John Alexander Fuller-Maitland Sir George Grove.

A Dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889): with ..., Volume 2 online

. (page 159 of 180)
Online LibraryJohn Alexander Fuller-Maitland Sir George GroveA Dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889): with ..., Volume 2 → online text (page 159 of 180)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


Pavans were still popular, although not as much
danced as formerly.' At state baUs the dancers
wore their long robes, caps, and swords, and the
music was p^ormed by sackbuts and oboes.
In masquerades, Pavans were played as proces-
sional music, and were similarly used at weddings
and religious ceremonies. Like all early dances,
the Pavan was originally sung as well as danced,
and Tabourot gives the following example for 4

I In the CMnbrldge VnlTertlty LIbniy Is a 1I& rolume of aln and
dukom (In Lut« Tabiaturs) bf Oowland and Uolboraa In \thleh there
oocun a ' PadoTana da la Mllaneua.*

* Pantafruel. Bk. ▼. published ISA

> B^sard. In Uie FrafMo to bU 'Tbetaunu Harmonlciu Dlrlnl
Lanrendnl Bomanl' (Oologne. 1606). after praising tb« sweetnMS and
eiotanqr of tha Knf lisb miule of hit daj. makas parttcalar mantlon
of the Pvmm, adding that the word 'Parana' k nothing elM than
the Italian * Paduana.' Ho also menUons that the Fnmch often call
their PaMom e a w , rarans.



PAVAN.

yoloet. aooompanied throughout by the dram on
one note ^ J J •

Pcntane d quatre parties.




dans tea 7«alx> Qa> m'M Ptt-aiom- ol-e d*im




ionbf-rls gra-d • tiuc. Vlenitoet me sa - ooa • tir




flrald -» moa • ilr yiens toet na m • ooa •

J.J J, ^^^ J ^




a The treUa siBfli D, tbe alto r.



Sir John Davies, in his 'Orchestra* (1596) h&s
the following curious yerses, in which the mo-
tions of the sun and the moon are compared to
dancers of Pavans and Galliards :

* For that braae Sonne the Father of the Bsy,
Doth lone this Earth, the Mother of the Ni^t;
And like a reneUotir in rich arrar,
- lie



Doth daanoe his galliftrd in his lemmsn's tight.
Both hack, and forth, and sidewaiee, pasdng light*
* Who dottj not see the measnreg of the Moone,
Which thirteene times she dannceth enerj yearet
And ends her paulne thirteene times as aoooe
As doth her brother.*

There are numerous specimens extant of Pavaos
by instrumental composers of the i6th and 17th
centuries, and in almost every case the Pavan
is followed by a Galliard, the two thus anti-
cipating the Saraband and Gigue of the later
Suite. Thus Morley ('Introduction,* Part 3) after
speaking of Fantaisies, says, ' The next in grauity
and goodnes vnto this is called a pauane, a
kind of staide musicke, ordained ror grane
dauncing, and most commonlie made of three
straines, whereof euerie straise is plaid or sung



Digitized by



Google



PAVAN.

twice, a ttraine they make to containe 8, 13, or
16 semibreues as they list, yet fewer then eight
I haae not seene in any pauan. . . . After
enery pauan we vsually set a galliard.* And
Butler (' Principles of Music,* 1636), speaking of
the Doric mode, has the following : — ' Of this
sort are Pavins, invented for a slow and soft
kind of Dancing, altogether in duple Proportion.
Unto which are fram^ Qalliards for more quick
and nimble motion, always in triple proportion,
and therefore the triple is oft called Galliard-
time and the duple, Pavin-time/ Amongst the
best known of wese forerunners of the Suite,
we may mention John Dowland's *Lachrymae
or Seauen Teares, figured in seauen passionate
Pauans with diuers other Pauans, Galliards, and
Almands* (1605) ; and JohannGhro's 30 Pavans
and Galliiffds 'nach teutscher art geeetzet*
(1604).

The Spanish Pavan, a variety of the original
danoe which came from Spain (where it was
called the Grand Dance), was of a more elaborate
character than the ori^^ial. Judging from the
frequent occurrence of its air in the early English
Lute and Virginal Books, it must have become
very popular in England.* The following is the
tone which Tabouret gives for it: it is not the
same as that which is found in the English books.



PEACE.



677



[W.B.S.]

PAXTON, Stephen, a composer of vocal
music in the latter part of the i8th centuiy,
produced several graceful and elegant glees, 9
of which, with a catches, are printed in Warren s
Collections. The Catch Club awarded him prizes
for the following glees ; ' How sweet, how fresh,*
1779; * Bound the hapless Andre's nm,' 1781;
' Blest Power,' 1 784 ; and * Come, O come,' 1 785 ;
and for a catch, 'Ye Muses, inspire me,* 1783.
He published 'A Collection of two Songs, Glees
and two Catches,* and ' A Collection of Glees.'
Two masses by him are printed in Webbe's Col-
lection. He died in 1787.

His brother, William, was a violoncellist, who
composed several sets of solos and duets for his
instruknent. He gained prizes from the Catch
Club for 2 canons, * O Lord in Thee,* 1 779, and
* O Israel, trust in the Lord,* 1780. He died in
1781. [W.H.H.]

PEABODY CONCERTS, given under the
auspices of the Conservatory of Music of the Pea-
body Institute, Baltimore, Maryland. Beginning
in 1865, eight concerts have been given everv
season, each being preceded by a public rehearsal
the director of the Conservatory officiating as

' In SUrter^ 'Vrlecehe Lost Hof*a034). It Is caUed 'Engebche
itxAttaseoda Dtum LrauleMtjn.'



condnctor. The programmes have been made
up of symphonies, suites, overtures, concertos and
vocal solos, nearly everything presented being of
classic in style. Many important compositions
have been performed for the first time in America
in the course of these concerts. Under Mr. Asger
Hamerik*s direction (sinoe 187 1) especial atten-
tion has been given to the production of works
by American, English and Scandinavian com-
posers. The orchestra has generally included 50
musicians. The institution elicited the warm
approbation of Von Btilow (1875-76) for its
exceptionally fine performances. [See ' Peabody
Institute,* under United Statkb.j [F. H. J.J
^ PEACE, Albebt Listeb, Mus. Doc., is a na-
tive of Huddersfield. He exhibited in his child-
hood precocity hardly exceeded by that of Crotch
or even Mozart ; naming with unerring accuracy
individual notes and combinations of notes when
sounded, before attaining his fifth year. At the
age of nine he was appointed organist of the
parish church of Holmfirth, and subsequently of
other churches in that neighbourhood. In 1866,
at the age of ai, he removed to Glasgow, to fill
the office of organist to Trinity Congregational
church, and soon afterwards, along with other
posts, that of organist to the University. In
1870 he graduate as Bachelor, and in 1875 as
Doctor of Music in the University of Oxford.

Dr. Peace is one of a school of organists which
has come into existence in this country only
within the last half oentuiy, and which may be
said to owe that existence to the late S. S.
Wesley. Its distinguishing characteristic may
be said to be the employment of the feet <u a
third liand, concurrently with the extension of
the pedal-board downwards, firom G to C below
it, and also upwards, to the £ or F, two octaves
and a third or fourth above it. This extension
enables the performer to lay out harmonies after
the manner of the ' harmonic chord,' in which
the largest intervals are found between the lowest
notes. More than this, it has brought within his
reach, what on the old G pedal-board was ob-
viously outside it, the organ compontions of J.
S. Badi and his schooL Fifty vears ago, or even
later, there were probably not half a dozen Eng-
lishmen who could have played one of the Organ
Fugues of that great master; certainly there
were not as many organs on which they could
have been played.' Both C organs and plavers
competent to use them may now be reckoned by
hundreds. Of this school of performers Dr. Peace
is one of the most distinguished members living.
His mechanical powers enable him not merely
to deal with everything as yet written expressly
for his instrument, but to reaUse upon it compo-
sitions designed for aU the combinations of the
modem orchestra. This he does with unsur^
passed taste and readiness. Dr. Peace's published

* In the prognmiiM* of Um nomeroiu organ redtali of the tete
Thomas Adams, the ortAnUt par €»eMmea of the flnt Imlf of
thU centnrr. tt It highly probable. If not certain, that no one of theee
eompoettkms em- appeared. One of Adams'a moet &Toarite tbow
pieces was the Fugue in D In the lat book of the ■ Well-tempered
Clavier.' But this-though Vendelssohn also played i»-it not one of
I Baeh's p«da^ftafa«s.



Digitized by



Google



67S



P£AGE«



compoflitioAS M6 for the most part eonnected
with t&e Servioe of the Church of England.
They form however bat a mnall portion of those
still in MS., among which may be espeoially
mentioned a letting of the 138th Psalm, and a
cantata 'The Narrative of John the Baptist,'
composed respectively for his degrees as Bachelor
and Doctor of Music. On the recent completion
of the new organ at Glasgow Cathedral — an in-
strument by Willis embracing all the most recent
improvements in the organ-builder's art — Dr.
Peace was appointed organist there. On this and
on the oigan, by Lewis, at the Glasgow New
Music HaU, and on various instruments in dif-
ferent parts of England and Scotland, Dr. Peace is
a frequent and most popular performer. [J.H.]
PEABS AliL, BoBBRT Lucas, bom at Clifton,
March 14, 1795, of an old Gloucestershire family.
He showed much talent for poetry and music at
an earlv age, but was educated for the bar, to
which he was called in 182 1, and at which he
practised till 1825. He then left England for
the continent^ and after some time settled at
Mavence, where, during four years he took a
brilliant part in literary, artistic, and archieo-
logical life, including music, in which he was the
pupil of Panny, whose instructions in composition
he pursued ^th characteristic ardour. In 1829
he returned to England, but after a year went
back to the Continent and settled with his fiunily
at Carlsruhe, he resuming his intellectual pur-
suits, and composing and practising much music.
The next few years were spent in travelling to
Munich, Vienna, Nurember;^, and other towns,
for musical and archsdological purposes. In 1836
he revisited England, and heanng, apparentiy
for the first time, some madrigals sung at London
and Bristol, was so much inflamed by this new
experience as to write a treatise on that style of
music, which he published in Germany. A year
later he sold his family property of Willsbridge,
and again quitted England for Wartensee, on uie
Lake of Constance, where he purchased the castie.
In 1847 he returned for a cuiort visit, and then
left his native countnr for the last time. Thence-
forward till his deam, Aug. 5, 1856, he resided
at his castie en grand seigneur, eager to the
last on all intellectual and artistic subjects,
bat especially on music. He wrote a great
number of psalms, motets, anthems, and other
church music, amongst them a Kequiem, on
which he set much store, treatises on munic, anrl
a 'Catholisches G^sangbuch' (1863), founded on
that of St. Gall, and still muse. The bulk of this
is however still in MS. His published works con-
tain 47 Choral Songs and Madrigals, for 4, 5, 6,
8, and 10 voices, including ' The Hardy Norse-
man,' and 'Oh, who will o'er the downs so free* —
the fresh and spirited strains of which will keep
Pearsall's memory green for many a long year
among the part-singers of England. But besides
these well-known songs the collection embraces
madrigals such as 'Great God of Love,* and
' Lay a garland,' both for 8 voices, which may
be pronounced to be amongst the most melo-
dious and pure specimens of 8-part writing



PEDAL POINT.

ever penned by an Englishman, and oeriun id
be popular abroad if published there.

In the latter part of his life Pearsall was re-
ceived into the Boman Catholic Church, and he
added a * de * to his name, calling himself De
PearsaU. Had he made music his exclusive
pursuit there is litUe doubt he would have risen
to a very high rank. [G.]

PEDALIEB. (i) A pedal keyboard attached
to a pianoforte, and acting by connection with its
mechanism upon the hammers and strings proper
to it; or (a) an independent bass pianoforte so
called by its inventors, Messrs. Pleyd, Wolff
& C* of Paris, to be played by pedals only, and
used with an ordinary pianoforte. J. S. Bach
had a harpsichord with two rows of keys and
pedals, upon which be played his trios, and for
which he transcribed VivsJdfs string concartoa,
and composed the fomous Pnssacaille in C min<u'.
Since Bach many clavecinists and pianists have
had their instruments fitted with rows of pedals,
and compositions have been specially wptten — as,
for instance, by Schumann, who wrote several
* Studien ' and * Skizzen * (op. 56 and 58) for the
Pedal-Flilgel or Pedalier Grand Pianoforte. C.
y. Alkan, a French composer, has also written
some noble works for this instrument, which,
together with the above-mentioned transcriptions
by Bach, were brought before the notioe of the
London musical public in 1871 by Monsieur
£. M. Delaborde of Paris, an eminent pianist
and remarkable pedalist, in his performance at
the Hanover Square Booms, upKm a Pedalier
Grand Piano specially constructed for him by
Messrs. Broadwood. [A. J. H.J

PEDAL POINT, or Point cTorgue, in Harmony
is the sustaining of a note by one part whilst
the other parts proceed in independent harmony,
and is subject to the following strict laws: (i)
The sustained note must be either the Tonic or
Dominant of the key ; (2) ConsequenUy the other
parts must not modulate ; (3) The sustained, or
pedal note, when first sounded or finally quitted,
must form part of the harmony.

The mere sustaining of a note or a chord
against one or more moving parts does not con*
stitute a pedal : as in the following examples from
Beethoven-
Ex.!. • Op.2,No.S.




nor does the simple sustaining of a note through
harmonies to which it is common ; though this is



Digitized by



Google



1»EDAL POINT.

tlie true origin of Pedal, as we shall presently
see. Example from the Mass known as ' Mozart
No. 13'—



PEDAL POINT.



679




A^^UAllJ ij




These remarks also apply to the long drum-
passage in the middle of the first movement of
Beethoven's 4th Symphony, and in Wagner's
Prelude to ' Das Rheingold.' both of which are
sometimes spoken of^as Pedals, but which are
merely cases of a long sustained note or chord.
In a true pedal the hiumony must be independent
of the sustained note and occasionally alien to
it, as for example the grand instance in the
* Cum sancto spiritu ' of the above Mass, which
begins thus : —




and increases in development for 13 bars more,
forming as fine a specimen of true Pedal as can
be quoted.

The rule that the Pedal-note must be either
the Tonic or Dominant would seem to point to the
Drone as its origin. This Drone, or sustaining
of the kejmote as an accompaniment, is probably
the very oldest form of harmony, though it may
not have been considered as sudi at all, having
no doubt originated in the mere imperfection of
ancient instruments, the persistent sounding of
a drum or pipe with one note against the in-
flected chant of voices, etc. Among the first
rude specimens of harmony given by Guido in
the ' Micrologus ' is the following : —

Ex.5.



B y •, ■







-m-


— »<-


^-a — ^


t=SZ


-w-H


^^ — n — =

Ho-mo





- nx


In


Je •


ru -


- Hi -


lem.


S?WNNWWWWWM)K iMzM



But it is probable that all such Drones, even
down to their high development in the bagpipe
and hurdygurdy, rested on no theoretical basis,
but were of accidental origin. Looked at in the
light of modem knowledge, however, we see
in the drone an unconscious groping after the
truth of the Harmonic Scale, on which all modern
harmony rests. We now perceive that either
the Tonic or Dominant, or even both together,
may with perfect propriety be sounded through
any Tonic, Dominant, or Supertonic harmonies,
sinoe these must always oonsist of harmonics



generated by the Tonic or t^ harmonics, and
the generator is therefore always a true bass.

But to leave theory and come to practice, it is
to be observed that in the contrapuntal music of
the 1 6th century the desire for some relief to
note-against-note counterpoint gave rise to the
sustaining of a note in one part so long as the
others could be brought to sound consonant with
it, and thus the &ct of a Dominant forced itself
Itatb notice. The following two examples from
Palestrina show how the idea of a long sustained
note as a climax or warning of a conclusion was
at this time growing.

Ex.6.







The second of these is especially curious, as being
a real and perfectly modem-sounding Dominant
Pedal.

With the development of Fugue and the in-
troduction of discords the Pedal, as a means of
climax, grew in importance, and in the works of
Bach and Handel we find it an almost indis-
pensable adjunct to a Fugue. The single speci-
men from Bach which space allows of our quoting
is interesting fi*om the boldness with which the
composer has seized the idea of making a Pedal
which shall be first a Tonic, then a Dominant,
and then a Tonic again. In the Prelude to the
grreat Organ Fugue in A minor there is a very
long Pedal, which after 4 bars modulates thus —

Ex.8.




and after 5 bars more modulates back again.
There is nothing contrary to rule here, as the
Pedal is always either Tonic or Dominant, but
it is none the less a precedent for modulation on
a Pedal.

A curious example of apparent modulation on
a Pedal is to be observed in the concluding bars
of a Dominant Pedal which joins the first and
second subjects of the ist movement of Chopin's
B minor Sonata —



Digitized by



Google



680



PEDAL POINT.




^^r^Hj



In the fourth bar of this quotation we seem to
have got into a Dominant seventh of Ol], but
this is not really the case, the Clj being, as be-
fore, an appoggiatura over Bb, the Dominant
minor nlntn of A, and the real third (C$) being
ingeniously omitted in order to carry out the
delusion. Not till the very last group of semi-
quavers are we undeceived.

A Pedal may occur in either an upper, middle,
or lower part, but it is easy to understand from
its nature that it is most effective as a bass, the
clumsy name of 'inverted Pedal * applied to it in
any but this position, seeming to stamp it as un-
natural. The Trio of the Scherzo in Beethoven's
9th Symphony offers a good example of a Pedal
taken in all poeiUons.

Being apparently alien to the harmony, it is
always desirable that the Pedal should lie far
removed from the other parts, which is impossible
when it occurs in a middle part. Even in
orchestral compositions, where the Trumpets and
Horns are frequently, from their nature, employed
on a middle Pedal, much harshness results,
although the pedal stands out in relief through
contrast of timbre. Thus the following passage in
Grieg^s Pianoforte Concerto sounds very strange,
though really it is quite simple :



Ex.10.




In the duet in the first Act of Bizet's 'Carmen/
however, a concealed tonic Pedal in a middle



PEDAL POINT.

part is productive of novel and charming har-
monious effect : —




Here, on dissecting the arpeggios of the accom-
paniment, the Bb IS seen to be a Pedal, though
not sustained.

This brings us to 'figured' or 'florid' PedaL
The Pedal note need not be merely sustained or
reiterated, but may bear any ornamental figure,
varying firom a simple alternation with the note
next above or below (as in countless ' spinning-
wheel * pieces), to a scale passage or figure of any
extent, provided this do not suggest harmony of
itself. Thus in Beethoven we find



Ex. IS.




and many similar passages (Finale of Symphony
in A, etc.) of striking effect : whereas the fol-
lowing, from Wagner, is harsh, frt>m the clashing
of Tonic and Dominant harmonies :



Ex.18.




When both Tonic and Dominant are simul-
taneously sustained we have a Double Pedal, an
effect much used in modem music to convey ideas
of a quaint or pastoral character, frt>m its suggest-
ing tne drone of a bagpipe. This is a very ordinary
form of accompaniment to the popular songs and
dances of almost all countries, and is so constantly
to be found in the works of Grounod, (^Ihopin, and
Grieg as to form a mannerism. Beethoven has
produced a never-to-be-forgotten effect just be-
fore the Finale of the C minor Symphony by the
simple yet unique device of placing, in his long
double Pedal, the Dominant under the Tonic
instead of above, as is usual. This passage
stands absolutely alone as a specimen of Pedal.

Several modem composers have attempted a
Triple Pedal — that is, the sustaining of the Tonic,
the Dominant, and its Dominant (major ninth of
Tonic). Especially noteworthy in this respect
is the passage of 30 bars opening the Finale of
Lalo's Spanish Symphony. All such attempts
are futile, however, as tiie three notes form a
harmony of themselves and preclude the possi-
bility of being treated as a Pedal. The fact is
to be strongly insisted on that only the Tonic



Digitized by



Google



PEDAL POINT.

vid Dominant can he Pedals. The famous
passage in the * Eroica ' Symphony
Ex.14.



PEDALS.



681




may be thought exquisite by some, and a mere
blunder by others, but it is not a Pedal, or any-
thing else that Harmony has a name for. But
what then is to be said for the following extra-
ordinary passage in Grieg's song ' Ausfahrt' t



m



-aJULjL-JLA •



Is the Db here a Pedal? If so, the passage might
be cited as a possible quadruple Pedal, for £b
and a low Ab might be added to the bass with-
out bad effect. The true explanation — namely,
that here we have no pedal at all, bat a melody
in double notes moving against one continued
harmony — ^will hardly be accepted by every one,
and the passage must stand as a remarkable
exception to rule.

Beginning with Schumann we find that modem
composers have all striven to invent new Pedal
effects by breaking one or other of the three
governing laws. Li Schumann's 'Humoreske'
occurs the following typical passage —



Be. 10.

r^H» — ■


fl53,^ f-p A,




3ij .r ML^


^^f^^


'— »-M Las GBa


m-^ — ^j'lj ' -—ff-''f—\


H^ '


^r r



where, on a sustained F we modulate from Bb
into C minor, D minor, E minor, and F major,
"uocessivelv. Schumann frequently on a Tonic
Pedal modulates into the relative minor, as in
the Trio of the Scherzo in the Eb Symphony, etc. ;




but such harmony being open to another explana-
tion than • pedal the law remains in force. Raff
goes still fiurther. In the slow movement of his
Spring Symphony he modulates through numerous
keys for a roace of 40 bars, always contriving
that a high 6 may be sounded on the first beat
of each bar with some bearable degree of concord.
Again, the following passage from the last move-
ment of the same composer's Forest Symphony

M7.




which is so &r a pedal passage— he repeats in
Bb, Db, and G, still with the F in the bass,
producing an effect which is certainly novel, if
nothing else.

The only point remaining to be noticed is that
our 3rd rule, forbidding motion to or from the
pedal note when it does not form part of the
harmony, has been occasionally violated without
unpleasing effect. In Hiller's Ft minor Piano
Concerto, the following occurs on each repetition
of the main subject




Spohr has used the Pedal perhaps with greater
frequency than any composer, but his mode of
treatment is invariable and calls for no notice.

Songs and short pieces have been occasionally
written entirely on a Pedal bass ; and the longest
Pedal extant is perhaps the introduction to Wag-
ner's opera * Die Walktlre.' [F. C]

PEDALS (from pes, pedis, a foot). Certaip
appliances in the Organ, Pianoforte, and Harp,
worked by the feet.

I. In the Organ they are keys, sounding notes,
and played by the feet instead of the hands;
and the Pedal -board is the whole breadth
or range of such keys. When pedals were first
applied to English organs — towards the end of
the last century — they were made (in the words
of an old treatise) to * drag down ' the manual
keys; and the lowest pedal was always placed
exactly below the lowest manual key. And as,
in the organs of the time, the manuals of one
would descend to GG with short octaves, of
a second to the same note with long octaves,
of a third to FFF, of a fourth to CCC, while
those of a fifth would stop at the orthodox CC
key; and as one oi^an would have an octave
of pedals, a second an octave and a half, and a
third two, it was quite possible to go to half
a dozen organs in succession without finding
any two with the pedals alike, either in position



Online LibraryJohn Alexander Fuller-Maitland Sir George GroveA Dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889): with ..., Volume 2 → online text (page 159 of 180)