John Alexander Fuller-Maitland Sir George Grove.

A Dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889): with ..., Volume 1 online

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nearly half were harpsichords and spinets — seven
bearing the name of Cristofori himself It is
curious however that not one of them is described
as ' col piano e forte ' and also interesting that in
the receipt to this inventory we have Cristofori's
own handwriting as authority for the spelling
now adopted of Us name.

The search for Cristofori's workshop proving
unsuccessful, Puliti infers that the Prince had

1 Cennl Storiol ddlavlta del nrenbaloio FeidtaULodo del M«did. «te.
Estratto dagU AM d«U' AoMtdemia d«l B. Iitltato Muilcaladl flraoM


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given him a room in the Uffizi, rnhMy near
the old theatre, in the vicinity of the foundry
ftnd workBhofta of the cabinet-makers. He
imagines the Prince suggesting the ide* of the
pianoforte and takina great interest in the
gradual embodiment of the idea thus carried out
under his own eyes.

MafTei gives an engraving of Cristofori*s action
or hammer mechanism of 1711. It shows the
key with intermediate lever, and the hopper,
the thrust of which against a notch in the butt of
the hammer jerks the latter upwards to the
string. The instant return of the hopper to its
perpendicular position is secured by a spring;
thus the escapement or controlled rebound of the
hammer is without doubt the invention of Cristo-
fori. The fall of the intermediate lever governs
an under-damper, but there is no check to gradu-
ate the &11 of the hammer in relation to the
force exercised to raise it. For this however we
have only to wait a very few years. There is in
the possession of the Signora Emesta Mocenni
Martelli in Florence a grand pianoforte made by
Cristofori in 1720, the namepiece *Bartholonueus
de Christoforis Patavinus Inventor &ciebat Flo-
rentiee mdocxx.* being the g^uarantee for its origin
and age. Puliti had two exAct drawings made
of the action, one with the key at rest and the
other when pressed down, and has described each
detail with the greatest care. The hammer is
heavier than that represented in 1711, the inter-
mediate lever is differently poised and the damper
raised by the key when in movement now acts
above instead of under the strings. Finally there
is the check completing the machine.

What doubts have not found their solution
by the discovery of this interesting instrument,
which was exhibited at the Cristofori Festival at
Florence in May 1876? The story of it begins
abo.ut sixty years since when Signor Fabio Mo-
cenni, the &uier of the present owner, obtained it
of a pianoforte-tuner at Siena in exchange for
wine. Its anterior history is not known, but
Puliti offers suggestive information in the fact
of Violante Beatrice di Baviera — the widow of
(Mstofori's master and protector Prince Fer-
dinand — having lived at ^ena at different times,
particularly when her nephew was studying at
the Sienese University in 1721.

But if it were only a harpsichord turned by the
addition of hammers to a pianoforte ? The careful
examination of Puliti is the authority that all its
parts were constructed at one time, and the word
' Inventor * appended to Gristofori's name would
not have been applied to a simple harpsichord or
spinet. It is a biohord instrument, compass from
JD to F, exceediiig four octaves.

Cristofori died in 1731 at the advanced age of
eighty. His reputation had alreadv extended
into Germany, for Mattheson had published the
translation by Konig of Maffei's article in the
and volume of his * Critica Musica * (Hamburg
1732-25), and Walther, in his ' Musikalisches
LiBxicon' (Leipsic 1732), article * Pianoforte,'
treating of the invention, attributes it exclusively


On May 7, 1876, a stone was placed in Ihe
doisters m Santa Crooe at Florenoa bearing the
following inscription —

A Bartolomso Cbistotobi
Cembalaro da Padova


in Hreiixe nel MDOCXI


IL Clavicembalo ool Piano b Fosn

Comitativo Fiorentino

Ooadiuvanti Italian! e Stranieri

pose questa Memoria.


CRIVELLI, Gaetano, an excellent tenor <^
the old school, bom at Bergamo in 1774. He
made his first appearance when very young;
and married at the age of 19, Li 1793 he was
at Brescia, where he was admired for his fine
voioe and large manner of phrasiDg. He was
engaged to sing at Naples in 1795, where be
remidned severid years, profiting greatly by the
opportunities of hearing the best singers, and by
the advice of good masters, especially of Aprile.
From thence he went to Rome, Venice, and at
last to Milan, where he sang at La Seals with
Banti, Marcheei, and Bina^ii, in the carnival
of 1805. In 181 1 he succeed Garcia at the
Italian Opera in Paris, where he produced a
great effect in the 'Pirro* of Paisiello, in which
he first appeared. His superb voice, excellent
method, and nobly expressive style of acting,
combined to make him a most valuable acquisition
to the stage. He remained there until Feb. 1817.
He then came to London, and helped to make
that a brilliant season at the opera. He had,
according to Lord Mount-Edgoumbe, ' a sonoroos
mellow voice, and a really good method of singing,
but he was reckoned dull, met with no applause,
and staid only one year.* In 1819 and ao he
sang with success at La Scala in Milan ; but in
the latter year signs of decay were appai^nt in
his voice, which became more evident when he
appeared in that town in Lent, 1823. In 35. at
Yelluti*s suggestion, Ebers sent finr him to teke
part in * Teobaldo ed Isolina* ; but the opera was
not perfimned. For six years he presented the
painful roectade of a worn-out singer before the
public of small provincial towns. In 1829 he
sang, perhaps for the last time, at Florenoe;
and died at Brescia July 10, 1836. [J.M.]

CROCE, Giovanni dalla, a learned, original
composer, was bom about 1 560 at Chio^^ He
was a pupil of Zarlino, by whom he was placed
in the choir of San Marco. In 1 603 he suooeeded
Donate as Maestro at that cathedral, and still hM
the post when he died in 1609. He was'alao in
priest's orders, and in this capad^was attadied
to the church of Santa Maria Formosa. His
publications chiefly oonsist of a long list of Mad-
rigals, Motets, Psalms, and other pieces in the
oi^nary musical forms of his epodi, aixl, with
the exception of one curious volume^ thej are
hardly worth enumeration. This is intitaled.
'Triaooa Musicaie, nella quale vi sono diTorsi
capricci a 4, 5, 6, and 7 vod, nuovameate


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posta • data in Inoe* (Gi. Ylnoenti, Venioe,
J 597). The pieces in it are mostly comio, aiid
are oompofled upcm words written in the Venetian
patds. A second edition of this was issued in
1 603, a third in 1607, and a fourth in 1609. Two
motets for eight yoioes are in Bodenschats's ' flo-
ril^om Portense* (Part 2, Nos. 1 11 and 150).
A collection of church music by Crooe, set to
English words, under the title of 'Musica Sacra
to Sixe Voyces/ was published in London in 1608.
Several fine motets olT his, full of expression and
beauty, have been published with EngliBh words
by Mr. Hullah in his Part Music, and nine in the
collection of the Motet Society ; and his madrinl
'Cynthia, thy song' is weU known. [£.H.P.]

CROCIATO IN EGITTO. IL, heroic opera
in two acts ; words by Rossi ; music by Meyer-
beer; produced at the Fenice, Venice, in 1S24,
and at the King^s Theatre, London, June 30,
1825. Velluti appeared in it, probably the last
ccutrato heard in London.

OBOFT (or, as he sometinies wrote his name.
Crofts), William, Mus. Doc., bom in 1677 at
Nether Eatington, Warwickshire, was one of the
children of ike Chapel Boyal under Ihr. Blow.
On the erection of an organ in the church of St.
Anne, Soho, Croft was appointed organist. On
July 7, 1 700, he was sworn in as a gentleman
extraordinary of the Chapel Royal, with the re-
version, jointly with Jeremiah Clark, of the first
vacant organist's place. On May 25, 1704, on
the death of Francis Piggott, Croft and Qark
were sworn in as joint organists, and on Clark*s
death in 1 707, Croft was sworn in to the whole
place. On the death of Dr. Blow in 1708 Croft
was appointed his successor as organist of West-
minster Abbey, and master of the children find
composer to the Chapel Koyal. It was in the
discharge of the duties of the latter office that
Croft produced, for the frequent public thanks-
givings for victories, etc., many of those noble
anthems which have gained him so distinguished
a place among EngUsh church composers. In
171 X he resigned his appointment at St. Anne's
in favour of John Isham, who had been his de-
puty for some years. In 1 71 2 he edited for his
firiend, Mr. (afterwards Sir John) Dolben, sub-
dean of the Chapel Boyal, a collection of the
words of anthems, to which he prefixed a brief
historiciJ aooount of English church music. On
July 9, 1 713* he took the degree of Doctor of
Music in the University of Oxford, his exercise
(performed on July 13) being two odes, one
in English, the other in Latin, on the Peace
of Utrecht ; these were afterwards engraved and
published umder the title of ' Musicus Apparatus
Academious.' In 171 5 Croft received an addition
of £80 per annum to his salary as master of the
children of the Chapel Ri^al for teaching the
childz^i veading, writing, and arithmetic, as well
as playing on the organ and oomposition. In
1734 Dr. Croft publid[ied in two folio volumes,
with a portrait of himself finely engraved by
Vertne, prefixed, Thirty Anthems and a Burial
Service of his composition, imder the title of



'Musioa Sacra.' In the pre&oe he states H to
be the first essay in printing church music in
that v^ay, 1. e. engraven in score on plates. Dr.
Croft died Aug. 14, 1727, and was buried in the
north aisle of Westminster Abbey, where a
monument is erected to his memory. His bio-
graphers commonly attribute his death to an ill-
ness contracted at the coronation of George II.
A glance at the dates will at once disprove this :
— Croft died Aug. 14, Ge<»ge II was crowned
Oct. 4, 1727. Croft in the earlier part of his
career composed for the theatre, and produced
overtures and act tunes for 'Courtship a la
mode,' 1700; 'The Funeral,* 1702 ; 'The Twin
Rivals,* 1703; and 'The Lying Lover,* 1704.
He also published sonatas for both violin and
flute. Numerous songs by him are to be found
in the collections of the period, and some odes
and other pieces are still extant in MS. Two
psalm tunes attributed to him, St. Ann*s and
St. Matthew*s, and a single chant in B minor, will
long Uve in the Anglican church, even after his
fine anthems have become obsolete. [W. H.H.]

CROOK (Fr. Corps de rechange; Germ. Ton;
Bogen), A name given to certain accessory pieces
of tubing applied to the mouthpiece of brass in-
struments for the purpose of altering the length of
the ti^be, and thus raising or lowering their pitch.
Since these instruments can only play one scale,
the sole method of enabling them to play another
is to transpose the fimdamental note, and this
is done by the crooks. The largest number of
crooks is required by the French horn, which is
occasionally written for in every key, firam the
treble B|] down to Ab in the bass octave.

The term is also applied to the S-shaped metal
tube connecting the body of the bassoon with the
reed (Fr. hooaU). [W. H. S.]

CROSDILL, John, was bom in London in
1751. He received his early musical education
in the choir of Westminster Abbey imder John
Robinson and Benjamin Cooke. Upon quitting
the choir he became a performer on the violon-
cello, and soon attained to considerable pro-
ficiency. In 1768 he became a member of the
Royal Society of Musicians, and in the following
year appeared at Gloucester, as principal violon-
cello at the meeting of the Three Choirs, a posi-
tion which he continued to occupy until his re-
tirement from his profession, with the exception
of the year 1778, when the younger Cervetto
filled his place, at Gloucester. In 76, on the
establishment of the Concert of Ancient Music,
Crosdill was appointed principal violoncello. In
77 he succeeded Peter GiBier as viollst of the
Chapel Royal, an appointment which soon became
a sinecure, but which he continued to hold imtil
his death. He also became a member of the
King's band of music, an office which he likewise
retained until his death. In 1782 he was ap-
pointed chamber musician to Queen Charlotte,
and about the same time taught the Prince of
Wales, afterwards George IV, to play the violon-
cello. In 84 he fill^ the post of principal
violoncello at the Commemoration of Handel.

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In 88, liaving married a lady of oonnderabld
fortune, he retired from the puUio exerciae of
his profession. In i8ai he resumed its duties
for one day, to play, as a member of the King's
band, at the coronation of George IV. F^tis
says that about 177a Crosdill visit^ Paris, where
he took lessons of the elder Janson; tiiat he
resided in Paris for some years, and played in
the orchestra of the 'Concerts dies Amateurs' at
the 'Logo Olympique'; and that he returned
to London about 1 780. But this account cannot
be correct as respects the dates, as we have seen
that Crosdill was engaged in England during the
greater part of the time mentioned by F^s.
His visit was probably in 1778-79 and occupied-
some months instead of some years. Crosdill
died in October 1825 at Eskiick, Yorkshire,
leaving all his property to his only son. Lieu-
tenant Colonel Crosdill, of the East India Com-
pany*s service, who, by his fetther^s desire, pre-
sented to the Boyal Society of Mu s ici an s the
munificent donation of 1000/. [W.H.H.]

CBOSS, Thokas, an engraver of music in the
latter part of the 1 7th and early part of the i8th
centuries. He resided in Catherine Wheel Court»
on the south side of Snow Hill, near Snow Hill
Conduit. At a time when printing by metal
types was the almost universally adopted means
mr placing music before the pubhc, he commenced
the issue of a long succession of single songs
en^ved on copper plates by the graver, and
prmted on one side only of the leaf, and led the
way to the general adoption of that method of
printing music. Henry Hall, organist of Here-
ford Cathedral, mentions him in some verses pre-
fixed to Dr. Blow's ' Amphion Anglicus,' 1700 ;

' While at the shops we daily dangling view
False concord by Tom Cross engraven true.'
And again in some lines prefixed to the second
book of Puroell's 'Orpheus Britannicus,' 170a ;

' Then honest Cross might copper cut in vain.'
It is probable that he engraved some of the
earlier publications of the elder Walsh.

Thomas Cboss, junior, his son, was a stamper
of music, and (according to Sir John Hawkins)
'stamped the plates of Geminiani's Solos and
a few other publications, but in a very homely
and illegible character, of which he was so littie
conscious that he set his name to everything he
did, even to sinffle songs.' He pobably bore
in mind his fatner's superscription, 'Exactiy
engraved by T. Cross.' [W.H.H.J

CBOSSE, John, a native of, and resident in,
Hull, published in 1835 a large quarto volume
entitied 'An Account of the Grand Musical Festi-
val held in September, i8a^ in the Cathedral
Church of York, ... to which is prefixed a
Sketch of the rise and progress of Musical Festi-
vals in Great Britain, with biographical and
historical notes' — an admirably executed work,
replete with valuable and useful information.
He died in 1829. [W.H.H.]

CBOTCH, WiLLiAif, Mas. Doc., was bom at
Korwioh, July 5, 1775. ^^ &ther, a master


carpenter, who combined a taste for music ind
mechanics, had constructed for himself a nnU
organ. When littie more than two years old the
child evinced a strong desire to get to this in-
strument, and being placed b^ore it, contrived
shortiy to play something like the tune of '6«1,
save the ^ng,' which he soon was able to pbj
with its bass, and other tunes. His ear was re-
markably sensitive, and readilv distinguished any
note when struck, or detected fitulty intonstioD.
The Hon. Daines Baixington, a weU-knovn
amateur, published an interesting account of
him, and Dr. Bumey communicated to the Boyal
Society an account, which was printed in the
Philosophical Transactions for 1779. In the
spring of 1 780 the child was brought to London,
and performed in public on the organ. Besidei
his musical ability he displayed considerate skill
in drawing, to which art he remained attadied
through me^ and attained to much eminence in
it. In 1786 Crotch went to Cambridge, and
remained there about two vears as assistant to
Dr. Randall, the Professor of Music, and oigaiuit
of Trinity and King's Collies, and Great St.
Mary's Church. At fourteen years of age he
composed an oratorio, 'The Captivity of Judah,'
which was performed at Trmitv Hall, Cam-
bridge, June 4, 1789. In 1788 he removed to
Oxford, where he studied, under the patroiuige
of the Rev. A. C. Schombeig, of Magdalen Cd*
lege, with a view of entering the church. His
patron dying, he resumed the profession of music,
and in September, 1790, was appointed, on the
death of Thomas Noriis, organist of Chiirt
Church. On June 5, 1794, he graduated ai
Bachelor of Music. In March, 1797, he sno-
oeeded Dr. Philip Hayes, deceased, a» orffanist of
St*. John's College, and ProfessOT of Music in the
University. On Nov. ii, 1799, he proceeded
Doctor of Music, composing as his exerdse Dr.
Joseph Warton's 'Ode to Fancy,* the score of
whidi he afterwards published. From 1800 to
1804 he delivered lectures in the Music School
In 181 a he produced his oratorio 'Palestine,'
which was received with great favour, and abo
published a treatise on the ' Elements of Musical
Composition.' About i8ao he was aroointed
music lecturer at the Royal Institution, London,
and on the establishment of the Roval Academy
of Music in i8aa was placed at its head as prin-
cipal. On June 10, 1834, he produced at Ox-
ford, on the installation of the Duke of WeUii^
ton as Chancellor, an oratorio, 'The Captivity of
Judah,' wholly di£Perent from his juvuiile work
bearing the same titie.^ On June a8 in the sams
year he made his last public appearance as a
performer, by acting as organist for part of tiw
third day^s performance at the Rojnfd Musical
Festival in Westminster Abbey. Dr. Crotch
died at Taunton at the house of his son, the Rev.
WilliamRobert Crotch, then Head Master of the
Grammar School there, where he had for some time
resided, while seated at dinner, Decao, 1847, and
wasinterred in the neighbouringchurchof ^siicp'f
Hull, where a monumental inscription is plaosd

1 The MB. It now OSTO ta poMMdoa of tht B«r. Btr F. Oo^Ur. But

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tohismemoiy. Besides the works above ipeoified,
Dr. Crotoh produced ' Ten Anthems,* some ohants,
a motet, * Methinks I hear ' ; several glees ;
. some fugues and concertos for the organ ; several
pianoforte pieces; an ode on the accession of
6eoi!ge lY, performed at Oxford, i8ao ; Funeral
Anthem for the Duke of York, 1827; *The Lord
is King/ anthem for voices and orchestra, 1843 ;
and some works on Thorough Bass and Harmony.
He also published * Specimens of various styles
of Music referred to m a course of Lectures on
Music read at Oxford and Iiondon,* and in 1 831
the ' Substance of several courses of Lectures on
Music read at Oxford and in the MetropoUs.' As
a teacher he enjoyed a high and deserved repu-
tation. [W.RH.]
CROTCHET, a note which is half the value
of a minimi and twio^ that of a quaver, and is
represented thus f. The origin of the name is
not known. It is apparently derived from the
French eroehe ; but crodie is a quaver, ^, and is
so called on account of the hook at the end of its
tail, whereas a crotchet has no hook. The French
name for this note is noirCf the Italian, Bemi-
tiUfUma, and the German Viertel, *a quarter *«•
i.e. of a semi-breve. The French call a crochet
rest, r, by the pretty name of un toupir. [G-.]

CROUCH, F. NiOHOLLS, a composer of songs
and ballads during the second quarter of the
present century, was the author of many pro-
ductions which gained great popularity, and one
— 'Kathleen Mavoumeen' — which stiU retains
its place in public favour. He quitted England
about the year 1845 and went to America, where,
it is believed, he is still living. [W. H. H.]

CROUCH, Mbs. Anna Mabia, bom April
20, 1 763, was the daughter of Peregrine Philhps,
a BoUcitcnr. Being gifted with a remarkably
sweet voice Miss Phillips was at an early age
placed under the instruction of a music-master
named Wafer, and some time afterwards was
articled to Thomas lonley, under whose auspices
she made her appearance in the winter of 1780,
at Drury Lane Theatre, as Mandane in Dr.
Ame*s ' Ajrtaxerxes.* Her success was great,
and for upwards of twenty years she held a high
place in public esteem, boUi aractress and singer.
Early in 1 785 she married Mr. Crouch, a lieutenant
in the navy, but after an union of about seven
years the parties separated by mutual consent.
About 1800 Mrs. Crouch's health became im-
paired, she withdrew from public life, and died
at ftighton, Oct. 2, 1805. [W.H.H.]

version of Auber's opera 'Les Diamans de la
Couronne' ; produced at the Princess's Theatre,
London, May 2, 1844, Jdme. Anna Thillon as

CROZIER, William. A few words are due to
the memory of this oboe player, whose tone and
exquisite taate will not soon be forgotten by those
who heard him in the Crystal Palace orchestra and
elsewhere. He learned the oboe from Barret;
joined the C. P. orchestra 1855 ; appeared. at the



Philharmonic Feb. 29, 1864. He died in harness
at Upper Norwood, Deo. 20, 1870. [6.]

CRt^GER, JoHANK, bom April 9, 1598, at
Gross-Breese near Guben in Prussia, educated
chieflv at the Jesuit college of Olmiitz, at the
school of poetry at Regensburg, and the uni-
versity of Wittenberg; in 1622 was appointed
cantor at the church of St. Niodaus at Berlin,
a post which he retained till his death in 1662.
His reputation in his own day both as an author
and composer was great, but he is now chiefly
known as the composer of some of the most
&vourite chorales. The best-known of them are
'Nun danket alle Gk»tt* ; 'Jesu mdne Zuver-
sicht*; 'Jesu meine Freude' ; and *Schmtlcke
dich O liebe Seele.' They were published under
the title ' Praxis pietatis mdica, oder Kirchen-
melodien ttber D. Luthers und Anderer GMUige,'
for four voices and two instruments (Leipsic,
1649). This work has passed through in-
numerable editions ; the 30th bears date Berlin
1703. He also composed many concertos and
motets which no longer exist. Other works have
been preserved; they are 'Meditationum musica-
rum Paradisus primus, oder Erstes musikaliBches
Lust-Gartlein,' in throe and four parts (Frank-
fort, 1622); and *Med. mus. Parad. secundus'
(Berlin, 1626) ; a collection of new Magnificats
in German, in two and eight part harmony,
arranged in all the eight tones. Also 'Re-
creationes musicae, das ut neue poetische Amo-
r^sen' (Leipsic, 165 1), contaimng 33 pieces.
Among his theoretical works may be mentioned
(i) 'SynopOB musices,' a method for thorough-
bass (Berlin, 1624)— the third edition (Berlin,
1634) has a different title ; (2) ' Preoeptae musi-
cae practicae figuralis* (1625), also published in
a CrOTman form as 'Rechter Weg sur Singekunst'
(Berlin, 1660) ; (3) 'Quaestiones musicae practi-
cae' (Berlin, 1650). [A. M.]

CRUVELLI, Jbannb Sophib Chablottb,
whose family-name was Cruwell, was bom March
1 2, 1 8 26, at Bielefeld in Westphalia. Her &ther
was fond of music, and played the tnmibone
tolerably. Her mother, had a fine contralto
voice, and sang with expression. She had a
voice of admiAble quality, compass, and truth,
but did not receive the instruction which should
have developed its advantages, and enabled her
to avoid those faults and imperfections which
are inevitable without it. She made her d^ut
at Venice in 1847, and the beauty of her voice
ensured her a brilliant success, wnich was con-
firmed when she sang in Verdi's ' Attila' at the
theatre of Udine on July 24, and in 'I Due
Foecari.* Coming now to London, in the heieht
of her fiune* she Italianised her name, and be-
came known as Cruvelli, on her appearance in
* Le Nozze di Figaro,' and ever after. The r6U
of tiie Countess was not suited to her fiery style,
nor was the comparison between her and Jenny
Lind, who plaved Susanna, to her advantage.
After tibis partial fidlure, she returned to Itiuy,

Online LibraryJohn Alexander Fuller-Maitland Sir George GroveA Dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889): with ..., Volume 1 → online text (page 98 of 181)