John Alexander Fuller-Maitland Sir George Grove.

A Dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889): with ..., Volume 2 online

. (page 52 of 180)
Online LibraryJohn Alexander Fuller-Maitland Sir George GroveA Dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889): with ..., Volume 2 → online text (page 52 of 180)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


It retains to this day an honourable place at all
the principal theatres of Germany. In 1836 it
was performed under his own direction at Copen-
Itsgen with marked success, and he was offered
the post of General Musik -director in Denmark,
an honour which the warmth of his reception on
his return to Hanover induced him to decline.
After 'Hans Heiling*— owing chiefly to differ-
^jces with the management of the theatre —
Marschner composed little for the stage, and
that little has not survived. He died at Han-
over, Dec. 14, 1861. Besides the operas already
mentioned he composed 'Lucretia* and *Sch6n'
laien' (182a); 'Des Falkner's Braut' (Leipzig,
]1^\} Berlin, 1838); *Das Schloss am Aetna*
(BerUn, 1838); *Adolph von Nassau ' (Hanover.
^^3)5 'Austin* (1851); and an operetta *Der



MABSEILLAISE.



219



£



Holzdieb.* He also composed incidental music
for von Kleist's play * Die Hermannsschlacht,'
and published over 180 works of all kinds and
descriptions ; but principally lieder for one and
more voices, still popular ; and choruses for men's
voices, many of which are excellent and great
favourites. An overture, embodying * God save
the king,' is mentioned as being performed in
London at a concert on the occasion of the
baptism of the Prince of Wales (Jan. 25, 1842).
As a dramatic composer of the Romantic
school, Marschner ranks next to Weber and
Spohr, but it is with the former that his name
is most intimately connected, though he was
never a pupil of Weber's. The strong similarity
between their dispositions and g^fts, the harmo-
nious way in which they workeid together, and
the cordial affection they felt for each other,
are interesting facts in the history of music.
Marschner's favourite subjects were ghosts and
demons, whose uncanny revels he delineated
with extraordinary power, but this gloomy side
of his character was relieved by a real love of
nature and out-door life, especifJly in its lighter
and more humorous characteristics. He worked
with extreme rapidity, which is the more remark-
able as his scores abound in enharmonic modula-
tions, and his orchestration is unusually brilliant
and elaborate. Such facility argues an inex-
haustible store of melody, and a perfect mastery
of the technical part of composition. [A. M.]

MARSEILLAISE, LA. The words and music
of this popular French hymn are the composition
of Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle, a captain of
engineers, who was quartered at Strasburg when
the volunteers of the Bas Rhin received orders to
join Luckner's army. Dietrich, the Mayor of
Strasburg, having, in the course of a discussion
on the war, regretted that the young soldiers had
no patriotic song to sing as they marched out,
Rouget de Lisle, who was of the party, returned
to h& lodgings \ and in a fit of enthusiasm com-
posed, during the night of April 24. 1792, the
words and music of the song which has immor-
talised his name. With his violin he picked
out the first strains of this inspiriting and truly
martial melody ; but being only an amateur, he
unfortunately added a symphony which jars
strangely with the vigorous character of the
hymn itself. The following copy of the original
edition, printed by DannbMh of Strasboig under
the title ' Chant de guerre pour I'arm^e du Rhin,
d^i4 au Mar^chal Lukner * (sic), will be inter-
esting from its containing the symphony, which
has been since suppressed, and from an obvious
typographical error, a crotchet being evidently
intended for a quaver.



-Tempt <f « ntarelte animi.




gloire Mt w - rt •- t4. Coa-tre aooi de 1* tr-nn-nl-e
1 In ttM VAlaon BOckel. No.U Qruide Bus.



ViUO"



Digitized by



Google



220



MARSEILLAISE.



dut MD-glantflSt to > • t4, I'^ten - dart Moglant cit M •




bru E-gor-gerTOtflls,TOtoom



«r • - m« ol ' to - yenil




brau • re wm dl • loni.




^ The * Chant de Gaerre * was sun^ in Diet-
rioh's house on April ac, copied and arranged
for a military band on the roUowiug day, and
performed by the band of the Garde Nationale
at a review on Sunday, the 29th. On June
35 a singer named Mireur sang it at a civic
banquet at Marseilles with so much effect that it
was immediately printed, and distributed to the
volunteers of the battalion just starting for
Paris. They entered Paris on July 30, sing-
ing their new hymn; and with it on their
Ups they marched to the attack on the Tuileries
on August 10, 179a. From that day the
'Chant de guerre pour I'arm^ du Rhin' was
called ' Chanson * or ' Chant des Marseillais,* and,
finally, * La Marseillaise.' The people, shouting
it in the streets, probably altered a note or two ;
the musicians, Edelmann, Gr^try, and most of all
Gossec, in their accompaniments for pianoforte
and orchestra, greatly enriched the harmonies,
and soon the ' Marseillaise/ in the form we have
it now (and which need hardly be quoted), was
known from one end of France to the other.

The original edition contained only six coup-
lets ; the seventh was added when it was drama-
tised for the Fdte of the F^d^ration. in order to
complete the characters—an old man, a soldier,
a wife, and a child — among whom the verses
were distributed. Bouget de Lisle had been
cashiered for expressing disapproval of the events
of the loth of August, and was then in prison,
from which he was only releaserl after the &11 of
Bobespierre, on the 9th Thermidor (July aS),



MARSEILLAISE.

1794. The following fine stanza for the child
was accordingly supplied by Dubois, editor of the
' Journal de Litt^ture ' : —



Nooa «ntTeront dans la carriers,
Qoaud nos atn^ n'j sexont plus ;
Kons y trouTerom lear poaMi6re



Bien moins jaloux de lenr sarrivTe
One de partaoer leur oerooeil,
Kotis auTons le tublime orj^eil
De lee venger on de les stdTre.*

Dubois also proposed to alter the concluding lines

of the sixth stanza : —

' Que tes ennemis explnnts
V<^nt ton truHupbe et noire glolre'

* Dans tee ennemis ezpirants
Vols ton triomi^e et notre gloire.*

These are minute details, but no fact connected
with this most celebrated of French national airs
is uninteresting.

That Rouget de Lisle was the author of the
words of the 'Marseillaise' has never beeu
doubted — ^indeed Louis Philippe conferred a pen-
sion upon him ; but it has be^ denied over and
over again that he composed the music. Strange to
say, Cutil-Blaze (see 'Moli^ musicien,* vol. ii. pp.
453-454), who should have recognised the vigour
and dash so characteristic of the French, declared
it to have been taken from a German hymn.

In F. K. Meyer's Versailler Briefe (Berlin,
187a) there is an article upon the origin of the
Marseillaise, in which it is stated that the tune
is the same as that to which the Volkslied
* Stand ich auf hohen Beigen* is sung in Upper
Bavaria. The author of the article heanl it
sung in 184a by an old woman of 70, who
informed him that it was a very old tune, and
that she had leamt it from her mother and
grandmother. The tune is also said to exist in
the Credo of a MS. Mass composed by Holtz-
mann in 1776, which is preserved in the parish
church of Meersburg. (See the Gartenlaube for
1 86 1, p. 356.) Re(^t enquiry (August, 1879)
on the spot from the curate of Meersburg has
proved that there is no truth in this story.

F^tis, in 1863, asserted that the music was
the work of a composer named NavoigiUe, and
reinforces his statement in the and edition of
his 'Biographic Universelle.' Georges Eastner
(' Revue et Gazette Musicale,' Paris, 1848) and
several other writers, including the author of this
article (see Chouquet*s ' L'Art Musical,' Sept. 8,
1864-March 9, 65), have clearly disproved these
allegations ; and the point was finally settled by
a pamphlet, *La Y^rit^ sur la paternity de la
Marseillaise ' (Paris, 1865), written by A. Rouget
de Lisle, nephew of the composer, which contains
precise infonuation and documentary evidence,
establishing Rouget de Lisle's claim beyond a
doubt. The controversy is examined at length
by Loquin in *Les mllodies populaires de la
France,' Paris. 1879. The * Marseillaise ' has
been often made use of by composers. Of these,
two may be cited — Salieri, in the opening chorus
of his opera, 'Palmira' (1795), and Grison, in
the introduction to the oratorio 'Esther' (sUll
in MS.), both evidently intentional. Schumann
uses it in his song of the Two Grenadiers with



Digitized by



Google



MARSEILLAISE.

magnificent effect ; and also introduces it in his
Overture to Hermann und Dorothea.

A picture by Piis* representing Kouget de Lisle
singing the 'Marseillaise/ is well-known from
the engraving. [G.C.]

MARSH, Alphonso, son of Robert Marsh,
one of the musicians in ordinair to Charles I.,
was baptized at St. Margaret^ Westminster,
Jan. a8, 1627. He was appointed a Grentleman
of the Chapel Royal in 1660. Songs composed by
him appear in *The Treasury of Musick,' .1669,
'Choice Ayres and Dialogues,* 1676, and other
publications of the time. He died April 9, 1681.
His son Alphonso was admitted a Gentleman
of the Chapel Royal April 25, 1676. Songs by
him are contained in *The Theater of Music/
1685-7, 'The Banquet of Musick,' 1688-92,
and other publications. He died April 5, 1692,
and was buried April 9, in the west cloister of
Westminster Abbey. [W. H. H.]

MARSH, John, bom at Dorking, 1750, a
distinguished amateur composer and performer,
resident at Salisbury (1776-81), Canterbury
(1 781-6), and Chichester (i 787-1828), in each
of which places he led the band at the subscrip-
tion concerts and occasionally officiated for the
cathedral and church oigamsts. He composed
two Services, many anthems, chants, and psalm
tunes, glees, songs, symphonies, overtures, quar-
tets, etc., and organ and pianoforte music, be-
sides treatises on harmony, thorough bass, etc.
He died in 1828. A fully detailed account of
his career is given in the ' Dictionary of Musi-
cians,* 1824, but it does not possess sufficient
interest to be repeated here. [ W. H. H.]

MARSHALL, William, Mus. Doc., son of
William Marshall of Oxford, music-seller, bom
1806, was a chorister of the Chapel Royal under
John Stafford Smith and William Hawes. He
was appointed oivanist of Christ Church Cathe-
dral Mid St. John s Coll^, Oxford, ini823, and
was also organist of AU Saints' Church. He
graduated as Mus. Bac. Dec. 7, 1836, and Mus.
Doc Jan. 14, 1840. He resigned his Oxford
appointments in 1846, and afterwards became
organist of St. Mary's Church, Kidderminster.
He was author of ' The Art of Reading Church
Mosio,' 1842, and editor (jointly wi& Alfred
Bennett) of a oollecti€m of chants, 1829, and
also editor of a book of words of anthems, 1840,
4th edit. 1862. He died at Handsworth, Aug.
17. 1875.

His younger brother, Charles Ward Mar-
shall, bom 1808, about 1835 appeared, under
the assumed name of Mahvers, on the London
stage as a tenor singer, with success. In 1842
he quitted the theatre for concert and oratorio
singmg, in which he met with greater success.
AfWr 1847 he withdrew from public life. He
died at Islington Feb. 22, 1874. L'^, H. H.]

MARSON, Geoegb, Mus. Bac., contributed
to 'The Triumphes of Oriana,' 1601, the five-
part madrigal *The nimphee and shepheards.'
He oompoMd services and anthems, some of
which are still extant in MS. [W. H. H.]



MARTELfi
from martder si
of notes struck <
left before the en
Notes dashed, do
are Martel^ or
term Martellem<
acdaccatura.

MARTHA. C
Produced at Viei

extension of Ladt Henribtte, in which Flotow
had only a third share. The alterations in the
book are said to have been made by St. Oeorges,
and translated into German by Friedrich. It
was produced in Italian at Covent Garden, as
Maria, July i, 1858 ; in English at Drury Lane,
Oct. II, 1858, and in French at the Th^tre
Lyrique, Dec. 1 6, 1865. The air of ' The last
rose of summer' is a prominent motif in this
opera. [G.]

MARTIN, George Wiluam, bom March 8,
1825, received his early musical education in the
choir of St. Paul's cathedral under William Hawes.
He has composed many glees, madrigals, and
part-songs, for some of which he has been awarded
prizes, and has edited and published cheap ar-
rangements of the popular oratorios and other
works of Handel, Haydn, and others. For some
years he directed performances given under the
name of the National Choral Society. He has
an aptitude for training choirs of school children,
and has conducted many public performances by
them. [W.H.H.]

MARTIN, Jonathan, bom 1715, was a cho-
rister of the Chapel Royal under Dr. Croft. On
quitting the choir he was placed under Thomas
Roeeingrave for instmction on the organ, and
soon attained such proficiency as to be able to
deputise for his master at St. George's, Hanover
Square, and for Weldon at tiie Chapel Royal.
On June 21, 1736 he was admitted organist of
the Chapel Royfd on the death of Weldon, and
promised *to compose anthems or services for
the use of His Majesty's Chapel, whenever re-
quired by the Subdean for the time being.'
Probably he was never caUed upon to fulfil his
promise, as his only known composition is a song
m Rowe's tragedy, V Tamerlane,' 'To thee, O
gentle sleep.' He died of consumption, April 4,
1 737, and was buried April 9, in the west clois-
ter of Westminster Abbey. [W. H. H.]

MARTINES, or MARTINEZ, Marianne,
daughter of the master of the ceremonies to the
Pope's Nuncio, bom May 4, 1744, at Vienna.
Metastasio, a great friend of her fiither's, lived
for nearly half a century with the fiimily, and
undertook her education. Haydn, then young,
poor, and unknown, occupied a wretched garre4
m the same house, and taught her the harpsi-
chord, while Porpora gave her lessons in singing
and composition, her general cultivation heiag
under Metastasio's own care. Of these advan-
tages she made good use. Bumey, who knew her
in 1772 ^ speaks of her in the highest tesms,
1 8m ' Frtwnt State of Haste In Oennaar.' L SU-IS. SCfi; 851. 308.



Digitized by



Google



222



MARTINSa



n>6cbUy pnuring her singing ; and she Also won
the admiration of both Hasse and Gerbert.
After the death of the parents, and of Metas-
tasio, who left them well off, she and her sister
gave evening parties, which were frequented by
all the principal artists. On one of these oc-
casions Kelly' heard Marianne play a 4-hand
sonata of Mozart's with the composer. Latterly
Marianne devoted herself to teaohinff talented
pupils. In 1773 she was made a member of the
Musical Academy of Bologna. In 1 78a, the ' Ton-
kiinstler Societat* performed her oratorio ' Isaoco,*
to Metastasio*8 words. She also composed two
more oratorios, a mass, and other sacred music ;
Psalms, to Metastasio*s Italian translation, for 4
and 8 voices ; solo-motets, arias, and cantatas,
concertos, and sonatas for davier, overtures and
symphonies. The GeseUschaft der Musikfr^unde
possesses the autographs of many of these works.
Marianne expired on the 13th of Dec. 181 2, a
few days aft^ the death of her younger sister
Antonie. [C.F.P.]

MARTINI, Giovanni Battista, or Giau-
BATTiflTA, commonly called Padre Martini, one
of the most important scientific musicians of
the 1 8th century, bom at Bologna, April 15,
1706; was first taught music by his father
Antonio Maria, member of fk musical society
called 'I Fratelli.* Having become an expert
-violinist, he learned to sing and play the hai^si-
chord from Padre Predi^ and counterpoint
from Antonio Riccieri, a castrate of Vincenzo,
and oomposer of merit. At the same time he
studied philosophy and theology with the monks
of San Filippo Neri. Having passed his novi-
ciate at the Franciscan convent at Lago, he was
ordained on Sept. 11, 1722, and returning to
Bologna in 1725 became maestro di capella of
the diurch of San Francesco. Giaoomo Perti
held a sindlar post at San Petronio, and from
him Martini received valuable advice on com-
posing church-music, at the same time laying
a scientific foundation for the whole theory of
music by a conscientious study of mathematics
with Zanotti, a well-known physician and mathe-
matician. He thus gradually acquired an ex-
traordinary and oomprdiensive mass of knowledge,
with an amount of literary information fiur in
advance of his contemporaries. His library
was unusually complete for the time', partly
because scientific men of all countries took a
pleasure in sending him books. Bumey, whose
own library was very extensive, expressed his
astonishment at that of Martini, which he esti-
mates to contain 17,000 vols. ('Present State of
Music in France and Italy,' p. 202). After his
death a portion found its way to the court library
at Vienna : the rest remained at Bologna in the
liceo Filannonioo. His reputation as a teacher
was European, and scholars flocked to him from

1 Kelly's m 1» f«>c « of detail are ImmiMnlila^ He cl^cs tiM Mune
'lUitlni.' ftod Im a ginin g lUilaaiM to be the rister d her Caber—* a
Terr old man ' and * nearly his own age'— speaks of her as ' hk the rale
of years.' tbon^ sUU 'possessing the gatoty and vlTadty of » glii.'
Sbe was barely 40u

a Be had 10 copies of Ooldo d'Arato's Microlflgoi,



MARTINL

all parts, among the most oelebrated being
Paolucci, Ruttini, Sarti, Ottani, and Stanislas
Mattel, afterwards joint founder of the Idceo
Filarmonico. These he educated in the traditions
of the old Roman school, the main characteristic
of which was the melodious movement , of iike
separate parts. Martini was also frequently
called upon to recommend a new maestro <u
capella or to act as umpire in disputed questions.
He was himself occasionally involved in musical
controversy ; the best-known instance being his
dispute with Redi about the solution of a puzzle-
canon by Giovanni Animucda, which he solved
by employing two k^ in the third part. This,
though approved by Pitoni, was declared by Redi
to be unjustifiable. To prove his point Martini
therefore wrote a treatise mainfaLming that puzzle-
canons had not unfrequently been solved in that
manner, and quoting examples. Another im-
portant controversy was that held with Eximeno
[see ExiinuffO]. In spite of these differences of
opinion his contemporaries describe him as a
man of great mildness, modesty, and good nature,
always ready to answer questions, and give ex-
pUinations. It is difficult to think without
emotion of the warm welcome which he, the most
learned and one of the oldest musicians of his
country, bestowed on Mozart when he visited
Bologna in i77oasaboyof 14, or to resist viewing
it as a symbol of the readiness of Italy to open to
Germany that vast domain of music aiid tradition
which had hitherto been exclusively her own.
His courtesy and affability brought the Bolognese
monk into friendly relations with many exalted
personages, Frederic the Great and Frederic
William II of Prussia, Princess Maria Antonie
of Saxony, and Pope Clement XTV among the
number. He sufferod muc^ towards the dose of
his life from asthma, a disease of the bladder,
and a painful wound in the leg ; but his cheer-
fulness never deserted him, and he worked at
the fourth volume of his History of Music up
to his death, which took pla^ In 1784— on
October 3, according to Moreschi, Gandini, and
Delia Valle ; on August 4 according to Fan-
tuzzi. His favourite pupil Mattel stayed with
him to the last. Zanotd's requiem was sung
at his funeral, and on December 2 the Acca-
demia Filarmonica held a grand function, at
which a funeral mass, the joint composition of
13 maestri di capella, was performed, and an
'Elogio* pronounced by Lionardo Vdpi. All
Italy mourned for him, and a medallion to hia
memory was struck by Tadolini. He was a
membor of two * Accademie,' the * Filarmonid *
of Bologna, and the 'Arcadid' of Rome, hia
assumed name in the latter being Aristoxenua
Amphion.

Martini's two great works are the 'Storiik
della Musica' (3 vols., Bologna, 1757, 70, 81),
and the 'Esemplare ossia Saggio . . . di otm-
trapunto* (2 vols., Bologna, 1774, 75). The
first is a most learned work ; each cfaapt^ begins
and ends with a puzzle-canon, the whole (4
which were salved and published by Cherubini.
The three volumes all treat of andent music;



Digitized by



Google



HABTINL

ibe mnsio of the middle ages down to the nth
eenttiry waa to have been the subject of the
4th ToL, which he did not live to finish. A
rep<Mrt having sprung up that the completed MS.
was in the Minorite convent at BcJogna, F^tis
obtained access to the library through Bossini,
but found only materials, of which no use has
yet been made. The 'Saggio* is a most im-
portant collection of examples from the best
masters of the ancient Italian and Spanish schools*
and a model of its kind. Besides a number of
small treatiBes and controversial writings {(or list
see F^tis) Martini left masses and other church
music in the style of the time. The following
were printed: — 'litanin' op. I (1754); 'XII
Senate d'intavolatora,^ op. 2 (Amsterdam, Le
C^ne, I74i)» excellent and full of originality;
'VI Senate per argajio e cembalo' (Bologna
1747); 'Duetti da Camera* (Bologna, 1763).
The Lioeo of Bologna possesses the MSS. of two
oiatorios, 'San Pietro (two separate composi-
tions), and ' L* Assunzione di Salomone al trono
d'Israele'; a farsetta 'La Dirindina*; and 3
Intermem, 'L*Impreeario delle Canarie,' *Don
Chisciotto,' and '11 Maestro di Musica.* A
requiem (103 sheets), and other church com-
podtions are in Vienna. Fauer, in his *Alte
Klaviermusik,* gives a gavotte and ballet of
Martini's. Farrenc has published la sonatas in
his ' Tr^sor musical,* and other works are given
by Ltick, Komer, Bicordi, etc. The b^ of
many books on his life and works is the ' Elogio*
of Pietro Delia VaUe (Bologna, 1 784). [F. 6.]

MABTYBS,LES. Opera in 4aots; words by
Scribe, music by Donixetti. Fioduced at the
Acad^e, April 10, 1840 ; at the Royal Italian
Opera, as 'I Martiri,* April 20, 1852. The
work was an adaptation of Poliuto, a former
Italian opeok of Donizetti's. [6.]

MARX, Adolph Bbenhabd, learned mu-
lician and author, bom May 15, 1799, *^ Halle,
son of a physician, learned harmony from TUrk,
studied law, and held a legal post at Naumburg.
His love of music led him to Berlin, where he
soon gave up the law, and in 1824 he founded
with Schlesinger the publisher the ' Allffemeine
Berliner MuiSczeitung.' This periodica^ whidi
only existed seven years, did important s^rice in
creating a juster appreciation of Beethoven's
works in North Grermany, a service which Bee-
thoven characteristically refers to in a letter^ to
Schlesinger, Sept. 25, 1825. His book on the
same subject, however, ' Beethoven s Leben und
Schaffon'^ (Berlin. 1859, 2nd ed. 1865, 3rd 1875^,
is a flEkntastio critique, too full of mere conjecture
and misty sstheticism. In 1827 he received his
doctor's diploma from the university of Mar-
burg, and was made 'Docent,' or tutor, in the
histofy and theory of music at the university
of Berlin. He became Professor in 1830, and
in 1832 Musikdirector of the university choir.
In 1850 he founded with Kullak and Stem
the ' Berliner Musikschule,' afterwards the
' Berliner Conservatorium,' but withdrew in 1856

aiolil.IMiie.5o.J8a>



MARTLEBONE GARDENS. 228

(Kullak having resigned in '55), and hence-
forth devoted himself to his private pupils and to
his work at the University. He died in Berlin,
May 17, 1866. His numerous works are of
unequal merit, the most important being the
' Lehre von der musikalischen Composition, ' 4 vols.
(Breitkopf & Hartel, 1837, 38, 45). His'Gluok
und die Oper' (Berlin, 2 vols. 1862) contains
many ingenious observations, but is of no his-
toric»d vuue. Besides what he did for Beethoven's
music, Marx deserves credit for bringing to light
many little-known works of Bach and Handel.
His oompositions are not remarkable; neither
his oratorios ' Johannes der Taufer,' ' Moses,' and
' Nahid und Omar,' nor his instrumental music,
obtaining more than a 'succ^ d'estime.* Never-
theless some particulars given in his *£rinnerun-
gen ' (Berlin, 1865) as to his manner of composing
are well worth reading, as indeed is the whole
book for its interesting picture of the state Of
music in Berlin between 1 830 and 60. With Men-
delssohn he was at one time extremely intimate,
and no doubt was in many respects useful to him ;
but his influence diminished as Mendelssohn grew
older and more independent. L' '^O

MARXSEN, Eddasd, bom July 23, 1806, ^t
Nienstadten near Altona, where ms father was
oif^anist. He was intended for the church, but
devoted himself to music, which he studied at



Online LibraryJohn Alexander Fuller-Maitland Sir George GroveA Dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889): with ..., Volume 2 → online text (page 52 of 180)