John Alexander Fuller-Maitland Sir George Grove.

A Dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889): with ..., Volume 2 online

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citor de' propri afietti' was printed in Bologna in
1687, and performed mider his own direction in
the palace of Count Francesco Gaprara.^ F^tis,
followed by Mendel, speaks of his relations with
the German Emperors Leopold and Carl VI,
bat the writer of this article has fSedled to dis-
cover any documentary evidence to support the
assertion that he was made Gapellmeister by the
Emperor Leopold, and Hofrath by Carl VI. In
Kochel*s Life of Fux, the most trustworthy book
on the period, no mention is to be found of Gia-
como Perti in connection with the court; the
only instance of the name being Antonio Perti,
a bnss-einger in the Hofcapelle. It is moreover
beyond a doubt that Perti was Maestro di cappella
of San Petronio in Bologna, and retained the post
till his death, April 10, 1 756. Gerber states that
a Te Deum of Perti's was sung under his own
direction in Vienna, on the relief of the Turkish
siege in 1683, but this must be a mistake, as Perti
had then not made his name, and was scarcely
known beyond Bologna. He was elected a mem-
ber of the Filarmonici on March 1 3, 1681, and at
the time of his death had been * Principe * six
times. Among his friends was Pope- Bienedict
XIV, with whom he kept up a close corre-
spondence. Another friend was Padre Martini,
who states in his ' Saggio di Contrapunto * (ii.
142) that he held communications on musical
subjects with Perti down to 1750. Besides
* Abramo' he printed in Bologna *Cantate morali
e spiritual! ' (1688), and ' Messe e Salmi concer-
^ti' (1735). Abbate Santini had a fine colleo-
tion of Perti's church works (4 masses, 3 Con-
fitebors, 4 Magnificats, etc.), unfortunately now
dispersed. His ' Elogio ' was pronounced before
the Filarmonici by Dr. Masini in 181 a, and
printed in Bolog^na. There is an < Adoramus Te'
by Perti in the Fitzwilliam Library, Cambridge,
and Novello has included two fine choruECS by
him in his * Sacred Music' (vol. ii) and *Mo-
tetts* (bk. xi). Others are given by Choron,
and in the 'Auswabl fur vorzUglicher Musik-
werke.' [P.G.]

PESANTB, • heavy.' This direction is as a
nile only applied to music for keyed instruments,
though some writers have transferred it to orches-
tral, or even vocal music. It indicates that the
whole passage to which it refers is to be played
with great firmness and in a marked nuumer. It
differs frt>m marccUo, however, in that it applies
to whole passages, which may be quite legato at

1 OliieUl'a ' BtbUot«oft roltnte.' Scanzto xlr.



the same time ; while mareato refers to single
notes or isolated groups of notes, whidi would
not as a rule be intended to be played smoothly.
A good example is the opening passage, or
introduction, to the 1st Ballade of Chopin (in
G minor, op. 23). [J.A.F.M.]

PESCHKA, MiKKA, nie Lbtttkxb, was bom
Oct. as, i83p, at Vienna. She received instruc-
tion in singmg from Heinrich Proch, and made
her cUbtU on the stage at Breslau, in 1856, as
Agatha, and afterwards played Alice, remaining
there a year. She next played at Dessau up to
the time of her marriage with Dr. Peschka of
Vienna, in 186 x. In Sept. 1863 she appeared at
Vienna with great success as Margaret of Valois,
Isabel, etc» and afterwards received further in-
struction from Mme. Bockholtz Falcon!. She
next appeared at Lemberg and Darmstadt, and in
1868 at Leipzig, where she remained untfl 1876.
She gained great popularity there both in opera
and concert^ being equally successful both in
serious and the lighter operatic parts. In 1877
she went to Hamburg, where she is at present
engaged. In 1879 she reappeared at Leipzig for
a diort operatic season under Herr Julius Hoff-
mann, and played with great success the title part
of H^del's • Almira,' on the revival of that opera.
She is at present (Julv 1880) fulfilling an engage-
ment there under tne same manager. Mme.
Peschka-Leutner visited England in 187a, sang
(March .26) at the Philhannonic, and at the
Crystal Palace, «nd was well received at both
concerts. In the autumn of that year she went
to America, and sang at the Boston Festival with
very great success. Her voice, a soprano of great
volume, and extraordinary compass and agility,
her good execution combined with good acting,
and her agreeable appearance, have made her
very popular in the principal cities of her own
country, where she is an established favourite
at festivals and concerts, as well as on the
stage. [A.C.]

PETER, ST. An oratorio in two parts ; the
words by Mr. Chorley, the music by Sir Julius
Benedict. Produced at the Birmingham Festi-
val, Sept. a, 1870. [G.]

PETERS, Carl Friedrich, bought in 1 814
the * Bureau de Musique ' of Kiihnel and Hoff-
meister (founded 1800) in Leipzig, and greatly
improved the business. Many important works
by Bach, Haydn, Beethoven, Spohr, and Schu-
mann, were published by him, besides the first
complete editions of the works of Haydn and
Bach (the latter edited by Dehn, Roitzsch, and
Griepenkerl). The present members of the firm.
Dr. Abraham and J. Friedlander, carry on the old
traditions with extraordinary energy and judg-
ment, and * the Peters editions,' famous for cor-
rectness, legibility, and cheapness, are known
throughout the world. [F. G.]

PETRELLA, Enrico, was bom at Palermo
Dec. 1, 1813, and learnt music at Naples under
Zingarelli, Bellini, and Ruggi. He made his first
appearance at Majella in 1839, with the opera
* H Diavolo color di rosa.' It was followed by four

Digitized by




othen, ftnd then, after an interval, by ' Le ^Pre-
cauzioni,* which remains his masterpiece in oomic
opera. At the Soala he brought oat ' Maroo Vis-
oonti* (1855); 'L'Assedio di Leyda' (1856);
'lone* (1858) ; 'H duca di ScUla* (1859) ; and
• Morosina ' (1863). After this nearly every year
produced its opera, but we need only mention
« Giovannall di Napoli* (Naples, Feb. 27, 1869)
— said in some respects to surnass ' lone,' which up
to that time was his ohef-d oeuvre—and * I pro-
messi sposi ' (Lecoo, Oct. a, 1869). For the latter
Petrella was called before the curtain 37 times in
the first evening! In 1875 he produced *Man*
fredo' at Borne ; it was greatly applauded, and a
silver crown presented to the composer.

Petrella died at Genoa» April 7, 1877. In the
biography in Menders Dictionary 19 operas of
his are named, but there is apparently some error
in the dates. His music, though often violently
applauded by the enthusiastic Italians, pleased
the more critical audience of the Scala only
moderately, and has no permanent qualities. [G.J

PETREIUS, JoHAiTN, printer and publitther
of music, bom at Langendorf, Franconia ; gradu-
ated 'Magister* at Nuremberg; in 1536 began
business in that town as a printer. His earliest
music-publication appears to be * Musics, id est,
Artis canendi, libri duo, autor Sebaldus Heyden.
Norimbeigs apud Joh. Petreium, anno salutis
1 537 ' ; and his latest, ' Guter, seltsnmer, und
kunstreioher teutsoher Gesang .... Gredruckt zu
Ntimbeig, durch Jo. Petreium. 1544.* Between
these two, Eitner (Bibliographie) gives 6 works
in 9 volumes, including a collection of 15 masses,
a volume of 45 select motets, and 3 volumes, of
158 four-part songs. He died, according to F^tis,
at Nuremberg, Maaoh 18, 1550. [G.]

PETBUOCI, Ottayiano dki, an illustrious
printer, the father of the art of type-musio-
printing, was bom of a good family at Fossom-
brone, between Ancona and Urbino, June 14,
1466. Before 1498 he had established himself
At Venice ; for on May 35 of that year he ob-
tained firom the Seignory the sole privilege, for
30 years, of printing ' figured music (canto figu-
rate) and music in the tablature of the organ
and lute — a privilege which he exercised there
till about 1 51 1. At that date he left the Vene-
tian business in the hands of Amadeo Scotti and
Nicol6 da Raphael, and returned to Fossombrone,
where, on Oct. 3 3, 1 5 1 3, he obtained a patent from
Pope Leo X for the monopoly of music-printing
in the Roman States for 15 years. His latest
work is dated 1533, and shortly after that he
probably died.

Petrucci*s process was a double one ; he printed
first the lines of the stave, and then, by a second
impression, the notes upon them, in fact he
discovered a method of doing by the press what
the German printers of patronendruek or pat-
tern-printing, had done by hand. His work is
beautifully executed. The 'register,' or fit, of
the notes on the lines is perfect; the ink is a
fine black, and the whole effect is admirable.

I Ferfbrmed U the LyMum, London. lUreb 21. lOTl.


But the pzooess was expensive, and was aooa
superseded by printing in one impreanon, wkidi
appears to liave been first suooessfally aooom-
plished by Oglin' of Augsburg in 1507.'

Petrucd printed no missals, service books, or
other music in canto iermo ; but mssses, motets,
lamentations, and frottole, all in canto fifj^orato,
or measured music, and a few works in late-
tablature. [See Musica Mbnsubata; Tabla-
TDRB.] Bjm first work was ' Hannonice Mnricfw

Odhecaton A Venetiis decimo octaro caL

junias. Salutis anno 150 1,* — a collection of 96
pieces in 3 and 4 parts by Isj^u^ Josquin, Obrecbt,
Ockeghem, and other masters of the day, the
parts printed opposite one another on the open
pages of a small 4to. His activity was very
great ; Ghrysander* gives a list of 18 works oer^
tainly and 2 probably issued between June I3,
1501, and Nov. 38, 1504. The last work cited
by Eitner (Bibliographie) is the ' Motetti della
Corona,' a collection of 83 motets for 4, f , and 6
voices (in separate part books) in 4 pOTtions, the
4th portion of which was published at Fossom-
brone Oct. 31, 1 5 19. F^tb however' mentions
three masses, in large folio, printed for the lectern
of a church, with t£e date 1533-35 and knodLed
down to an unknown buyer at a sale 1^ Home
In 1839. His life and works are exhaustivdy
treated by Anton Schmid, 'Ottaviano dei Pe-
tmcci,* etc, Vienna, 1845. [G.]

PETTIT, Waltkr, violoncellist, was bom in
London on March 14, 1836, and received his
musical education chiefly at Uie Royal Academy
of Music. In 1851 he was engaged by Balfe for
the orchestra of Her Majesty's Ineatre, in which
he remained for many years. In 186 1 he suc-
ceeded Lucas as principal violoncello in the Phil-
harmonic orchestra, and in 1 876 took the place of
Paque in Her Majesty *s private band. (^T.P.H.]

PEUTINGER, CoNBAD, a lover and supporter
of church music at a time when church music was
the only kind, and a keen devotee for the welfioe
of literature and art. He was bom at Ai^borg
(the city of the Fuggers) in 1465 ; was educated
in Italy; in 1493 became secretary to the senate
of Augsburg; in 153 1, at the diet of Worms,
obtained the confirmation of the ancient privi-
leges of the dty, and others in addition. He
was a great collector of antiquities, inscriptiooa,
and MSS., and in particular was the owner of
the 'Peutinger Tables,' a map of the military
roads of the Lower Roman Empire, probably
dating about 335, which is one of the most
precious geographical monuments of antiquity,
and is now in the State Library at Vienna.
His devotion to music is shown by his pre&oe
to the ' Liber selectarum Cantionum quas vulgo
Mutetas appellant, sex, quinque, et quatoor

• In hb ' Kelopotae,' to* OhtyMnder (ICatietl TIhms. 18V7. pi. aV'X
F^tU however qtiot«s this very work u an ertdaoo* that OKlia foi-
low«d Fotruod't meUMMl of two {olaUngt (Blofr. ubIt. toL tU. |k. H
note, ed. 1864).

s The method of prlntlnff by double top te w lo a » o u to oMito
the ttftve llnet oontlnooiu without the breaks Ineritehle la prtaiiec
by ft single imprBasloo— was patented by SdMomiana In uai (8m


« Musical Timet, p. aSB a. • Btof. nnhr. tIL U a.

Digitized by



Tooum,' of Grimxxdus and Wyrsung, Augsburg
1520, » Tolume contaiaing 34 Latin motete by
fi. Izact Joequin dee Fris, Obrecht, Pierre de
la Bue, Senfl, and oiherg. [G.]

PEVERNAGE, Andreas, bom in the year
1543/ at Courtrai, in Flanders. He held an
appointment in bis native town until his mar-
liage,* June 15, 1574, and soon after moved to
Antwerp as choirmaster in the cathedral. There
he led an active life, composing, editing, and giv-
ing weekly performances at his house of the best
native and foreign music. He died at the age of
aS, and was buried in the cathedral. Sweertius'
describes him as *vir ad modestiam faotus, et
totus candidus, quae in Musioo mireris, quibus
cum leviusculis notis annata levitas videtmr.'
The same author gives the following epitaph : —
H. Andns Peremagio
Musioo ezoellenii
"ELu^uB eocleain phonaaoo
et Mariee fllie
Maria Haeoht vidua et ¥F. M. pose.
Obienint Hie XXX Julii. Aetat XLYIII.
niaUFeb. Aetat XH. MDTiXXXTX.

F^tis mentions 5 books of chansons and i book
of sacred motets, published in the composer's
lifetime, and 5 masses and a book of motets for
the chief church festivals, as posthumous. The
British Museum contains 1 book of chansons, and
2 imperfect copies of the 'Harmonia Celeste,*
a collection of madrigals edited by Pevemage,
in which 7 of his own pieces appear. In , ad-
dition to these Eitner* mentions 16 detached
pieces in various collections of the time. Two
pieces have been printed in modem type — an ode
to S. Cecilia, 'O virgo ^generosa/ composed for the
inauguration of his house concerts/ and a 9-part
« Gloria in excelsis.* ' [J.R.S.-B.]

PEZZE, Alessandbo, an able violoncellist,
was bom in Milan in 1835. He received his
first musical instmotion from his father, an ex-
cellent amateur. In 1846 he was, after competi-
tion, admitted to the Milan Conservatorio, whore
his master was the celebrated Meric^hi. After
a course of concerts in North Italy he was ap-
pointed first violoncello at La Scala. Lumley
Drought him to Her Majesty's Theatre in 1857,
where he remained until the theatre was burnt
down. He also played principal violoncello with
Pettit at the old Philharmonic, and was for some
years engaged at Covent Garden. [T.P.H.]*

PHILADELPHIA is remarkable among the
cities of the United States for its vigorous mu-
sical life. No less than sixty-five societies for

1 ' IfMter A. Ferernage . . . diad Jn\j 80. Uei. aboat half-past four
In the afternoon, after five weeks' illness.' (See note discovered by
M. de Barbure in Antwerp Cathedral books.) Thus the last two
letters of the date in the epitaph have changed places ; it should
stand MfiLXXXXL Hediedattheaceoftf^ which fixes the date of his

2 Paquoi's * mstoire Ittteraire des Fars-bas.' Tom. 9, p. 831 (Lon-
Taln. 1787). The author gives a reference, ' Franc Hosml poemata,
cd. 1078. p. S89. MO. oA il 7 a deux Bpithalames: In nuptias Andrea
Femmage. apud Cortraosnses Svinphonasci, et Karise Mssges viduss.
17 cal. J ulil, anno 1S74.' ^

3 • AthensB Belgicas.' Antwerp, less (BrH. Mus. 11901 k). Both the
year of death and the name of Pevemage's wife are probably incor-
rect. See notes lands. < fiibllographle.

• Commer— ' CoUectio <^ mustcomm BaMv.' Vol. vIU (Berlin,
Trantweln). • Ambroe. * Oesohichte,' iU. 318.

f (teellla, TOD Oberhoflin-, Luzanburg, MS, Xo. 7.



the active practice of music exist within its pre-
cincts. The oldest of these, the Musical Fund
Society, was established on February 29, 1820.
In 1823 the society built a hall for its meetings,
and about seven years later an academy was
opened for musical instruction. After having
given, in the course of thirty years, about 100
concerts, in which nearly all the best European
and American artists took part, increased com-
petition in musical affairs compelled the society
to alter its original system, but for the last 15*
vears its funds have been gradually accumu-
lating, so that a capital has now been secured
with which it is hoped a permanent school of
music will eventually be established. In tiie 60
years of its exisienoe the society has given freely
from its funds to the relief of its professional
members and their families, and to provide for
their children after the death of their parents.
The society has accumulated a considerable
library of vocal and orchestral scores, etc. At
present there are 50 members, 14 of whom are
professional musicians.

In addition to the above, at the end of this
article will be found a list^ of musical societies
(with the names of their conductors) which are-
now in existence in Philadelphia. Of these the
Orpheus Club, a choral society for men*s voices,
was organised in August 1S72, and has a limited
membernhip of 50 active and 300 associate and
subscribing members. The Cclcilian Society was
organised May 25, 1875, and has an active mem-
bership of about 400. The Beethoven Society
was founded in 1869.

The university of Pennsylvania, located in
Philadelphia, has established a Faculty of
Music, and confers degrees on students who
attend its lectures and pass an examination in
harmony, counterpoint, and composition. Lec-
tures and instruction are given by the Professor
of Music (Mr. H. A. Clarke) who has also or-
ganised an orchestra and a glee-dub, composed of
the undergraduate students.

There are several private musical academies
at Philadelphia. The principal of these is the
Philadelphia Musical Academy (President, Mme.
Emma Seiler), which has a regular attendance of
over 100 pupils.


Abt Society. H. A. Clarke.
Allemania. F.W.KUiueL
Amphion SocletT.
Arbeiter Sanaerbund.
Arion. J. Schaaf.
Arion (of Germantown).
Beethoven Liederkrans.

W. KUnwjl.
Beethoven Mannerclior.


Cecilian. M. H. Crofls.
Ceoilian Musical Beneficial

Aa^ooiation. B. G. S.

Wilks, President.
Colombia Geaangverein,

W. Winter.
Cdumbia Burschenschafl.

L. OokenUnder.

Concordia Qesangyerein.

E.Ga8tel. ^^
Concordia Qoarftet Club.

L. Engelke.
Mntracht. U. Peters.
Eintraoht Quartet Club.
Fidel io Gesangverein. G.

Fidelio Mttnnerchor.
QambrinuB SUngerkmnx.

F. Stadler, Secretary.
Qennania Idederkrans. G.

Germonia M&nnerchor. J.

Germania Orchestra. CM.

Handel and Haydn Society,

C. Sents.
Harmonie. F.W.KtLnsel.

1 Oomplled for this work by Mr. Kdtnimd WoUielfcr and Mr. J. O.
Bosengarten. editor of tiie Philadelplila PubUc Ledger, to whoee
klDdneu we are also ladebted lor the Infonnatloo ooatalned abore.

Digitized by










PHILEMON ET BAUCIS. A not unfrequent
•abject for the musical stage both in France and
Germany. It was set by Gotmod to words by
Barbier and Carr^ in 3 acts, and brought out at
the Th^tre Lyiique, Feb. 18, i860. [G.]

was founded in London in 181 3 for the en-
couragement of orchestral and instrumental
music. Messrs. J. B. Cramer, P. A. Corri, and
W. Dance invited various professional friends to
meet them on Sunday, Jan. 24, 181 3, when a plan
was formed which Resulted in the establishment
of a society with thirty members, afterwards in-
creased to forty — seven of whom were made
directors for the management of the concerts —
and an unlimited number of associates. The
subscription for members was three guineas, and
for associates two guineas each. Subscribers
were admitted on the introduction of a member
on paying four guineas, and resident families of
any subscriber two guineas each.

The principal musicians in London readily
joined, and gave their gratuitous services in the
orchestra. The first series of eight concerts on
Mondays, at irregular intervals, conunenced on
March 8, 181 3, at the Argyll Booms, Regent
Street — * Leader, Mr. Salomon; at the piano-
forte (in lieu of the conductor as at present),
Mr. Clementi' — and was both financially and
artistically successful.

The following is a list of the members during
the first season : — J. B. Cramer, P. A. Corri,
W. Dance, M. Clementi. W. Ayrton, W. SMeld,
J. J. Graeff, H. R. Bishop, W. Blake. J. B.
Salomon, C. Neate, R. Potter, Sir Geo. T. Smart,
F. Cramer, T. Attwood, J. B. Viotti. — Hill,
— Moralt, G. E. Griffin, J. Bartleman, W.
Knyvett, Louis Berger, C. Ashley, R. Cooke,
F. Yaniewicz, S. Webbe, jun.. V. Novello, W.
Horsley, W. Sherrington, A. Ashe. Among the
associates, of whom at the outset there were 38,
are found the names of Bridgetower, Mori, Naldi, I


Cipriani Potter, Spagnoletti, Samuel Wealej, and
other eminent musicians.

The following have been the TreasttrerB of the
8ociety:-W. Ayrton(i8i3-i4); W. Dance (181 5);
M. Clementi (1816-17); R. H. Potter ( 18 iS-io);
T. Attwood (1820); W. Dance (1821-33); W.
Sherrington (1833-35); W. Thmce (1836-39);
G. F. Anderson (1840-76); W. 0. Macfiuren
(1877-80). The Secretaries have been H. Danoe
(1813); 0. J. Ashley (1813-15); W. Watts
(1815-47) ; G. W. Budd (1847-50) ; G. Hogarth
(1850-64) ; Campbell Clarke (1864-66) ; Stanley
Lucas (1866-80).

In the early days of the sooiety two sym-
phonies, two concertos, two quartets or quintets
for string or wind instruments, wiUi two or more
vocal concerted pieces, constituted the evening's
programme! Chamber instrumental music is now
excluded, and other arrangements are made con-
forming to the exigencies of the age and the
comfort of the subsmbers.

In addition to the claims of oar own oonntry-
men, foreign non-resident musicians hare from
time to tame been invited to direct the pei^
formanoes, often of works composed at the
express request of the society, as Chenibini
(March 13, 1815). Spohr (1820, 1843), Weber
(1826), Mendelssohn (1829, 42, 44, 47), Hiller
(1852), Wagner (1855), Gouood (1871). The
intimate association of the Society with these
great composers, as well as with Gnalow and
Beethoven, etc. etc., need only be mentioned to
show the artistic recognition which this institu-
tion has received from music's greatest professors.
A good idea of the popularity of the Society in
1820 may be formed firom Spohr*s account in
his Autobiography. * Notwithstanding the high
price of admission, says he, the number of sub-
scribers was so great that many hundreds who
had inscribed their names could not obtain seats.*

The following summary of the principal new
events of each season will be the best epitome of
the earnest artistic work done by the Phil-
harmonic Society. It will show how far the
Society since its establishment may claim to
have kept pace with the progress of music ; how
many masterpieces of the most different schools,
since become classic, were first heard in England
at a Philharmonic concert, and bow many great
players have there made their cUbiU before an
Englinh audience. These claims to distinction
nre due to the discretion and enei^ of the
Directors of the Society. Their post is an hono-
rary one, involving much time and labour, and
it is through their exertions that the Society has
for so long maintained its position against con-
tinually increasing competition, and has on more
than one occasion been rescued firom pecuniary
difficulty and placed again in a state of prosperity.
The list shows, with a few exceptions, only
the firesh works brought forward and the first
appearances of artists ; (he stock pieces of the
repertoire, and the re-appearances of favourite
players and singers being but rarely named.

In the programmes of the first season the
works are but rarely specified.

Digitized by



N.B. • denotes that a work was oomposed for the
Society; t, that it was first performed Ia England at
the date named.

181& Sympfaonies— Haydn (4\ Mocart (S), BeethoTen (3^,
Pleyel Us Woelfl (lU dementi (2), Romberg (1).
Orertnres— Cherubini (4), Haydn (1>, Mosart lis Paer

S). Septetr-Beethoven. Quartets and Quintets—
aydn, Mozart, BeethoTen, J. G. Baoh, Bomberg,

1814. tSinfonia Eroica. •t2 MS. Symphonies, F. Bies.
•t Quartet, Oriffin. MS. Symphonies. Hardn,
t Crotch, and t Aaioli. •f New Overture, GherubinL
•t Overture, Beiger. Selection from 'Mount of
Olives.* B. Bombers plays. N.B. Cherubini accepts
900/. for a new nrmpoony, overture, and vocal piece.

1815. t Overture, *Anacreon.* conducted by Cherubini.
•fMS. Symphony and MS. Overture by Cherubini.
tMS. Symphonies by Bies and Woelfl ; f MS. Sestet,
Kalkbrenner. Kalibrenner and Lafont play. 200^.
voted for trial of new works. 3 MS. Overtures
bought from Beethoven.

1818. tSymphony in minor, Beethoven. fMS. Symphony,
Bies. fMS. Overture, Beethoven. •fMS. Bardie

Online LibraryJohn Alexander Fuller-Maitland Sir George GroveA Dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889): with ..., Volume 2 → online text (page 163 of 180)