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StetionB. Inter, alt Alt. abof« Ma lia*.

Sea level at mean low tide

Astoria 53 53

Fort Yanoouver '79 133

Gamp on mountain slope 5,820 6|962

Smnmit of Mt. Hood 6,273 11,226

*^ The computations are made with new tables, which will shortly
be published, and which ^ve results similar to those bj Planta-
mour's formula, based on Renault's constants. They give the re-
sults somewhat higher than if Guyot^s tables had been used, the
latter giving the height of the summit at 11,185 feet.^

The ascent was made on the twentv-third of last August, under
very favorable circumstances of weather, and the instruments used
(new ones, by James Green, of New York) were brought down in
perfect order, and compared with the standard at Fort V ancouver.

With regard to the discordance between his result and that of
a party which ascended the mountain a year earlier, and from the
temperature, 180° F., at which th ey observed water to boil, de-
duced a height of 17,600 feet, CoL Williamson remarks:

^ The reason is that the instruments used were unreliable^ and
this method of computing the altitude defective. With a boiling-
point apparatus ^or thermo-barometer, as it is called), even of the
most approved kind, the results by boiling water are fiur inferi(»r
to those by the cistern-barometer; but if the observations are

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made by a common thermometer, with small places tor degrees^ as
was the case in this instance, and the instmment not protected
from drafts of air, the results are utterly unreliable, and, therefore,
worse than worthless.''

Prof J. D. Whitney, State G^logist of California, who visited
Oregon this summer, writes (in a private letter^ concerning the
same ascent : *' The measurement of Mt. Hood published abroad by
Prof Alphonso Wood was in reality made by Rev, Mr. Atkinson,
of Portland, who carried up his own thermometer (one of Ken-
dall's, with a heavy metallic scaled made the observations, and cal-
culated them by a rule which he round in Porter's Chemistry."

In our May number (vol. xliii, p. 416-9), we quoted from the
Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society a story told by a
Rev. H. £ Hines of ms own ascent of Mt. Hood, in July of last
year, wherein that soitleman distinctly conveys the impression
that he, too, had boiled water at 180° upon the summit, and calcu-
lated fi^om it a height for the mountain of 17,640 feet, thus con-
firming Mr. Atkinson's result with a signal, not to say singular,
closeness. Prof Whitney says farther, with reference to this:
^^ Mr. Hines never carried up any instruments at all, as I ascer-
tained on the spot from those who went up with him. I had felt
certain of this before, for the simple reason that he had given fig-
ures identical with those of Atkinson and Wood, which were evi-
dently erroneous; as also because, in the account which he pub-
lishea in the newspapers on his return, he said never a word about
having made any measurements, or having any instruments with
him. It is, then, a clear case of piracy."*

Prof Whitney himself made, cuiring his brief visit, the best trig-
onometrical observations that circumstances pennitted upon the
heights of Hood, St. Helens, and Adams, and his results, as yet only
rudely worked out, gave him over 12,000 feet for Hood, and about
1,000 feet less for the other two, which appear to be nearly of the
same height. Mt. Rainier he was unable to observe, but thinks,
iudgin^ by the eye alone, that it is the highest of all the moun-
tains of Oregon and Washington Territory. Col. Williamson refers
to these measurements as tending to confirm the accuracy of his
own; and, while hoping that other parties, with good instruments,
will repeat his observations, he yet expresses his confidence that
the result he has reached will not be varied a hundred feet.

2. American Association for t/ie Advancement of Science. - -
The sixteenth meeting of the American Association for the Ad-
vancement of Science was held at Burlington, Yt., in August last,
commencing on Wednesday the 21st and closing on the Monday
evening foUowing. The officers of the meeting were Prof J. S.
Newberry, President, Prof J. Lovering, Permanent Secretary,
Prof C. S. Lyman, General Secretary. The Vice President, Prof

* Mr. Hines*B daim is not pnt forward quite so categoricallj as it was repre-
sented in oar reprint of this article. By an error of the press, his statement,
" This was found to be 1*7,460 feet high, the thermometer standhig at 180^,*'
is printed " This we found,*' eto. On tiie difference between was and we he would
poasiblj found a daim to save hia ohaneter for rwBdtj.

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432 Miscellaneous Intelligence.

W. Gibbs, and the Treasurer, Dr. A. L. Elw^ were not present.
Dr. B. A. Gould was elected chairman of Section A, Mathematios
and Physics, and Prof. J. W. Dawson, of Section B, Natural His-
tory and Geology.

The whole number of papers read was 63 — 30 in Section A, and
83 in Section B. The papers, generally, would compare favorably
in interest and importance with those of previous meetings.

The attendance of members was about the same as at Buffalo-
some seventy-five or eighty. Though not as great, for various rea-
sons, as before the war, it was yejb larger than was generally antici-
pated, and abundantly indicative of the abiding interest felt in
the Association by the scientific men of the country. The spirit
of the meeting was excellent throughout, and the discussions often
of the highest interest. A noticeable feature was the number of
the younger men of science who took part, some of them for the
first time, and the impression of high promise made by many <^
them in their several fields of effort. At the same time, the ab-
sence of many of the older men, so active in former meetings, could
not but be generally remarked. Some had died — ^among them
Prof. Bache ; others, like Prof. Henry, were kept away by illness,
or other causes.

The meeting was in all respects a successful one, and the Asso-
ciation may now be regarded as permanently re-established, with
every prospect of as Ml an attendance of members, and as happy
an influence on the science and the scientific men of the country in
the future as at any former period. The success of the meeting
was promoted in no small degree by the active co5peration of
many of the citizens of Burlington, and the hospitalities and cour-
tesies extended to the Association, both by inoividuals and cor-
porations, contributed largely to the comfort and enjoyment of the
members. The excursion on the Lake and to the Gorgorc of the
Ausable, by invitation of the Champlain Transportation Company,
and that to Mount Mansfield by invitation of W. H. H. Bingham,
Esq., deserve to be particularly mentioned.

In default of the customary address by the retiring president,

S)t, Barnard being in Europe) the address this year npfe given by
e president. Prof Newberry, on "Modem Scientific investiga-
tion — its Methods and Tendencies."

Among the general business transacted was the appointment of
a commission, " To examine the Linnean rules of Zoological No-
menclature by the light of the suggestions and examples of recent
writers, and to prepare a code of laws and recommendations in
conformity with just modem usage, to be submitted to the Asso-
ciation at the next meeting." The conunission, as appointed, con-
sists of Profe. J. D. Dana, J. Wyman, S. F. Baird, J. Leidy, J. S.
Newberry, J. W. Dawson, Wm. Stimpson, S. H. Scudder and F.
W. Putnam.

Prof. John Torrey was appointed on the conunittee of Weights
and Measures in place of the late Prof Bache.

Dr. B. A. Gould was appointed to prepare an address on the life
and Services of Prof Bacne, to be delivered at the next meeting.

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The next meeting was appointed to be held in Chicago, commen-
cing on Wednesday, the 6th of August, 1868.

"nke officers elected for that meetms, are Dr. B. A. Gould, Pres-
ident, Col. Charles Whittlesey, Vice rresident. Prof. J. Levering,
Permanent Secretary, Prof A. P. Rockwell, Genertd Secretary,
Dr. A L. Elwyn, Treasurer.

The following is a list of the papers read.

In Sbotiok a. — ^Mathbmatios Aim t^arsios.

1. On the optical method of studying Sound; Prof J. Loyering.

2. New determination of the distance of the Sun ; Prof. Simon

3. Apparatus for illustrating Wave Motion ; Prof C. S. Lyman.

4. On the Theories of Boussingault and Thenard of the differ-
ence between Stale and Freshened Bread ; Prof £. N. Horsford.

5. On the relative values of Gold and Silver for a series of
years : E. B. Elliott.

6. Kemarks on Meteorological results deduced from the new
method of registration; Prof G. W. Hou^h.

7. Remarks on the laws of winds, with some account of pro-
gress in the investigation of the same ; Prof J. H. Coffin.

8. On the Periodicity of the Aurora ; Prof J. Levering.
0. Occupations of the population classified ; E. B. Elliott.

10. On the determination of latitude from observations in the
prime vertical ; Prof W. A Rogers.

11. On new diagrams and derivative symbols, illustrating the
prominent characteristics of the chemicid elements ; Prof. S. D.

12. On the Velocity of transmission of signals by the Electro-
magnetic Telegraph; Dr. B. A Gould.

13. On the Structure of Ice in its relations to the sudden disap-
pearance of Ice on Lake Champlain; Prof E. IS, Horsford.

14. The Geodetic Triangulation of the Coast of New England,
Prof Bache, late Superintendent of the U. S. Coast Survey ; Prof
J. E. Hilgard.

16. Prebminary notice of Experiments on Snow at temperatures
below 32' Farenheit; Prof E. Hungerford.

16. Remarks on Personal Equation in Transit Observations; Prof
G. W. Hough.

17. Tellurium a Metal; Dr. L. Bradley.

18. On a new method of Measuring Musical intervals upon a
spiral nrojection ; S. D. Tillman.

10. suggestions on the Scientific and Practical Relations of
Wood Spirit; Prof J. Hyatt.

20. On certain Laws of Production and Trade; K B. Elliott.

21. On the Conversion of Iron into Ste^l by means of carburet*
ted Hydrogen Gas ; Prof Jas. Hyatt

22. On the Enowledee of the Satellites of Jupiter before the
time of Galileo: Prof Jas. Hyatt

23. On the Effects of Sunshine on Fires; Prof E. N. Horsford.

24. On the Communications of Vibrations; Yxot B, Peiroe, read
by Prof Levering.

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484 MUe^Uaneous InUUigenee.

25. Indian Arohiteoture; L. H. Morgaa

26. Notes on the Duke of Argyle's theory of the flight of Birch,
with illustrations derived irom the Trochihdae ; L. £. Chittenden.

27. On the nse of Months for Dates; J. F. Holton.

28. OnElUptie Integrals by Series; David Trowbridge, presen-
ted by Dr. B. A. GoiQd.

29. On Euler's Universal Formnlss for the SnmmaticMi of Series ;
David Trowbridge, presented by Dr. B. A. Oould.

30. On Observations of Yenus near inferior ccmjnnotion; Pro£
C. S. Lyman.

IH SBonoK B.^NATna^ Histobt, and Gioloot.

1. The Distribution of Precious Metals in the United States ;
CoL Charles Whittlesey.

2. The Geological Kelations of the Mastodon and Fossil Ele-
phant of North America; ProC James HalL

8. Considerations drawn from the Study of the Orthoptera of
North America; Samuel H. Scudder.

4. Traces of Ancient Olaciers in the White Mts.; O. L. Yose.

5. The Origin of the so-called lignilites or Epsomites ; ProL
O. C. Marsh.

6. The Oeographical Distribution of the Sediments and the Fos-
sils of the Hamilton, Portage, and Chemung groups of New York;
Prof James HalL

7. The distribution of limnssa megasoma and cognate genera;
L. E. Chittenden.

8. Upon some remarkable Fossil Fishes obtained by Rev. H.
Herser, from the Devonian Bocks at Delaware, Ohio; Prof J. S.

0. The Fossil Insects of North America; S. H. Scudder.

10. The Winooski Marbles of Colchester, Vt; Prof & H. Hitch-

11. The Zoological affinities of the Tabulate Corals; Pto£ A. E.

12. The Coal Measures of Blinois : Prof A. H. Worthen.

13. New Points in the Geology of Nova Scotia and New Bruns-
wick; Prof J. W. Dawson.

14. On some New Fossil Sponges from the Lower Silurian : Pl*o£
O. C. MarsL

16. On the occurrance of Fossil Sponges in the successive groups
of the Paleoasoic Series ; Prof James HalL

16. The American Beaver ; Lewis H. Moi^an.

17. The Distortion and Mietamorphosis of Pebbles in Conglome-
rates; C. H. Hitchcock.

18. On some Fossil Reptiles and Fishes from the Carboniferous
Strata of Ohio, Kentucky, and Illinois ; Prof J. S. Newberry.

19. Cotta's Law of the Earth's Development; R. W. Raymond.

20. On Mountain Masses of Iron Ore in the United States ; CoL
Charles Whittlesey.

21. On the Lower Silurian Brown Hematite Beds of America;
B. S. Lyman.

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MtMctUaneaus InieUig&nce. 435

22. Bxphumtioiui of the Geologioal Map of Maine; Pro£ C. H.

28. On the Gleographical Dislaibntion of Radiates (m the West
Coast of America ; Pro£ A. £. YerrilL

24. Considerations relatine to the Climate of the Glacial Bpodi
in North America; Prof Inward Hungerford.

26. Depression of the Sea during the Glacial Period ; CoL Chas.

26. Ripton Sea Beaches ; Pro£ Edward Hungerford.

27. On the Cretaceous and Tertiary Flora of North America;
Prof J. S. Newberry.

28. On certain Enecte prodncednpon Fossils by Weathering;
Prof O. C. MarsL

20. Geology of Vermont; Prof C. H. Hitchcock.

30. The Insect Fauna of the summit of Mt. Washington as com-
pared with that of Labrador; Dr. A. S. Packard, jr.

81. Remarks on the Ichthyological Fauna of iJake Champlain;
F. W. Putnam.

32. The Embryology of Libellula (Diplax), with notes on the
Morphology of Insects, and the classification of the Neuroptera;
Dr. A. S. Packard, Jr.

88. On the Flowering of Plants; James HyatU

8. N'ational Academy of Sciences. — ^At the recent August meet-
ing of the National Academy of Sciences, held at Hartford, the
fofiowing papers were presented.

1. The structural character of the Selachians ; L. Agaesiz,

2. Protest against modem nomenclature in.Zoology ; L. Agassis.
8. On homocercy and heteroceroy ; L. Agassia.

4. On the significance of classes in the Animal kingdom; L.

5. On sterility among Skates ; L. Agassiz.

6. The fifth pair of nerves and the organ of hearing in Kcates;
L. Agassis.

7. On periodical orvulation in Sharks and Skates; L. Agassis.

8. The circulation of blood in Selachians ; L. Agassis.

0. Parasitic Crustacea in the gills of Sharks ; L. Agassis.

10. On the duration of the electric discharge ; O. N. Rood.

11. On new processes in analytical chemistry; W. Gibbs.

12. On certam i>oints in the theory of atomicities ; W. Gibbs.

13. Spectroscopic notices; W. Gibbs.

14. On determination of wave lengths by the method of com-
parison; W. Gibbs.

16. Embryology and aflhiities of Cydoptems; L. Agassis.

16. Algebras; Benjamin Peirce.

17. The limitations and conditions of associated linear algebra;
Benjamin Peirce.

18. Single, double and triple linear assoeiatiTO algebras; Ben-
jamin Peirce.

19. Quadruple linear associatiTC algebra; Benjamin Peirce.

20. 'Hi^ precision of the equinoxes and rotation as resulting from

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the theory of the gyroscope, with remarks explanatory of the de-
yiation of rifled projectiles ; G. Barnard*

21. Notes on a problem in cnrvature ; T. HilL

22. Observations in 1866 and 1867 of right ascensions of etars
observed by d'Agelet in 1783-^6 ; B. A. Gronld.

23. Determinations of the proper motions of stars first observed
by d'Agelet; B. A. Gonld.

24. Remarks on the geological relations of the Mastodon and
Fossil Elephant, suggested by the discovery of the Cohoes Masto-
don; Jas. HalL

25. On the valne of certain groups in the geological series when
studied in their geographical extension ; Jas. Hal£

26. On a process of integration used in the case of a planet's or-
bit disturbed by small forces ; Theodore Strong.

4. Mineralogieal Namenclature. — In my article on Mineralogical
Nomenclature, page 146 of this volume, I observe that names
after persons were not used by the ancients. I failed to allude to
a case cited from Pliny (xxxvi, 67^ by von Kobell, in his excellent
Gesekichte der Mtneralogie (Munich, 1864) — that of Obsidian^ or
more correctly Obaian^ named after Obsius, who Pliny say^s dis-
covered the substance in Ethiopia, — an example referred to m 1790
by Werner in a defense of his own use of such names (Bergm. J.,
i, 103, 1790). But this is not strictly an example of a personal
name of the kind intended. For Pliny uses Obaian not as a sub-
stantive but as an adjective ; the mineral was not Obsian but Ob-
Stan glass or Obsian stone; vitrum obsianum^ lapis obsianuSy and
obsiana [vitra], occurring in the course of the paragraph. The
addition of the termination ite to Obsian would, according to min-
eralogical method, make a name equivalent to Pliny's lapis obsior
nus. Names of persons ending in an (as Octavian, TertuUian)
were common among the Romans ; and this is so far reason for
avoiding the termination in names of stones.

Some critics question the existence of the reputed Obsius, and
reject Pliny's explanatiop. j. n. danjl.

5. British Association. — ^The British Association was in session
at Dundee in September last, commencing its session on Wednes-
day the 4th. Tne names of over 2000 attendants on the meeting
were enrolled, of whom more than 700 were ladies. The President
of the year, the Duke of Buccleuch, opened ;the meeting with a
brief and popular address, much less labored and scientific than
the Association has been accustomed to hear from its President.
The receipts for the year past amounted to £787, and the expendi-
tures to £777. We have not space at this time for a notice of the
varioufl papers presented.

6. Walker Frizes of the Boston Society of NaJbwrcd History. —
The subjects for the annual prizes of 1868 and 1869, are as follows:
For 1868, Adduce and discuss the evidences of the coexistence of
man and extinct animals with the view of determining the limits
of his antiquity. For 1869, On the range of Arctic and Alpine
plants in North America, with an enimieration of the species. On
the nature of the prizes, see vol xl, p. 137, of this Journal.

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Miscellaneous Bibliography, 487


1. 7%6 Mechanical Theory of Heait mth its applicatum to the
Steam Engine^ and to the physical properties of bodies : by R,
Glausiub, Prof, of Physics in the Umvereity of Zurich, eaited by
Pro£ T. Archer Hirst, F.RS., with an introduction by Professor
Tyndall. London, Jbhn Van Voorst, 1867. 8vo, pp. 376.— This
Tolnme consists of nine memoirs by Pro£ Clausius which were
originally published in Poegendorff^s Annalen and elsewhere. In
1864 the author prepared lor the press a collected edition of them,
adding notes and appendices. The j>re8ent volume is an English
edition containing, nowever, an additional memoir (the 9th) \mch
has appeared since 1864. The 5th memoir was reprinted in this
Journal, (H, xxii and xxiii) from the Philosophical Magazine.

The following are the titles to the memoirs. Introduction ; On
the treatment of differential equations which are not directly inte-
grable. 1st memoir. On the moving force of heat, and the laws
of heat which may be deduced therefrom. 2d, On the deportment
of vapor during its expansion under different circumstances. Sd,
On the theoretic connexion of two empirical laws relating to the
tension and the latent heat of different vapors. 4th, On a modified
form of the second fundamental theorem in the mechanical theory
of heat. 5th, On the application of the mechanical theory of heat
to the steam engine. 6th. On the application of the theorem of
the equivalence of transfonnations to interior work. 7th, On an
axiom in the mechanical theory of heat. 8th, On the concentra-
tion of rays of heat and light, and on the limits of its action. 9th,
On several convenient forms of the fundamental equations of the
mechanical theory of heat. ^

2. Condition and doings of the Boston Society of Natural His-
tory, Boston, 1867. — ^In this report are included the reports of
the Custodian, the Librarian, the curators of the various special
departments, and the Treasurer, together with obituary notices of
two prominent and active members of the society. Dr. A. A. Gould
and Dr. Henry Bryant. The reports show continued enterprise
and activity in all departments of the society, and a highly en-
couraging nnancial condition. During the year two important be-
quests have been received, one of t20,090 from P. P. JPope, Esq.,
and tlCLOOO, with a valuable collection of shells from Miss S. P.
Pratt. Important improvements have been made in the building,
for the better accommodation of the rapidly increasing library and
collections. The publication of both the Memoirs and Proceedings
have gone forward with unusual rapidity, and a volume of the
Correspondence and Entomological notes of Dr. T. W. Harris is
announced as authorised to be published. During the year forty-
four papers have been presented to the Society irom thirty-one in-

8. The Culture demanded by Modem Life. — ^Tinder this title
Messrs. Appleton & Co. have published a collection of addresses
and arguments in favor of scientific training by Faraday, Tyndall,
and a number of the most eminent English and American scientists

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488 MisceUoMous Bibliography.

of the present day. Thk ezeelleat and useM oompilfttion is dae
to Proi. E. L. Toumans whose labors in the cause of science are
fiuniliar to all and to whom we owe a collection of papers on tiie
correlation of forces as well as original sci^tific works of great
merit. Pro£ Youmans has done gix>d service to the cause of sci-
entific education in our country by the preparation of this work.
He has brought together a mass of arnmenl from scattered and,
to most readers, inaccessible sources. These papers treat the sub-
ject from about every point of view. They vary, as mi^ht be ex-
pected, in ability, but they are without exception readabfe and in-
teresting. Mr. Youmans's own lecture on the scientific study of
human nature is very valuable and suggestive and his introduction
to the reader is well written and appropriate. The gem of the
work is, in our opinion the noble ana characteristic Asoourse of
Faraday on the education of the Judgment, and we are glad to see
his words put into a permanent rorm. In conclusion we heartily
thank Prof. Youmans for his work and commend it to the earnest
attention of teachers. o.

4. On the distrilnaion of temperaturt in the lower region of the
6ar^A^9a^mo«j9A^«/ by Professor HBKBTHsyKSssT, F.RS. (Ext
Roy. Irish Acad.) 4to, 68 pp. — ^Professor Hennessy discusses in
this memoir the daily change of temperature with reference to the
ffeographioal position of the stations. By drawing a line through
the places that enjoy the same temperature at the same instant of
absolute time, he constructs what ne denominates a synthermal
line. A map containing such lines for 4^ a. m. and 2^ p. ic Green-
wich mean time accompanies the memoir.

5. IHe Chemie der aitstrochnenden Oeky ihre Bereitung tmd
ihre technieche Anwenyiung in JKunaten und Oewerben; von 6. J.
MuLDBB. Nach der hollandischen Original-Ausgabe bearbeitet von
J. Mtiller, Berlin, 1867.— Mulder being asked what punt would
best serve to protect iron from rusting, was unable to ^ve an
answer satis&ctory to himself without first experimentally inyesti-
gating the nature of paint and finding out wnerein the drying of
oils consists. He has brought to bear on this practical subject, his
well known accuracy, tact, and thoroughness, and has obtained com-
mensurate results. He has resolutely and perseveringly grappled
the previously evasive Proteus of title drying oils, throueh its several
shapes, and has at last elicited &cts and principles whi<^ are idl
the more important for their bearing on matters of eyervday life,
-~for their relation to the arts and to art. Most of his experi-
ments were made on linseed oil, but he also devoted some atten-
tion to poppyseed oil and nut oil The chief and distinctave con-
stituent or all is ^' linolein '' which consists of glycerin and " lino-
leic add.'' The author tried in vain to obtain pure linoleic acid,
for the more he worked with it the more it became oontaminatea
with products of oxydation ; and, as it is one of the very weak

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