John Alexander Fuller-Maitland Sir George Grove.

A Dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889): with ..., Volume 2 online

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Bourdon), 8-feet (lieblich Gedact), or 4-feet
(lieblich Flote). The pipes are made 5 or 6
mzes narrower than the Gedact, but are more
copiously winded, and the mouths cut up higher.
The tone therefore is nearly or quite as strong as
that of the Gedact, though not so friU, yet

1 R«lolMidl, imdM' data Kov. Sa I808» ivtHm: 'BmUmtoi lodgM
with a Hangarten Coaatam ErMdj, who oecnplw the troai part of
the huge home, hut he bai bnkm completely with Prinoe Llaluiow»
■ky, who liret In the npper part of the hooee. and with wbom ha tor
tome yean radded. Daring the ten yean 180(-14. then, Beetbotett
moeed from the Faeqoalatt hooee onoe only, bat then for thneyvan;
at the end of that period he departed ftnallj. When thenfora Itiea
(writing avowedly from heanay) ttatet ' be ramoved from U i«reral
timaa. and FaMioalail lald "lite lodging than not be let. Beethoven
wmeomewaln.'"bewae6rldentlymlitafonned.a«leaMlBpart; but
hto error bai been adopted and made the moet of In all btographlet and
biographical tketebea of Beethoven ibioe IfflS. The new lodging In 1814
wae In the lower itonr of the BartcMteln hooM. on the aaiM baetkm.
He retained It but one year: for. on the departure of the KrdOdyifkom
Vienna In 181B. there wai no hidnoemont to rematai, and B e Kbonn
mofad awiv from tte MUkar Baitel nerer to retpia.

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Mgliier aiul sfredtor. When the thretf storii,
16, S, and 4 feet are grouped together on the
fame numual their effect is very h^utifuL The
late Edmund Scholse oombined them in this
inanner in the ohoir organ at the Ten^e Church
b i860, also in his fine organ at I>onca8ter(i 86a).
Lewis adopted the same pUn at Bipon Catiiedral,
and it has been still more recently followed by
Willis at Salisbury Cathedral [E. J.H/|

LIED, a German poem intended for singing ;
by no means identical with the French ckans<m,
crthe Italian camone. All three terms are in
&ct untranslateaUe, from the essentially na-
tional oharaotOT of the ideas embodied in each
fiirm ; the German Lied being perhaps ^e most
fiuthfol reflection of the national sentiment. A
Gennan looking at nature in her infinite variety
of moods is almost irresistibly impelled to utter
his thoughts in song. Certain aspects of nature
appeal with peculiar fbroe to the German mind —
•ach, for instance, as the forest, the waste, the
fiJl of rain, the murmur of the brook, the raging
of the tempest ; and connected with these certain
ether objeotiye idesj^ such as the hunter in the
fofeet, the lonely bird, or the clouds stretching
over the landsci^, the house shelterinff from
wind and rain, the mill-wheels turned by the
farook, etc Sudi are the topica of the secular
lied, which hare been embodied by Goethe,
SduUer, Heine, and a hundred smaller poets,
in in^)erishable lyrics, perfectly suited for music.
Those of the sacred laed are, trust in God, the
hope of fntore blessedness and union, and other
nl%knis sentiments, etc. There are Volkslieder,^
that is to say, Lieder whose origin is lost in ob-
senrity, of both kinds. The development of in*
stnmiental music during the earlier half of the
Ust oentuzy having provided other means of
ex pr es si on for such feelings besides song, the
Volkslied has graduailv disappeared, giving place
to the Kunstlied, of wnich uie accompaniment is
sa important feature. This new form, naturalised
by Haydn, Mozart, Reichardt,. Schultz, Himmel,
Beethoven, Oonradin Ereutzer, and C. M. von
Weber, attained in the hands of Franz Schubert to
that extension and perfection of expression which
makes it so dear to the German nation. Since his
time the accompaniment haa constantly assiuned
greater prominence, so that the original fbim has
nearly <usappeared, the musical treatment being
sveiything, and the poetry comparatively of less
tnoment. Schumann may b» considco^d the
moneer in this direcdcm, and after him follow
£rahms and Kobert Franz. With the two last
composers the accompaniment, as rich in melody
AS it is in harmony and modulation, more than
divides attention with the words.

The best works on the subject are Dr. Schnei-
dw's 'Geschichte des Liedee,* 3 vds. (Leipzig,
'^^3-^5)y foil of detail; Lindner's 'Geschichte
desBeotsohen Liedes im XVIII Jahrhundert'



Ji tef* ufttrtmiatelj no equivalent word for VoUuUed.

We hmm Um tlilnc. ttaoagh of • very dlOlBreDt kind from that of
Oenaur. twt haw no term to wpraee the whole kind. Mr. Obsp-
ptlfg gnat work on KngUah Volkxlleder Is entitled ' The Ballad
Litefatota and Topolar Unite of the OMen Time.' 'Popular.' how
trer.taMaoirafeqiiiredadiKlafBt meaning of Itt own.

(Leipaigl 1871); and Sohnr^a ^Hlstoiie du
lied/ [See Soto.] [^-O.]

LIED-FORM. The term LTedfbnn has un-
fortunately been used by difibrent writers with
different sigmfieations ; and th» vagueness which
results, conjoined with the fact tiiat the term is
not happily chosen, renders it doubtful whether
it had not better be entirely abandoned.

Some people use it merely to define any slight
pleoe wmch consists mainly of a simple melody
simply accompanied, in which sense it would
be perfectly Shdapted to many of Mendelssohn's
Lieder olme Worte, and mnumerable other
pieces of that eiass of small compositions for the
pianoforte by various authors, as well as to songs.
On the other hand, some writers have en-
deavoured to indicate by the term a form of
construction, in the same sense as they would
speak of the forms of the movements of Sonatas.
For the diffusion of this view Herr Bemhard
Biarx appears to be responsible^ and his definition
will be best given in his own terms.

In the fourth section of the fifth dividon of
his ' Allgemeine Musiklehre* he writes as follows :
'Under this name of lied-fbrm we group all such
pieces of music as have ene single main idea,
which is presented either in-one developed section,
or as a period (with first and second phrase), or
even as a period divided into first and second
similar parts,, or into first, second, and third
parts (in wUch case the last is generallv a
repetition of the first). It is possible in lied-^m
to have even two such- complete forms aggregated
into one piece ;^ but then they occur without
close oonneotion or interweaving with one an-
other, perhaps with the two- parts twice or three
times repeated ; in which case the seoond group
will be called a Trio, and the third the second
Trio, and be treated as a second independent
piece. For the sake of contrast, such Trios will
often be in another key, or in other key relation-
ship, such as minor corresponding to major, and
major to minor, of the same key, etc., return
being afterwards made to the fint portion and
the original key to make the piece complete.
* In this Lied' form are cast most of the Lieder
which are intended to be sung, dances, marches,
many Etudes, introductions,' etc.

In the third section of the fourth division of
his ' Lehre von des Musikalisdien Komposition,*
Marx further gives formulas, or types, of the
harmonic distribution of this kind of composi"
tion; and in the earlier part of the second
voliune (Bk. 3) of the same work he discusses
the details of tiie structure at length.

To this classification there appear te be twe
main objections. The first is- the choice of the
distinctive name ' Lied * for a form which com-
prises dances, marches, and other alien forms
of music. Were there nothing else to say against
it, it would certainly jar against our sense of
fitness to have to speak of the funeral march in
the Eroica Symphony, or the Scherzo of the oth
Symphony, or even of fiir less conspicuously auen
examples, such as the Waltz in the Freyschiitz, or
a Minuet of Haydn oar Mozart, as in ' lied-form.'

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The ather objectimi to ihe diunifioatloii ia its
Taguenees when fennolated in 4iach an empirical
way; but in order to understand fully botn this
objection and itbe former it will be neceeaary to
go lomewhat'deeper into the matter.

In every artistic whole there must be balance
and propoxtion. In musical works this is chiefly
obtamed by the grouping of hazmonies. An
artistic whole may be obtained in one hey by
throwing stress first upon one harmonic centre^
passing firam that to one which represents an
opposite phase, and then passing back to the
original again. In the article Harmont it
has been pointed out that the hannonies of the
Tonic and the Dominant represent the most com-
plete opposition of phase in the diatonic soriee of
any key; the jnost perfect simple balance is
therefore to be found in their Alternation. For
example, the first fifteen bars of the Trio in the
Scherzo of Beethoyen*8 Symphony in A form
a complete artistic whole of themselyes. There
are six bars of Tonio harmony and one of
Dominant forming the first group, and then
six of Dominant harmony followed by one of
Tonic harmony iorming the second group. The
balance is perfect, and the form the simplest in
all music ; and it might reasonably be caUed the
' simple primary fc«m.* It is tQ be found in the
most diverse quarters, such as single chuits of
the Anglican Church, sailor^s hom^pee, German
popular waltzes and liindler, and the trivial
snatches of tunes in a French opera^bouffe. The
manner of obtaining the balance is however not
necessarily restricted to the above orders for it
is quite equally common to find each of the two
groups containing a balance in themselves of
Tonic and Dominant harmony. In that case

the balance is obtained thus— CGC t G 6,

instead of G G GO as in the former instai^e ;
but the principle which underlies them is the
same, ana justifies their being classed together.
The subsidiary harmonies which are associated
with these main groups are independent, but
are most effective when they converge so as
to direct attention to them. When greater
extension is required, tiie balance is found
between key and key; each key being s»rerally
distinguished by analtemation of harmonic roota^
so as to be severally complete when they are to
be a prominent part of the form. Subsidiary
transitions occur jnuoh as the subsidiary har-
monies in the preceding class, and must be
re^^arded in the same light. The identity of
prmciple in these two classes is obvious, since in
both alike it consists of taking a definite point to
start from, and marking it dearly.; then passing
to another point, whidi will afford the needed
contrast, and returning to the original to con-
clude. But as in the Utter class the process b
complicated by the changes of key, it may best
be distinguished from the former as * complex
primary form.*

It is not necessary to enter into details on the
subject of the extent, treatment and distribution


of the keys ; neither is it possible, nnoe the prin-
ciple when put upon this broad basis admits ci
very great variefy, as indeed it is desurable that
it snould. But to guard against misapprehension,
it may be as well to point out afew of the broadest

In the first place, the several^ sections which
serve to mark the elements of form need not be
distinct and independent pieces, though they most
fr^uently Are so in the dd^ opera and oratorio
songs, and in the minuets and trios, or marchss
and trios, of instrumental music. In many ex-
amples, especially such as are on a small scale^
tibere is no marked break in the continuity of the
whole, the division at most amounting to nothiiig
more 4Jban a cadence or haJf-dose and * double
bar, and often to not even so much as that. With
regard to the distribution of ideas, it may be said
that the several sections are often characterised
by totally independent subjects, espedally when
the piece is on a large scale; but there are many
exftm|)les, espedally in the form of themes for
variations, when, notwithstanding a certain free-
dom of modulation, the predominance oi one main
idea is unl^oken.

Professor Marx has called attenticm to the &et
that this form is sometimes amplified by repe-
tition 4 that is to say, when the return to the
original key has been made to follow the oon-
trasting.section or Trio, a treah d<^>arture is made,
and another contrasting section or Trio is ^ven,
after which follows the final return to the original
key and idea. Examples of this occur in the
Symphonies of Beethoven and Schumann, as well
as in less important works ; and it is well to take
note of the &ct that in this case the form under
consideration shows its dose relationship to the
Rondo form; for that form in the hands of eariy
instrumental composers such as Kameau and
Couperin was little else than the frequent repe-
tition of a main idea in a prindpal key, inter-
spersed with contrasting episodes, which in the
present case answer to the Trios.

The occurrence of Codas with this form is very
common, but for the discussion of that pdnt
reference must be made to the article under that
head and to the artide Fobm.

Finally, it will be well to return shortly to the
consideration of the distinctive name of 'Lied*
which has been given to this form. In the choice
of it, its author was probably guided by a well-
grounded opinion of the superior antiquity of song
to other kmds of music, which led him to In-
fer that the instrumental forms which he put
under the same category were imitated firom the
* Lieder.* But this is not by any means inevit-
able. It will have been seen nom the above
discussion that in this form the simplest means
of arriving at artistic balance and proportion are
made use of; and these would have been chosen
by the instinct of the earliest composers of instru-
mental music without any necessary knowledge
that vocal music was cast in the same mould.
And there is more than this. In son^ and other
vocal music the hearer is so fiur guided by the
sense of the words that a total impression of

Digitized by



oompbteoMs mmj be obtained even with very
▼Bgoe Btractore in the mode; whereas in in-
itrameDtel munc, unlets the fonn is dear and
appreoiably defined, it ia impoesible for the moat
intdligent hearer to realise the work as a
whole, do that, in point of fiust» vocal music
can do withoat a great deal of that which is
rital to instrumental music; and therefore the
Lied is just the member of the group which it is
least satisfactory to take as the type : but as this
form has been classified under that head, it has
been necessary so to review it tnUy, in order that
1 just estimation may be formed of its nature,
and the reason for taking exception to the title.
The hna itself is a very important one, but inas-
much as it admits of great latitude in treatment,
it appears that the only satisfactory means of
dawfying it, or making it explicable, is by
putting it on as broad a basis as possible, and giving
It a distinctive title which shall have reference
to its intrinsio constitution, and not to one of
the many kinds of music which may, but need not
necessarily, come within its scope. [C.H.H J*.]

LEED OHNE WORTB, i.e. Song without
words (Fr. Romance ecms paroles), Mendelssohn^s
title for the pianoforte pieces which are more
dosdy associated with lus name than any other
of his ocunpodtions. The title exactly describes
them. Ihey are just scmgs. lliev have no words,
bat the meaning is none &e lees definite — ' I wish
I were with you,* says he to his sister Fanny in
wnding her from Munich' the earliest of these
compositions which we possess — ' but as that is
impossible, I have written a sons for you expres-
live of my wishes and .thoughts . . . ^ and then
follows a little pieoe of i6 Imuts lonff, which is as
true a lied obne Worte as any m the whole
collection. We know firom ^ letter of later * date
than the above that he thought music much more
definite than words, and there is no reason to
doubt that theee 'lieder,* as he himself con-
stantly calls them, have as exact and special
an intention as those which were oomposed to
poetiy, and that it is almost impossible to draw
a Ime between the two.* He had two kinds of
loogs, one with words, the other without. Tho
jgeoes are not Nocturnes, or Transcripts, or Etudes.
They contain no bravura ; everything is sdbordin-
ited to the 'wish' or the * thought^ which filled
the heart of the composer at the moment.

The title first i^pears in a letter of Fanny
Mendelssohn's, Dec. 8, i8a8, which implies that
Felix had but recently b^gun to write such
pieces. But the English equivalent was not
■etded without difficulty. The day after his
arrival in London, on April 34, 183s, he played
the first six to Moscheles, and they are then
^spoken of as 'Instrumental Lieder ftir Cla-
vier.* On the autoeraph of the first -book, in
Mr. Felix Moscheles possession, they are named
* Six songs for the Pianoforte alone,* and this again

* LMtm from Itely and Swttnrtaad. JoM li. 188&

' lb SoMhv. Oot lA. UiL

' The a«trtlM (0|k 6S) VM orlgtmny a LM ohM Wort* (lOL Oat

< S« tlM TraaditloD of MoMhdM' Ufli. L «r. Cdt thto UMl tiM M-

^odies^ ,

fe AstbopkAj

Mr. $&ve% V
tnuihMV ^


was afterwards changed to
the Pianoforte,' under whid
was published (for the authi
(then in Dean Street), on
registered at Stationers* HalL
is given on the English copy, thoi
no doubt that Mendelssohn arrauj^
every particular. The book appefured cohcdM^«£(ftr
in Berlin, at Simrock*-s, as *Sechs Lied^<£Ai
Worte, etc 'Op. 19.' Hie Oerman name after-
wards became current in England, and was added
to the English title-page.

The last of the six sonn contained in the
Tst book — 'In a Oondola, or * Venetianischea
Gkmdellied' — is said to be the earliest of the six
in point of date. Jjk Mendelssofan*s MS. catalogue
it IS marked ' Venedig, i6th Oct., 1830, far Del-
phine Sohauroth' — a distinguished musician of
Munich, whom he had left only a few weeks
before, and to whom he afterwards dedicated his
first P.F, Concerto. An earlier one still is No. 2
of Book 2, which was sent fVom Munich to his
sister Fanny in a letter dated June a6, 1830.

Strange as it may seem, the success of the
Lieder ohne Worte was but slow in England.
The books of Messrs. Novello 8c Co., for 1836,
show that only 114 copies of Book i were sold in
the first lour yearsl* Six books, each containing
six songs, were published 4uring Mendelssohn's
lifetime, numbered as op. 19, 30, 38, 53, 6a, and
67, respectively; and a 7th and 8th (op. 85 and
1 03) since his death. A few of them have titles,
viz. the Gondola song alreadv mentioned ; another
'VenetianisdhesGondellied, op. 30, no. 6 ; 'Duett,'
op. 38, no. 6 ; • Volkslied,' op. 53, no. 5 ; a third
'VenetianischesGrondellied,'and a 'FrfihlingsUed,'
op. 6a, nos. 5 and 6. These titles are his own.
Names have been given to some of the other songs.
Thus op. 19, no. a, is called 'Jagerlied' or
Hunting song; op. 6a, no. 3, 'Trauermarsch' or
Funeral march ; op. 67, no. 3, < Spinnerlied ' or
Spinning song: but these, appropriate or not,
are unau^orised. [G.]

LIEDERREIHE. A oirole or series of songs,
relating to the same object and fuming one piece
of mu^ The first instance of the thing and the
first use of the word Appears to be in Beethoven's
op. 98, * An die feme Geliebte. Ein Liederkreis
von Al Jeitteles.^ Fiir Gesang und Pianoforte
. . . von L. van Beethoven.' This consists of six
songs, was composed April <i8i6, and published
in the following December. The word Lieder^
kreis appears first on the printed copy. Bee-
thoven's title on the autograph is 'An die
enfemte Geliebte, Seohs IJeder van Aloys
Jeitteles,' etc. It was followed by Schubert's
' Die schone MtQlerin, ein C)yolus von Liedem,'
so songs, oomposed 1633, 4md published March
i8a4. Schubert's two other series, the ' Winter-

• Then $n two opus la, a let of six loags wltli wonk, uid a let of
dz wlUiont M*i*n >i

• ror thU fkoC I UB 4nd«bC«d to tha kladnen of Mr. Heniy
LttUetoQ. the prwant head of the Ann.

f Or the poet of these «hannli« ▼•»•■ llttte Infonaatloo can b«
gleaaed. He waa born at Br&nn June M, 1794. to that when be wroto
the Liederkreis he was barely SL Like many amateors of nuislc hit
prtotlsad madMne. and he dlad at Us iMUre place AprU Uk USa

Digitized by




veise' and the ' Sohwanen-G^sang/ hav^ not got
the special title. Schumann luhB left several
liederkreifl — ^by Heine (op. 24) ; by Eichendorff
(op. 59) ; * Dichteiiiebe, Liederoyklus* (op. 48) ;
liederreihe yon J. Kemer (op, 3s); ' Frauenliebe
nnd Leben* (op. 42). Of all tibiese Beethoven**
most faithfully answers to the name. The songs
change their tempo, but there is 00 break, and the
motif of the first reappears m the last, and doses
the circle. Thayer's conjecture (iii. 401) that in
writing it Beethoven was inspired by Amalie von
iBebald, whom he had met at Linz in 181 1, is
not improbably correct. He was then 45 years
old, an age at which love is apt to be dangerously
permanent. [G.j

UEDERSPIEL, a play with songs introduced
into it, such songs being either weU known and
favourite airs — Lieder — or, if original, oast in
that form. It is the German equivalent of the
French Vaudeville, and of such KngliBh pieces as
the 'Beggar's Opera,' the *Wateraum,' etc. The
thing and the name are both due to J. F. Reich-
ardt, whose 'Lieb' und Treue* was the 'first
liederspieL It was an attempt to bring back
the musical stage of (Germany firom art&oe to
natural sentiment. Rexohardt^s interesting ac-
count of his experiment and the reasons which
led to it, will be found in the Allg. mus. Zdt-
ung, 1 801 (709-717). Strange and anomalous
as such a thrusting of musio into the midst
pf declamation may seem, the atteinpt was sue*
cessful inQermany,asit had been in England fifty
years before. The tunes could be reoo^iised and
enjoyed without effixrt, and the Idederspiel had
a long popularity. After Belchardt» Himmel,
Lortzing, Eberwein, and a number of other
oecond-dass writers composed Liederspiel which
were very popular, and they even still are to be
heard. — Mendelssohn often speaks of his * Heim-
kehr' (* Son and Stranger*) as a Liederspiel, but
that can only be by an extension of the phrase
beyond its original meaning. [G.]

LIEDERTAFEL, originally a society ef men,
who met together on fix^ evenings for the prac-
tice of vocal music in four parts, drinking forming
part of the entertainment They arose during
the political depression caused by Napoleon's
rule m Germany ; and the first, consisting of 24
members only, was founded by Zelter in Berlin,
Dec. 28, 1808. Others soon followed at Frankfort
and Leipzig, gradually relaxing the rules as to
numbers. Bemhard EHein fbun<kd the * Jiinfferen
Berliner liedertafel/ which aimed at a higher
standard of art. lliese societies gave an im-
mense in^)etu8 to men*s part-singing throughout
Germany. Since the estaUishment of the M&nner-
gesangvereine prowse (male singing sodetiee),
the word liedertafel has come to mean a sodal
gathering of the ' Verein,* i. e. a gathering of in-
vited ladiea and gentlemen, at ^mnch. the mem-
bers perform pieces previous^ learned. They
are in £Ebct informal concerts, where the goeets
move about, eat, drink, and talk as they please,
provided they keep silenoe during the singing.
The LiedertoiFdn of the large male singing so-
deties of Vienna^ Munich^ and Cdogneiy are


pleasant and refined entertainments, not without
a musical significance of their own. [F. G.]

LIGATOSTIL (Ttal. 8tiU ligato), also called
gebundener Stil, is the German term for what is
called the strict style, as distinguished firom the
firee style of musicad composition. Its chi^
characteristic lies not so much in the fact that
the notes are seldom or never detached, as that
all dissonances are strictly prepared by means of
tied notes. [F. T.]

LIGATURE (Lat. Ligatura ; Ital. LegcUura ;
Fr. Liaiion), A passage of two or more notes,
gung to a single syllable. [See Notatioit.]

In antient music-books, Ligatures are not in-
dicated, as now, by slurs : but the form of the
notes themsdves is changed — sometimes^ in »
very puzzling manner.

Three kinds of Ligatures are used in Plain
Chaunt. In the first, and simplest, the notes are
merely placed very dose to each other, so as
almost to touch, thus —
Ex. I4 Writtm. Sut^,

In the second, used only for two notes, ascend-
ing, they are 'bonded* — that is to say, written
one over the other; the lowest being always
sung first-^
Ex.S. WriUm,

Online LibraryJohn Alexander Fuller-Maitland Sir George GroveA Dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889): with ..., Volume 2 → online text (page 32 of 180)