John Alexander Fuller-Maitland Sir George Grove.

A Dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889): with ..., Volume 1 online

. (page 76 of 181)
Online LibraryJohn Alexander Fuller-Maitland Sir George GroveA Dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889): with ..., Volume 1 → online text (page 76 of 181)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

words of mattins, vespers, the little hours, and
the mass, or for the Ei^lish canticles of Morning
and Evening Prayer, and for the English Com-
munion Service, according as the Romish or
Protestant liturgy was recognised. Sometimes,
as in the case of Byrd's ' Ne irascaris, Domine,'
and *Bow thine ear, O Lord,* the same music
was set to the two languages, or what had
been written for the one was adapted to the
other. And thus the chan^ of ritual may be
said to have affected compositions in harmony
even less than it affected the mere melodic fonns

Though a complete scheme for the musical
service was set forth in Marbeck's book (except
for the litany, which Cranmer had already sup-
plied, and the Psalms, which no doubt Marbeck
mtended to be sung in the manner he indicated
for the Canticles, viz. in the old plainsong) ; the
canticles and other parts of the service were aei
very frequently in harmony, about the time when
Marbeck^s book appeared. All the churdi mu-
sicians whose harmonised compositions remain to
us, from the time of Edward VI onwards, have
set the canticles anthemwise as 'services*; and
thus, even while Marbeck's was the only au-
thorised musical - service book, a more perfect
system was displayed alongside of it. Hearers
could not fail to be struck by the superiority of
harmonised canticles and services over the sim|de
melodies sung in unison, of which Marbeck's
book consists. Dr. Jebb considers that tiie latter
work was only meant as an elementary and
tentative one, and that it never became au-
thoritative. However this may be, it was super-
seded by a work containing hazmonized com-
positions, contributed by Tallis, Shepherd, Tav-
emer, and some others. This was John Day*s
book, published in 1560, and entitled, 'Certaine
Notes, set forth in foure and three partes, to be
sunff at the Morning, Communion, and Evening
Praier, .... and unto them be added divers
Godly praiers and pealmes in the like forme.*

The latter clause leads us to the consideratioii
of the anthem, with refinence to which Blont
(Introduction to the Book of Common 'Prtkjet)
says as follows : — ' It is difficult to ascertain ihe
exact time when the practice of popular hymn

Digitized byCrrOOQlC


and metrical psalm singing established itself
in connection with our revised ritual, though
independently of its direct authority. Such
singmg was in use early in Elizabetns reign,
having doubtless been borrowed from the I^t>-
testants abroad. For the purpose of giving a
quasi-official sanction to a custom which it would
have been very unwise to repress, it was ordained
by a royal injunction in the year 1559, that while
there was to be a 'modest and distinct song so
used in all parts of the conmion prayer, that the
same might be understanded as if it were read
without singing * (in other words, while the old
traditional plamsone in its simplified form is to
be employed throughout the whole service, yet)
* for the comforting of such as delight in music
it may be permitted that in the beginning or at
the end of the common prayer there may be sung
an hymn or such like song, to the praise of
Almighty God, in the beet melody and music
that may be devised, having respect that the
sentence of the hymn may be understanded &

This injunction gave legal authority to the
setting of English words to be sung anthemwise.
The first anSiems written for tiie Beformed
Churoh are full, Le. sung in regular alternation
by the wh<de choir; they resemble the motets
of the Italian Ohurch, which furnished modeb
to the first English anUiem-writers. 'Verse an-
thems', i.e. thMe in which certain passages, called
verses, were sung in slower time, not by all the
vdces on one side but by a selected number, were
introduced about 1670 ; though Dr. Jebb informs
the writer that precedents for verse anthems
existed in the pre-Refonnation service.

As prindpu composers of cathedral music
from the Beformation to the Rebellion we may
select Tye, Tallis, Farrant, Shepherd, Tavemer,
Bedford, Morley, Byrde, Bull, and Gibbons. The
compositions of this period are more conspicuous
for technical skill than for musical expression, and
no difiSsrenoe can be traced between the secular
and the sacred style. Dr. Jebb however main-
tains that the latter was at least national and
peculiar to this country, and that the Churoh
of England was not indebted to Palestrina;
which statement he supports by urging the
similari^ of the style of Byrde and TaBis to
that of Kobert White, who was anterior to the
great Italian composer.

Under the Commonwealth, music, except in the
form of metrical psalmody, was expelled from
English churches; it was restored in 1660 by
Charles II, the effect of whose French tastes
upon Cathedral muno is thus described by
Tudway (Bumey^s History, vol. iii. 443) : 'His
majesty was soon tired with the grave and
solemn way which had been establisbeid by Bird
and others, and ordered the composers of his
chapel to add symphonies with instruments to
their anthems ; and established a select number
of his private music to play the symphony and
ritom^os which he had appointed. The old
masters of music, Dr. Child, Dr. Gibbons, Mr.
Low, etc, hardly knew how to comport them-



selves with these new femgled ways, but pro-
ceeded in their compositions according to l^e
old style.' There was great difficulty during the
first years of the Bertoration in finding boys
capable of singing in the choirs, since the art
had been so much neglected during the Pro-
tfotorate. Hawkins (History of Music, iv. 349)
says on this point, ' Nay, to such stre^hts were
they driven, that for a twelvemonth after the
Restoration the clergy were forced to supply the
want of boys by comets, and men who had
feigned voices.'

^ It Appears from a passage in the life of Arch-
bishop Whitgift (Biographia Britannica, p. 4255),
ihat comets had been before introduced; for an
allusion is made to the 'solemn music with the
voices and organs, oomets and saokbuts'; and
in Stow's Aimals (864), we read that at the
churching of the Queen after the birth of Mary
dau^ter of James I, in the Boyal Chapel, sundiy
anthems were sung with organ, oomets, sackbuts,
and other instruments of music.' [See Ajxtbsm,
and period.]

'In about four or five years time' says Tudway,
*Bome of the forwardest and brightest children
of the chapel, as Pelham Humphrey, John Blow,
etc., began to be masters of a fooulty in com-
posing; this his mHJes^ greatly encouraged, by
mdulging their youUif ul &ncies. In a few years
more, several others educated in the clu^>el,
composed in this style ; otherwise it was vain to
please his majesty.* The peculiar influence here
ascribed to Charles II maybe traced in the
works of Humphrey, Blow^ Wise, and their con-
temporariei^ in the too evident aim at effect, and
the mannerisms and exaggerated ornaments which
characterise them; even the great genius of
Puroell did not escape the effect of Charles's £Em-
tastic tastes. Many of las finest anthems are
disfigured by symplionies of such a kind as were
evidently invented merely to gratify the king's
desire for French mannerisms. But it was in
the 1 8th century that the lowest musical standard
prevailed in the service of the church. A florid
sing-song melody, with a trivial accompaniment,
was the type to which everything was sacrificed,
and a rage set in for objectionable adaptations
and arrangements. The works of Nares and
Kent may be taken as specimens of this class,
though one worthy exception should be noticed in
Dr. Boyoe.

Within the last 35 years choral communions
have been introduced : they had been discarded
at the Restoration, from which time up to 1840
the Communion Service was never set to music
except in so far as parts of it, e. g. the Sanctus,
and the Gloria* were aoanged as anthems and
intnnts. [E. H. D.]

CATHERINE GREY, an opera in 3 acts;
libretto by Bunn ; music by Balfe. Produced at
Drury Lane Mav 27, 1837, the oompossr himself
playing the Earl of HertiTord. [G.]

CATLEY, Aknb, was bom in 1745 ^ <^
alley near Tower Hill, of very humble parents,
her father being a hackney ococ^man, and her

Digitized by VjO<



mother a waah&rwomMJi. Endowed with great
penonal beauty, a ohanning yoice, and a natural
talent for singing, the gained her living at the
early age of lo yean by singing in the publio
houses in the neighbourhood, uid also for the
diversion of the officers quartered in the Tower.
When about 15 years of ikge she was apprenticed
by her fiftther to William Bates for the purpose
of receiving regular instruction in the art of
singings Catley binding himself in the penalty
of £aoo for her due fnlfilment of the covenants
in the indenture. She made rapid progress, and
in the summer of 1762 made her first appearance
in publio at Vauxhall Ghtfdens. On Oct. 8 in
the same year she i^peared at Govent Garden
Theatre as the Pastoral Nymph fai Dr. Dalton's
alteration of Milton's 'Comus.* Early in 1763
she became acquainted with Sir Francis Blake
Delaval, a young baronet, who prevailed on her
to quit the house of Bates and reside with him.
Derirous of obtainiiuf a legal control over her,
Delaval, in April 1763, induced Bates to consent
to an aixangement for his pupil doing some act
which would put an end to the apprenticeship,
Delaval paying him the £200 penalty, and also
the amount ot an engagement he had entered
into for her singing during the summer season at
Marylebone Gwdens. She was then colourably
apprenticed to Delaval to be tauffht singing by
him. Application being made to her ftbtbar, who
was then coachman to Barclay, the quaker, of
Cheapside, for his conouirence, he consulted his
master, who, shocked at the iniquity of the trans-
action, at once sent Oatley to his attorney. A
habeas 0Qq>u8 was obtained for Delaval to pro-
duce Anne Oatley before the Oourt of King's
Bench, where the afiair being inquired into, the
Court ordered that DeUval, Bates, and John
Frayne, an attorney employed by Delaval, should
be prosecuted for conspiracy, the Chief Justice,
Lord Mansfield, denouncing their conduct in
strongly indignant language. TUej were accord-
ingly tried, convicted, and fined. Bi the summer
of 1763 Anne Oatley fulfilled her engagement at
Marylebone Gkffdens, and shortly afWwards be-
came a pupil of Macklin, the actor, who pro-
cured her an engagement at Dublin, where she
became a great favourite. O'Keefifo, the dnmiatist,
who became acquainted with her there, says, in
his amusing *BeminiBoenofls,* ' She wore her hair
plain over her forehead in an even line almost to
her eyebrows. This set the £uhion in Dublin,
and tiie word was with all the ladies to have
their hair CaUey-fied* He elsewhere obeerves,
'She was one of the most beautiful women I
ever saw; the expression of her eyes and the
smiles and dimples that played round her lips
and cheeks enchanting. She was eccentric, but
had an excellent heart.' In 1770 she returned
to England, and reappeared at Covent (harden
Theatre on Oct. i as Kosetta in ' Love in a Vil-
lage.' After the season she was again engaged
at Marylebone Gardens, where she appeared on
July 30, 1 771, and sang until the dose of the
season. On Feb. 6, 1773, O'Hara's burletta,
'The Golden Pippin,' was produced at Covent


Garden Theatre. Miss Oatley perfonned the
part of Juno with a q»irit and humour that ex-
cited the utmost applause, and was particularly
admired f<»: her singing of two of tiie songs, vis.
' Push about the jorum,' — the tune of which ban
been used for an almost endless numbv of comic
songs,— and ' Where's the m<vtal can resist me t'
— ^the tune of which, slightly varied, has \od^
been aflsodated with the Advent Hymn. Having
amassed an independence Miss Oatley retir^
firom public life in 1 784. She died Oct. 14, 1 789,
at the house of denend Lascelles (to whoon
she was married), near Brentford. Tlie publio
|ffints of tho day eulogised her as a good
mother, a diaste wife, and an accomplished
woman, [W. H. H.]

CAUItltOY, FBAvgois Eitstaohb du, Sieur
de St. Fr^min, bom at Gerberoy near Beauvaia
1549, died in Paris 1609; canon of the Ste.
Chapelle and prior of St. Aloul de Provins;
a composer of great merit in his day. He waa
appointed director of the King's band in 1569,
and continued in office during the reigns of
Charles IK, Henry III, and Henry IV. In 1 599
the post of Surintendant de la Musique du Boi
was created for him. He was buned in the
Church des Grands Augustins. A monument
(destroyed in the Revolution) was erected to hia
memory by his successor Nicolas Form^, with an
epitaph by his firiend Cardinal du Perron. Da
Caurroy was called by his contemporaries ' Prince
des profeeseurs de musique,' a title he shared
with Orlando Lasso and Palestrina. His .com-
positions indude 'Missa pro defunctis,' perlbnned
at the funerals of the kmgs of France until the
1 8th century ; one copy only exists at the BihLio-
thbque Nationale in Paris ; 'PrecesecdeeiastiosB'
(Paris 1609), 'Precum eodesiasticarum lib. a*
(Paris 1609), and, published by his grandn^ew
Andr^ Pitu-t^ ' Fantaisies ' in 3, 4, 5, and 6 parts
(Paris 161 o) and 'Melanges de musique ' (Paris
161 o) from which Bumey prints in his 3rd Tolnme
a NoSl in four parts. Du Caurroy has been
credited with the airs 'Charmante Gabridle*
and ' Vive Henri IV.' [M. 0. a]

CAUSTON, Thomas, was a gentleman of the
Chapel Hoyal in the reigns of Edward VI, Mary,
and Elizabeth. He contributed to the curious
collection published by John Day, the eminent
printer, in 1560, in separate parts, under the title
of 'Certain Notes, set forth in four and three
parts, to be sung at the Morning, Communion, and
Evening Prayer* ; he was also a contributor to
the collection of psalm tunee published by Day
in 1563 under the title of 'The whde Psalmes
In foure parts, which may be sung to all musical
instruments.' Some of ms compositions are still
extant. ' They are remaricable for purity of part
writing and flowi^ mdody, dosdy resembling
the style of Orlando Gibbons, the great church
composer of a later period.' Oiuston died Oct.
38, 1569. A 'Venite exultemus,' and a Com-
munion servioe by him were reprinted \j the
Bev. Dr. Jebb some years since. [W. H. H.]

OAUVINI, an Italian singer, described bj

Digitized byC^OOQlC


Lord Mouni-Edgcumbe m '» veiy pretty woman
and pleasmg actrea/ who appeared about 1811,
in ' Coal fan tutte.' Another singer of tHe same
name, perhaps her husband, whom the same
critic c^dls * a very respectable tenor/ appeared
with her in that opera, with Tramezsani and
Kaldi, all new to the English stage. They joined
the party, including Morelli, B^idnotti, Collini,
and the youthful Miss Stephens, which was driven
by Cataiani to secede to tne Pantheon. Nothing
further is known of the Canyinis. [J. H.J

CAVAILL^ the name of several generations
of distinguished organ builders in the south of
France. The present eminent member of this
family is Abistids Gavaill^ • Ck)!^ bom at
Montpellier, 181 1. The name of Col was that
of his grandmother. In 1833 he went to Paris,
to see what progress was being made in his art,
but without the intention of establishing himself
there. Hearing that there was to be a com-
petition for the construction of a large organ fer
the royal church of St. Denis, he detennined to
send in a tender, although only two days remained
for preparing it. When called up before the
committee he gave them such interesting ex-
planations of his plans that they decided to
accept his tender. Barker^s pneumatic lever
was first used in this organ. He thus became
established in Paris, buQt the fine organ of the
Madeleine, and many others in the capital and
iu the provinces. [ v . dk P.]

CAVACCIO, GiovAKNi, bom ait Bergamo
about 1556, was for a time singer at the court
of Munich, and after visiting I^me and Venice
settled in his native town as maestro at the
Cathedral. Thence after 33 years service he
was called to be maestro at S. Maria Maggiore
at Home, where he remained iaU. his death,
Aug. II, 1626. Cavacdo contributed to a col-
lection of Psalms, dedicated in 1 59 2 to Palestrina.
His works are Magnificats, Psidms, Madrigals,
etc., 1581-1611. (See list in F^tis). Some of
his pieces are found in the ' Parnassus musicus *
of Bergameno. [6.]

CAVALIEEI, Bmilio dk^ was a Roman
gentleman of good family and fine musical per-
ceptions. He was bom about the year 1550,
and died some time at least before the end oC
the 1 6th century, for his most important work,
' La Bappresentazione di Anima e di Gorpo,* was
performed for the first time im 1600, and aU the
accounts of him agree in stating that it was
never performed in his lifetime. He spent a
great portion of his life at the court of Ferdi-
nand dei Medicis, who appointed him to the
quaintly-named office of 'Inspector-General of
toe Artiste* at Florence. There he lived upon
terms of intimacy with Giovanni Bardi of Ver-
nio, Giulio Oaccini, Vincenzo Galflei, Peri, Corsi,
and Binuccini, a group of accomplished artists
and gentlemen, who were bent upon freeing
music from the trammels of the * stile oeservato,
and bringing about some better result from the
union of instruments, poetry, and the human
voice than had xxp to ikeir time been achieved.



Cavalieri, then, was one of the earliest pro-
jeotors of instrumental accompaniment, and
among the first to en^loy that early form of it
whidi goes by the liame of the Basso Continue, .
with %ures and signs attached to gcode the
different instruments in filling up uie inter*
mediate parts. Alessandro Guidotti, who pub-
lished 'La Bappresentazione di Anima e di
Corpo,' altar the death of its ^author, thus ex-
plains the system of the * Basso figurato': — 'I
numeri plccoli posti sopra le note del basso con-
tinuato per suonare, significano le consonanze e
le dissonanze di tal numero, come il 3 terza, U 4
quarto, e cosi di mano in mano.' Cavalieri did
not attempt to elaborate the accompaniment thus
suggested; a great deal was stiU left to the
players themselves, just as in the plain-song
the underlying parts were filled in bv what in
England was known as * descant,' and m Italy as
'B Contrapunto della Mente.* Not the less,
however, did the labours of Cavalieri and his
contemporaries constitute at once a starting-point
and a stride in art. He was also among the
earliest employers of vocal ornaments, such as
the gruppetto or groppolo, the monadiina, the
cimbalo, and perhaps the trillo. It may be
questioned, however, whether the last-mentioned
was the true 'shake* ; that is to say, a rapid
oscillation between two tones or semitones; or
whether it was only a certain vibratory produc-
tion of the voice, probably considered an deganoe
in eariy times, but now more fitly estimated as
a fault common among bad singers, and known
as the 'tremdo.' [Shake ; Trsmolo.]

A dramatic tendency naturally arose out of
the desire to make vocal and instmmental music
subservient to the Dlpstration of words, and it
is not surprising therefore that Cavalieri should
have produced musical dramas. Of these he
composed four — H Satire, La disperazione di
Fileno, B giuooo della cieca^ and La Bappresen-
tazione, mentioned already. They were one and
all of them arrangements of words provided by
Laura Guidiocioni, an accomplished lady of the
Lucchesini family. Of these works the last-
named only has been edited, as stated above, by
Guidotti of Bologna. [£. H. P.J

CAVALIERI, Kathabdta, dramatic singer,
bom at Wahring, Vieama, 1 761. At a very early
age she was placed under Salieri by some wealthy
connoisseurs who had heard her sing in church,
and in 1775, when barely 14, was engaged at
the Italian Opera. A year later the Emperor
Joseph founded a German Opera, to which she
was transferred. As Cavalieri never sang out of
Vienna her name is almost unknown elsewhere,
but Mozart'a approval stamps her as an artist of the
first rank. In one ef his letters (1785) he says
' she was a singer of whom Germany might well
be proud*; and it was for her he composed the
part of Constance in the ' EntfUhrung,' the so-
prano part in * Davidde penitente,' that of ' Mad.
bilberklang' in the 'Schauspiel-Director,' and the
air 'Mi tradi' in ' Don Giovanni,* on its first re-
presentation at Vienna^ May 7, 1788. Salieri

Digitized by




oalled her his favourite pupil, and wrote tihe
principal parts of several operas for her. She
sang in nearly all the oratorios ptxluced by the
Tod£unstler-»Dcietat (now the Haydn -Verein),
and maintained her popularity to the last,
affainst many eminent singers. Her voice was
of oonsiderable compass, and she was a culti-
vated musician. 8he made up for her want of
personal attractions by her faftrfnating manners.
She was compelled m>m over-exertion to retire
when in the prime of life (1793), and died June
30, 1801. [C. F. P.]

C AYALLI, PiBTBO Tbavobsoo, eminent com-
poser of the 1 7th century, bom at Orema, Venice,
in 1599 ^ 1600. His real name was Caletti-
Bruni, and he Uxk tlukt of Cavalli from his
patron. In 1617 he became singer in the choir
of St.Mark*s under Monteverde ; in 1640 organist
of th^ second organ, in 65 organist of the first
orgaA in that church; in 68 chapel-master,
and on Jan. 14, 76, he died. Of his church*
music nothing hM been published beyond a
Mass, Psalms, and Antiphons„ for a to i a voices
(Venice,. 1656), and Vespers for 8 voices (ib.
1 675). Santini possessed a Requiem of his (sung
at Gavallfs funeral) for 8 voicet in MS. His
operas were very numerous. He began to write
for the theatre in 1637, and continued so to do
for 32 years. There were then five theatres in
Venice, and Oavalli was fully employed. F^tis

5ive8 a list^evidently incomplete— of 39 pieces,
n 1660 he was called to Paris for the marriage
of Louis XIV, and produced his opera of * Xerse'
in the Grand GalleiT of the Louvre; to Paris
again in 1663 for tLe Peace of the Pyrenees^
when he brought out 'Ercole amante' ; and to
Innspruck for the Ute on the reception of Queen
Christina. His wife belonged to the SonnnenI
fieunily; he g^w rich and eigoyc^d the esteem
and affisction of his feUow-citiTens. He took
the opera from the hands of Monteverde, and
maintained it with much dramatic power and
with a force of rhythm before unknown. An air
by Cavalli and some fit«ments will be found in
Bumey*s * History,* vol. iv. [G.]

CAVATINA origmally signMed a short song,
but has been fr^uently applied to a smooUi
melodious air, forming part of a grand scena or
movement. Thus Mozart's noble soena ' Andro-
meda' conmiences with a recitative * Ah, lo
previdi!' followed by an Aria» Allegro, then
more recitatives in several tempi>. and laatly
a Cavatina, Andantino :•»-

Several examples of cavatine may be found in
Bellini's • Sonnambula,' Meyerbeer's ' Ugonotti,'
and other well-known operas. The word is


sometimes osed for a complete 1^ or wong, as in
Gounod's 'Bomeo' — 'L'amonr! oui son ardemr
a trouble*; and in 'Faust' — ' Salve dimora.' In
the frdl score of Mendeh»ohn's 'St. Paul' 'Be thon
fruthful unto death ' is called a cavatina, bat in
the vocal scores it is described as an aria. Bee-
thoven has given this title to the second alow
movement. Adagio moUo espresaivo, in his great
Quartet in Bb (op.130), one of the most touching
and individual pieces to be found in all lus works.
It consiBts of a song in two strains in E flat and
A flat, an episode in E flat minor (expressive €i
the deepest distress, and marked in the autograph
Beklenmt— choked with grief), and a return to
the original strain. [W. H. C]

CAVENDISH, MiOHAiL, was the composer
of a set of * Ayres for four Voyoee,' published
in 1599. He contributed a madrigal — 'Conie,
gentle swaines* — to 'The Triumphes of Oriana,*
1 601, and was one of the ten composers who
harmonised the tunes for ' The Whole Booke of
Psalmes with their wonted Tunes as they are
song in Churches composed into foure parts,'
published in 1592 by Thomas Este. Nothing is
known of his biography. [W. H. H.]

CAZZATI, Maurizio, bom at Mantua about
1620, died there 1677, appointed in 1657 Chapel-
master of San Petronio m Boloffna. He resigned
this post in 1674 ^^ account of a violent quarrel
with Aresti, organist of the same church, who had
severely crifddMd the Kyrie in a mass of Cazzati^s.
His voluminous compositions (for list see F^tb)
comprise masses, psalms, and motets, besides

Online LibraryJohn Alexander Fuller-Maitland Sir George GroveA Dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889): with ..., Volume 1 → online text (page 76 of 181)