote in
Thayer's Beethoven, U. 288. Mendelssohn intro-
duces it in his overture 'The Hebrides,' in his
re-orchestration of Handel's Dettingen Te Beum,
in the Befonnation symphony, and elsewhere.
In all cases it forms a mnd bass to the reed
band, completing the 16-foot octave with the six
lowest notes wanting on three -stringed double
basses. [W.H.S.]

DOUBLE CHANT, a chant equal in length
to two single chants, and covering two verses;
peculiar to the English church, and not intro-
duced tiU affcer the Restoration. [Chant, p. 338.]

DOUBLE CONCERTO, a concerto for two
Bolo instruments and orehestra, as Bach's for
two Pianos, Mozart's for Violin and Viola
(Kochel, 364); or Mendelssohn's (MS.) for
Piano and Violin.

paniment of a subject or melody by another
melody, so contriv^ as to be capable of use
either below or above the original subject. See
examples g^iven under Countebfoint (p. 408).

DOUBLE FLAT. If the flat lowers a note
by a semitone, the double flat lowers it by two.
The sign for the double sharp is abbreviated, but
that for the double fiat remains simply bb, the
corrective to which is either tjb or b at pleasure.
On keyed instruments the double flat of a note
is a whole tone lower : — ^thus Abb = Gt|, Cbb = Bb.
The French term is double bimol ; the German
one doppel-B. The German nomenplature for
the notes is Eses, Asas, Deses, etc.

DOUBLE FUGUE, a common term for a
fugue on two subjects, in which the two start
together, as in the following, by Sebastian



or in D. Scarlatti's harpsichord fugue in D
tninor: or Handel's oigan fugue, quoted under

CoTTvmftTrR.Tcr!T n Afick h. rClA



DOUBLE SHARP raises a note 1^ two semi-
tones, and is denoted by a x , probably an abbre-
viation of S|. It is singular that Uie sign should
be a less complicated one tluui tiiat for the
single sharp. On instruments of fixed intona-
tionOx-Dlj, Ex=F|, etc. The French call
it dovble diite, and the Germans doppd kreuz.
The Germans call the notes eUiStfisU, gisis, etc.

DOUBLE STOPPING is sounding on the
violin or other instrument of that tribe two notes
simultaneously. Such notes are termed 'double
stops.* An 'open note' is produced by merely
striking the string with the bow without touching
it with the fingers of the left hand — so that the
strinff vibrates in its whole length. A ' stopped
note is a note produced by putting a finger of
the left hand on the string, so that the vibration
of the string is ' stopped' at a certain point.

Strictly speaking, the term •double-stopping*
ought only to be applied to the simultaneous
sounding of two * stopped' notes ; it is, however,
indiscriminately used for any double sounds,
whether produced with or without the aid of the
open strings. The playing of double stops is one
of the most difficult parts of the technique of the
violin. [P.D.]

DOUBLE TONGUEING, a method of articu-
lation applicable to the flute, the comet k pistons,
and some other brass instruments. The oboe,
bassoon, and clarinet, are susceptible only of
single tongueing, whic^ signifies the starting of
the reed- vibrations by a sharp touch from the tip
of the tongue similar to the pereussion action in
harmoniums. It requires long practice to give
the necessary rapidity to the tongue muwdes
co-operating for this end. Single tongueing is
phonetically represented by a succession of the
lingual letter T, as in the word 'rat-tat-tat.'
Double tongueing aims at alternating the linguo-
dental explosive T with another explosive conso-
nant produced differently, such as the linguo-
palatals D or K, thus rdieving the muscles by
alternate instead of repeated action. The intro-
duction of the mouthpiece into the cavity of
the mouth itself prevents such an alternation in
the three instruments above named, but it is
possible in the flute and comet. Any inter-
mediate vowel sound may be employed. The
words commonly reconunended for double-tongue-
ing are * tucker' or 'ticker.* Triple tongueing
is also possible ; and even four blows of the
tongue against the teeth and palate have been
achieved and termed quadmple tongueing. In-
deed the system may be farther extended by
employing words such as 'Tikatakataka', in
which dental and palatal explosives are judi-
ciously alternated.

The obstmction to the wind-current is not so
complete in double as in single tongueing, nor is
the mechanical starting of the reed present in the
latter. But it is notwithstanding capable of pro-
ducing a good staccato effect. [W. H. S.]

DOUBLES (Fr.). The old name for ' Varia-
tions,' especially in harpsichord music. The
doubles consisted of mere tttnj^lHaTiTnAw^ff of ^hd

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original r^eMy, and were never accompanied
by any change in the hannonies. Ezamplee are
numerous in the works of the older masters.
Handel's variations on the so-called 'Harmo-
nious Blacksmith' are called 'Doubles' in the
old editions. In Gouperin's 'Pieces de Clavecin,'
Book I, No. 2, may be seen a tlance ' Les Ca-
naries ' followed by a variation entitled 'Double
des Canaries,' and two instances will also be
found in Bach's English Suites, the first of which
contains a 'Courante avec deux I>oubles' and
the sixth a sarabande with a double. The term
is now entirely obsolete. ( 3) In combination the
word 'double is used to indicate the octave be-
low; thus the 'double-bass* plays an octave
below the ordinary bass, or violoncello; a
'double' stop on the organ is a stop of the
pitch known as i6-feet pitch (see Oboak), an
octave below the 'imison' stops. (3) The notes
in the bass octave from

are often spoken of by organ-buHden as double
G, double F, etc. (4) The word is applied to
singers who under-study a part in a vocal work,
BO as to replace the regular performer in case
of need. [E.P.]

DOUBLES. The name given by change
ringers to changes on five bells, from the fact
that two pairs of bells change places in each
successive change. [C. A. W. T.]

DOWLAND, John, Mus. Bac, was bom in
Westminster in 156a. In 1584 he visited France
and Germany, and, after remaining some months
in the latter country, crossed the Alps into Italy.
Having returned to England he, in I588> took
the degree of Bachelor of Music at Oxford, and
was subsequently admitted to the same degrree at
Cambridge. In 1592 he was one of the musi-
cians engaged in harmonising the Psalm Tunes
in four parts, which were published by Thomas
Este in that year. In 1597 he published 'The
First Booke of Songes or .^rres of foure parts
with Tableture for the Lute> So made that all
the partes together, or either of them severally
may be song to the Lute, Orpherian, or Viol de
gambo.' T&s work became so popular that four
subsequent editions appeared in 1600, 1603,
1608, and 161 3. It was printed in score for the
Musical Antiquarian Society, in 1 844. Dowland,
soon after its publication, entered the service of
Christian IV, King of Denmark, as lutenist,
and whilst resident in that country he published
(in London), in 1600, 'The Second !^ke of
Songes or Ayres of a, 4, and 5 parts, with
Tableture for the Lute or Orpherion, with the
VioU de Gamba . . . Also an Excelent lesson
for the Lute and Base Viol, called I>owland*s
adew' [for Master Oliuer Crcnnwell]. In i6oa,
being still in Denmark, he published (also in
London) ' The Third and last Booke of Songes
or Ayres. Newl^ composed to sing to the Lute,
Orpharion, or Viols, and a dialogue for a base


and means Lute, with fine voyoes to sing thereto.*
In 1605 he came to England, and published
' Lachrynue, or. Seven Teares, figured m seaven
passionate Pavans, etc., set forth for the Lute,
Viols, or Violins, hi five parts.' The first pavan
of these seven is that so frequently alluded to by
contemporary dramatuts as ' LachrymsB.' Dow-
land afterwards returned to Denmark, which he
finally quitted in 1609 to come bade to and
remain in England. In 1609 he published his
translation of Andreas Omitiioparcus's treatise
* Micrologus.' In 1610, at the end of a collection
of lute lessons edited by his son, Bobert, appeared
some Observations on Lute playing by Dowland.
In 161 a Dowland published 'A Pilgrime's
Solace, wherein is contained Muaicall Harmotnie
of 3, 4, and 5 parts, to be sung and plaid with
Lute and Viols.' He describ^ himself on the
title-page as 'Lutenist to the Lord Walden.*
In 1025 he was one of the six lutenists in the
service of the king. Dowland died eariy in
i6a6. His skill as a lutenist is celebrated in
one of the sonnets of Shakspere's 'Passionate
Pilgrim,' printed in 1599, but which sonnet bad
previously been printed in a work by Bichard

' If music and sweet poetry agree.
As they must ne^ds, the sister and tlie

Dowland to thee is dear, whose heavenly

Upon the lute doth ravish human sense ;
Spenser to me.' eta [W. H. H.]

DOWLAND, RoBEBT, son of the preceding,
was also a lutenist. In 1610 he edited 'A
Musicall Banqvet. Furnished with varietae
of Delicious Ayres, Collected out of the best
Authors in English, French, Spanish and
Italian, by Bobert Dowland.' The authoca
referred to are Daniel Batchelar, John Dow-
land, Bobert Hales, Anthony Hdbome, and
Bichard Martin, la the same year he also
edited 'Varietie of Lessons: vix. Fantaedei^
Pavins, Galliards, Almaines, Corantoes, and
Volts. Selected out of the best approved Au-
thors, as well beyond the Seas as of our owne
Country. By Bobert Dowland. Whereunto is
annexed certaine Observations belonging to Lute-
playing by John Baptisto Besardo of Viconti :
Also a short Treatise thereunto appertayning
by John Dowland, Batchelor of Mudcke. In
April, 1636, on the death of his father, Bobert
Dowland was appointed his suo c esitor as one of
the musicians to the king. The time of bis
death has not been discovered, but he was living
in 1 641, when his name occurs as one of the
' Musicians for the Waytes.' [W.H.EL]

DRAESEKE, Felix, a gifted and highly oul-
tivated, though somewhat eccentric, oomposer and
writer upon musical subjects, disciple of Liszt's aS
Weimar, and one of that small but formida^ile
circle of young musicians, who az^ known as * die
neudeutsohe Schule,' and amongst whom are
suoh names as Hans von Bulow> Peter Covn^o^

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CbiI KHndworth and Carl Taosig, was bom in
1835 at Coburg. On leaving Weimar, Draseke
settled at Dresden, and subsequently at Lau-
•ume, as teacher of the pianoforte and hannony.
In 1868 Yon BUlow called him to Munich as a
master of the new Conservatoire, but he re-
turned to Switzerland soon after Yon Bulow's
departure from Munich early in 1869, and is at
present residing at Dresden. Draseke has pub-
ushed a numb^ of pianoforte pieces, remarkable
tor harmonic and rhythmic subtleties; *Fan-
tssiestficke in Walzerfenn,* op. 3 ; ' Deux valses
de concert,' op. 4 ; a fine Sonata in E major, op.
6 ; several pieces for piano and violoncello ; some
vocal compositions and a symphony. An opera,
for which he himself wrote the poem, is still in
manuscript. Of his literary labours, the elabor*
ate analysis of Liszt's Poemes symphoniques in
Brendel's 'Anr^ungen,' and the recent essay
on Peter Cornelius, in ' Die neue Zeitschrift fiir
Husik,' as well as a treatise on 'Modulation,'
are valuable. [E. D.]

DRAGHI, AiTTOino, capellmeiBter to the
court at Yienna, bom at Ferrara 1635 (not 1642,
as generally stated). In 74 he was invited to
Yienna as Hoftheater Intendant to the Emperor
Leopold I, and chapel -master to the Empress
Leonore, and in 8a took up his abode there for
life. He was a gifted dramatic composer, and
most prolific, as may be seen by the ust of his
works performed at the court during 38 years,
amounting to no less than 87 operas, 87 feste
teatrali and serenades, and 32 oratorios. (See
K()chel*s life of Fuz.) Some of his carnival operas
have been several times revived. The scores
of most of his works are in the imperial library,
and some in the archives of the 'Gesellschaft der
Muaik&eunde.' His librettos, some of them il-
lustrated, were printed in the imperial press by
Cosmerow, and have nearly all l«en preserved.
Occasionally he wrote librettos, which were set
by other composers, Ziani, Bertali, and even the
Imipeior Leopold, who composed the complete
opera ' Apollo deluso' (1669), ^^^ ^^ ^^ others.
Yarious mistakes have been made about the year
of his death. Walther's Lexicon speaks of him
as alive in 1703, and F4tis, followed by most
modem bioerapheis, says he went back to Ferrara
and died there in 1707 ; but all doubts are set
at rest by the register of deaths in Yienna, from
which it appears he died there Jan. 18, 1700,
aged 65. A son of his. Carlo, was court-scholar
in 1688, court-organist in 1698, and died May
2, 1711. [C.F.P.]

DBAGHI, GiovANHi Bapttsta, was an Italian
musician who settled in London in the middle
of the 17th century, and who, during his long
residence in this country, so completely adopted
the £n§^sh style of composition that he must
he regarded as in effect an English composer.
It hjks been conjectured that he was a brother of
Antonio Dragm. The earliest notice of him is
found in Pepvs's Diary, under date of Feb. 1 2,
1667. The diarist there mentions having heard
lum (at Lord Brouncker*s house) sing through an



act of an Italian opera which he had written and
composed at the instance of Thomas Killigrew,
who had an intention of occasionally introducing
such entertainments at his theatre. Pepys ex-
presses in strong terms his admiration of the
composition. It is extremely doubtful whether
this opera was ever produced. Draghi however
lived to witness the introduction into this country
of the Italian opera at the commencement of the
following century. He excelled as a player on
the harpsichord, for which instrument he com-
posed and published in England many lessons.
He was music-master to Queen Anne* and prob-
ably also to her elder sister. Queen Mary. In
1675 ^® composed the act-tunes and some other
instrumental music for Shadwell's opera 'Psyche';
the remainder, including the whole of the vocal
part, being composed by Matthew Lock. On
the death of Lock in 1677 Draghi succeeded him
as organist to Catherine of Braganza, wife of
Charles II. In 1687, for the celebration of St.
Cedlia^s day, he composed music for Dryden's
fine ode conunendng 'From Harmony, from
heavenly Harmony.' In 1706 he contributed

Online LibraryJohn Alexander Fuller-Maitland Sir George GroveA Dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889): with ..., Volume 1 → online text (page 107 of 181)