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adds, he found it exceedingly difficult to produce salts wnich he
could be sure were quite pure and normal But there can be little
doubt that its composition is HO, C, ^H^ 7O,. Linoleic acid beuuf
exposed in thin layers to the air, in a few days becomes oxydiaed

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Mucena$keouM Bibtiogra^hy. 480

to ^ liBozic add,'' — a sticky sabstanoe, like toFDeBtme. By seve*
ml months farther exposure, the linozic acid aries and becomea

'^linoxyn," CQ2Ha70,|, — an amorphous, tough, leadiery matter
insoluble in water, alcohol, ether, or dilute acicb, but dissolving in
alkalis to reproduoe linoxates. Its best proper solvent is a mix-*
tore of alcohol and chloroform. Linoleate of lead readily oxydizea
in the air to a white linoxate, which is not glutinous, but dry, hard^
and brittle. And linseed oil boiled with a verv little oxyd of lead
so as to contain a small quantity of linoleate of lead, dries as well
in a few days as isolated linoieic acid does in so many months.
There are two linoxyns, the white and the red, and there are cor-
responding white and red Unoxic acids. The white modifications
be<M>me r^l by being heated to 80° C, and the red turn white
again by contmued exposure to sunlight The browning of white
paint in dark places, is owing to the gradual change of white lin-
oxyn into red. Four linoxic acids are mentioned, having the same
woperties, but differii ^i n respect to color and to the amount of
HO in combination. White Imoxic acid formed by the oxydation
of linoleate of lead, is HO,G3aH2 ^O^ ; thatproduced bv the ox-
ydation of free linoieic acid in the air, is n^O^C^^^ty^'^^^^*
\ Ked linoxic add when separated from red linoxate of lead by

chiorhydrio acid and dried at 100"" C, is 0,2^2 aO^. The second
, of the above white linoxic adds on being heated for some time in

j a water bath, loses 6*7 per cent and leaves a blood red linoxic acid

^ of Uie composition HOyCggHssO^. It will be noticed that lin-

^ oxyn, whicn is an indifferent substance, has a composition interm^

diate between this latter red linoxic add and the white from
^ which it is fonned; but of course in linoxyn the molecular arrange-

1 ment is different. Linoldo anhydrid^—C,2H2 702,— completes

^ the list of peculiar substances which exist or may be formed in

I drying oils. More or less of it is always formed during the boil-

ing of such oils, and it adds much to the goodness of boiled oiL
It is an unalterable, dastic matter, like caoutchouc that has been
^. melted.

I I^^PP7 B^^ ^^ <^d ^^t oil differ fit>m linseed oil in containing

laurin mstead of palmitin, and their linolein gives only the white
f variety liaoxyn. Hence not bein^ liable to turn brown m the dark,

^ they are better for artists' use. Lmseed oil consists of about 80 p. a

^ of unoldn, 10 p. c. of elaln, and 10 p. c. of mvristin and palmitm.

^ Mulder calls attention to what may be caUed the respiration of

r drying oils, for when they are spread out over a sreat smface they

^ absorb oxygen and give out carbonic add^ like the blood of living

^ animals. In drying, linseed oil increases m wdght to the amount

^ of from seven to twelve per cent over and above what it loses in

^ the form of water and carbonic acid, together with small portions

^ of acetic, formic, and acrylic acids. In the first place the glycerin

^ of the linolein is all decomposed and carried oiL Then the gly-

^ cerin of the other constituents is grradnall^ destroyed, so that at

iJl the end of three months not a trace of it is to be found. When

f this stage of the drying is completed, there remain linoxyn and

^ palmitic, myristic, and elaic ados, and the paint is dry and flexible

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440 MisceOaneous Bibliography.

and elastic. ^ But oxy dation still goes on, though very slowly, and
the &tty acids disappear. Finally the linozyn itself undergoes de-
cay and becomes unserviceable in binding colors or in protecting
thepainted surface.

The albuminous or mucilaginous matter which has so long fig-
ured in the books to account for slowness in the drying of unboiled
oil, Mulder has searched for careiuUy but in vain ; and he finds
that fresh oil treated by any method which should simply remove
albumen or mucilage, still dries no better than before. And, after
all, this inappreciable substance, if it were present, would fail to
explain what it was indented to account ror: since Uiere is no
known reason why a matter that helps some oils oxydise to become
rancid, should hinder others from oxydizine to become dry. It is
therefore high time for science to consign this nonentity to the limbo
of obsolete follies.

The oxyds and acetates of lead act as driers, not by precipitating
albuminous matters, but by forming a little lineolate of lead, which
oxydizes readily and communicates its activity to the oil itself
The addition of some manganese salts, such as the borate, accel-
erates the drying, because the loosely held oxyd of manganese ox-
ydizes in the air and awakens the activity of the surrounding oil
l^o metallic oxyds or salts can act as driers unless they are brought
into a state to combine chemicallv with the oiL Thus red oxyd of
iron and zinc white and oxyd oi tin are entirely inert. Sulphate
of zinc or sulphate of manganese may act when oxyd of lead is
added to combme with the sulphuric acid and set the other oxyd
free ; but without such addition, they are useless ; and the oxyd of
lead reouired for the decomposition would do more good if used
alone. But oil treated with any driers by mere digestion, though
it may dry quickly, can never be so good as oil boikd with suitable
additions ; because in boiling some linoleic anhydrid is formed,
which beins more adhesive and elastic than linoxyn, adds much to
the value of oil for paint. The author, discarding numerous non-
sensical receipts which are extant, recommends for preparing a col-
orless drying oil, which leaves nothing to be desired, to boil com-
mon linseed oil two hours with three per cent of red lead, filter it,
and expose it to sunlight in large shallow vessels, the air over it
being frequently renewed.

Mulder returning at length to the problem which gave rise to
the investigation, rejects oil paints as unsuitable to prevent the
rusting of iron, and concludes that coal tar contains the best ma-
terials for a protecting coat.

The book contains a great deal that is new, and the author has
been, to use his own expression, *' Getren dem Grundsatze, welcher
uns Niederlandean von Jugend auf beigebracht wird, nicht so ohne
Weiteres dahin zu schreiben und sicher bei Behandlung von Oegen-
standen die Geschichte nicht zu vergessen." Of course he does not
entirely exhaust his subject, but science is greatly enriched by this
work, and it constitutes a masterly contribution to the chemistry of
the arts. ^ j. ic. o.

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AbeL, F, A., gun-cotton. 388.
Academy, American, Proceedings, 29d.
notice of, Bentham,
National, Annual of, 205.

AngOBt meeting of, 485.
Nat. ScL, Philad., Proceed., 296.
of Arts and Sci., American, notice
of. 812. ^
Acids of toe lactic series, Frankland and

Acids, new mixed, Oal, 104.

normal and derived, Barker^ 881
organic, synthesis of, CbHtM, 256.
Adhesion of vapor, Oibbs^ 101.
Altitudes hi British America, 115.
of Mt. Hood. 429.
of Mt. Washington. 877.
American Association, i6th meeting, 187,

American Naturalist. 189.
Analysis, use of sand and glass fllten in
quantitative, Oibba, 215.
new method of volumetric, Oibb9.2(n.
of petroleum, apparatus for, IMcAani,

WUTb tables for quantitative, noticed,


Aral Sea, changes in, Savolinacmt 188.

Archeology orSonthem France, Lartet

and Chrikyon, noticed, 119.
Arithmetic, Eaton^s, noticed, 140.
Astronomical observatory of Harvard

College, annals of, noticed, 298.
Astronomy, Kirkwood's meteoric, no-
ticed, 4^
Norton's, noticed, 295.
Athyris, subdivisions of, BiUingSj 48.
Atomic weights, determination of, by op-
tical means, Sehrauf, 118.
Atomicities, the theory of, G^iMML 409.
Atoms, chem., existence of, KeicuU^ 270.
Association, see American and JSrUWi,
Australia, tall trees in, 422.


Bdbinetf nndulatory theory of heat. 111.

Barker. G. F.. formic versus carbonic
add, 268.
normal and derived acids, 884.

Bentham, O.. address at the annlversarv
meeting of the Linnean Soc, May, 1867,

Benzole, etc., action of heat on, Berths-
lot, 266.

BerthdUy action of heat in benzole and
•OAlogoiu hydrocarbons, 266.

Berthdot. hydrocarbons in coal-tar. 418.
Blake, W. P., glaciers of Alaska, 96.
BiUingt, JL subdivisions of Athyris, 48.
Bost. Nat. Hist. Soc., memoirs, 295.
Proceedmgs, 144, 296.
conditions and doings, noticed, 437.
BoTAMioix WORKS, noticed.
Boisser, Flora orientalis, 122.
Brunei, V^^ux ligneux da Canada,

Report of International horticultural ex
hibltion and botanical congress, 128.
Jlioigno, growth of Lycoperdon glgan-

teum, m.
Gray, Manunl, 284.

Andenaoti. Monographia Salicum, 420.
Mariiuf, Flora Brasiliensls, 421.
BeCandoUe, Lois de la Nomenclature,

Mgud, affinit^s de la flora du Japan
avec celles de TAsle et de I'America
Annalcs Muaei Botanici Lugduni Batavl,

Brewster's neutral point-, 70.
Brines, chemistry of. Goerniuinn, 77.
British Assoc, meeting of, in 1867, 486.
Brodie, B, the new chemical calculus

Brush, G. J., native hydrates of iron^ 319.

Calculus, new chemical, Brodie, 270.

California, subdivisions of the Cretace-
ous of, Gabb,22(>', Conrad, S76.

Canals between the Atlantic and Paciflc,

Candles, and Soap, manufacture of, no-
ticed, 141.

Carbon 2 adamantine anthracite, 108.

Carbonic acid, versus formic, Barker, 263.

Carius, synthesis of organic acids, 256.

Carpenter, W, B, organic nature of Eo-
zoon, 967.

Car8tat\ien,R, thallic acid, 269.

Chate, P. E., laws of distribution of heat
over the earth, 68.

Chate, K 0., skylight polarization in Ne-
braska, July, 1867, m.

Chemical calculus, new, Brodie, 270.
constitution and crystalline form, re-
lation between, Dana, 89, 252.
formulas of the Silicates, 252, 39&
News, Amer. edit., noticed, 2i94.

Chemistry, MiUer% noticed, 295.
, of the &rm and the sea, by Nichols,
noticed, 141.

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ClauHut i?., Mechanical theory of heat
with iu application to the steam engine,
noticed, 437.
Coleoptera, rhynchophorona, LeOonU^ 41.
Colorado, geoL obeervationa in, 284.

Parks of, 851.
Cometfl, connection with meteora, 128.
Biela's, division of, 180.
Ill, 1862, elcmenu of, ISa
II, 1867, 180.
Conrad. T. A., reply on the Cretaceooa of

Cal., 876.
CooJu^J. P., Jr., certain lecture experi-
ments, and a new form of Eudiometer,
on some American chloritea, 201.
determination of protozyd of iron in
ailicatcs, 847.
Copper, precipitation of, by hyx>ophoa-
phorous acid, Gibbs, 210.

and niclcel, precipitation of, by alkar
line carbonates, &iM»s, 2ia
Cretaceous of CaL, aubdivlsions of, (?ad&,

Conrcid^ in reply to Gabb, 876.
of Iowa, exogenous leayea in, WhUe^
Crystalloiccnic and crystallojrraphic con-

trlb., No. IV, Dana, 86, 252, 898.
Crustacean parasitism, Verrtu, 126.
Currents, marine, of the North circum-

polar basin, 888.
Cyanhydric acid, homologuea of, Hof-

tnann, 416.
Coal-tar, hydrocarbons in, Berthdoi^ 4ia
Cyclopedia, American annual, noticed,


J}ana. J. J)., Crystalloirenlc and crystallo-
graphlc contrib., No. IV, 89, 252, 898.

connection between crystalline form
and chemical constitution, 89, 252.

on mineralogical nomenclature, 145,

chemical formulas of the silicates,
classlfleation of the elements. 261.
chemical formulas of the feldspars^
micas, scapolites, etc.. and relation be-
tween proportion of silica and alkalies,

Isomorphism of Isometric and clino-
hedral feldspars, 406.
Day, Jeremiah, obituary, 291.
JJatotony J. W.y Paleozoic insects, 116.
fossils from the Laurcntlan, and on
Eozoon. 867.
Delcsse^s nydrographic map of the De-
partment of the Seine, noticed, 148.
DtaOloiteauXj action of heat oncr}'Btala,

Drill in S. W. Iowa, White, 119.


Earthquake In Kansas, 182.
Encyclopedia, Chambers's, noticed, 144.
EntomologicaiSoc., PhUad.. 296.

Transactions of, 296. I

Eozoon, organic nature of; DttrnM and
Carpenter. 867 ; King and jBowimv, 87Sc
in Finland, 284.

Essex Institute, Proc, 296l

(Eudiometer, a new form of^ Cbofte, 199.

Expansion of metals and alloys by heat,
Matlheineny 110.

Exploring expedition to the interior ba-
sin. King, 118.

Faraday, obituary, 296.
Feuchtwanger's Treatise on gems, no-
ticed, 295.
Formic versus carbonic acid. Barker, 263.
Fossils, Secondary, h[i Oregon, Blake, IIK

of Laurentian, 867.
Franklandy acids of the lactic aeriea, 268.

Gabb, W. M,, Cretaceous, of oal., 226.
Gaffidd, r., action of sunlight ou glass,

244,816. ^

Geinitz, on the Upper Paleozoic rocks and

fossils of 8. E. Nebraska, review of.

Meek, 170, 282, 327.
Gems, Feuchtwanger'a Treatise, noticed,

Geographic ancicnne et modeme, dic-

tionnaire de, noticed, 382.
Geographical notices, 877.

loc. of London, Jour., noticed^ SSL
Geograpliischcs Jahrbuch, 1866, noUced,

Gbolooical works, noticed.
Lesquereux, Tertiary plants of

White's Report on Iowa, 121,
Delesse and Lapparent's Keyue de G^l-

ogle, 122.
Houghton, Manual, 121.
Packard's Glacial phenomena of Labra-
dor and Maine, 117.
Woodward's British fossil Craatacea,

HaU's Paleontology of N. T., 142, 275.
Geology of Iowa, white, 23.
Kansas. Hayden, 32.
Coloraao, 284.
Nebraska, 284.
Gibbs, W., chemical and physical abstracts,
101, 265, 410,

on a method of volumetric analyaia,

precipitation of copper by hypophoa-
pborous acid, 210. -

precipitation of cooper and nickel by
alkaline carbonates, 213.

employment of sand and glass filters
in analysis, 215.

estimation of manganese aa pyro-
phosphate, 216.
the' theory of atomicities, 409.
Glaciers of Alaska, BUtke, 96.
Glass, action of sunlight on, Oaffidd^ 244^

Ooeasmann, C. A., chemistry of brines. 77.
Gold-mining District, Grass Valley, SiOi-
man, 286.

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Oraphitoidal silicon, ^cryBtallization of,

Gray, A,, botanical abstractB, 122, 420.
Onn-cotton, Abdt 288.

Haiding€ry meteor of Enyahinga, ISl.
^oK, Notes on ideology of Minn., 14i.
Paleontology, otN. Y., by, noticed,

Hand, morphology of, WUder^ 44.
HaydeiiyP, F.. geology of Kansas, 82.
Hayes, £., obituary, £»).
Heat, action of, on cxystals, DetCfhixeauXy

distribution of, over the earth, ChaK,

mechanical theory of, with its appli*

cation to the steam engine by Clausius,

noticed. 437.
xmdnlatory theory of; Babinely 111.
Heights, scfi AUitudu.
Hennessj on distribution of temperature,

J^infvAj, O,^ physical notices by. 110.
Hi^mann^ A. W.. a new class or homo-

fogues of cyannydrlc acid, 416. .
Hood, Mt, In Oregon, ascent of^ 429.
HyaUy parallelism between the stages of

life in the Tetrabranchiates, 124.
Hydracids, action of, upon ethers, (?a2,

Hydrocarbons, BerthdoL, 266, 418.
Hyposulphites, new test for, X«a, 222.

Indian Summer, mafl,840.

Indium, 110.

Insects, Paleozoic, In Nova Scotia and

New Brunswick, Damon. 116.
Iowa, geology of, 1VA««, 28.
Iron, native hydrates of, BnUh^ 219.
Isomorphism of leucite and other feld«

spars, i>ana, 406.
Itacolumite, WdhigriU, 61.

Kansas, geology of, Haydm^ 82.
Keltul6, A., Professor, 187.

existence of chcm. atoms, 270.
Kmg^ on Eozoon, 375.
Kirkwood, /?., meteor of July, 1867, :28a

Meteoric Astronomy, noticed, 428.
KnowltoHj W. J., new mineral firom Rocli«
port, Mass., 224.


Laboratory, the. noticed, 144.

Land of the glooe, maps of northernmost

noticed, SS.
Lapham^ destruction of forest trees, 424.
Lartet's Archeology of Southern France,

noticed, 119.
Laurentian of Canada, fossils ftt>m. Daw-

Lawrence Sclent. School Laboratory Con-

trlb.. No. 3, 207; No. 4, 224.
Leoy M,C.yK theory of photo-chemistiy, 71.
new test for hyposulphites, 222.

LeOonJte^ J. JL, rhynchopborous coleop-

tera, 41.
Lippincott's vapor index, 139.
Littrow, y. Carl, Stemschnuppen und Ko-

meten, noticed, 429.
Lyceum Nat. Hist N. T., Axmals, 296.

Magnetism, secular varieties of terrestrial,

Baulin^ noticed, 148.
Maiden's Island, 883.
Manganese, action of peroxyd ol^ on

urfc acid, Wheder, 2ia
Manganese as pyrophosphate, Oibb^^ 216.
Man^ic peroxyd, action on uric acids,

Map, hydrographic, of the Department oi
the SeinOj jMetaey noticed, 148.
of arctic, noticed, 888.

Marignacj fluosalts of antimony and ar-
senic, 102.

Marshy 0. C, new genus of fossil sponges,

contributions to the mineralogy of
Nova Scotia, No. 1, 862.

Matthieaaerij A.y expansion of metals and
alloys by heat, 110.

McJkmdldy Jf., apparatus for collecting
and washing precipitates in test tubes,


Meeky F. Ry on Geinitz^s views on the
Paleozoic of S. £. Nebraska, 170, 282,
the genus Palaeacis, Haime, 419.

Meteorites, origin of, &raAam, 109.

Meteors, see Shooting $tan.

Meteor of Knyahinga, j5ai(fifi^«r, ISL

Met^orologlques de Bmxelles, noticed,

MUUTy W. H.y crystallization of graphitoi*
dal slUcon, 108.
Chemistry, noticed, 295.
Mineralogical nomenclature. No. 1, Dandy

Chlorite, American, Cookey 201 ; Corun-
dophUite, DanOy 258, DeaCloizeauXy 288;
Cyrtolite, KnowUony 224; Diamond,
WetheriUy 61, SiUimany 119 ; Ekebei^ite,,
Danay 408 ; Feldspars, chem. formula
of, i^ano, 398; Gmelinite, MarOu 862;
Grothite, i>ana, 258 ; Ledererite, Mari^
862 ; Leucite, DanOy 406 ; Leucophane,
i>ana, 405; Limonlte, Brushy 2\i'y Me-
linophane, Daruiy 405; micas, DanOy 408 ;
Mara:arite.i>89(7/oiMaux,288; (EUacher-
lte,&mi,256; Partzite, BZoAc. 119; Peta-
lite, 405 ; ScapoUte, DanOy 403 ; Tui^^te,
Briuhy Bodmany 219 ; Wemerite, Danay

Bfineralogy of Nova Scotia, No. 1, Marthy

Moon-crater Linn^, 180.

Morphology of human hand, WUdery 44.

Mulder y O. J.y Die Chemie der austro
chenden Oele, etc, noticed, 488.

Museum of Comparative Zool., report,
noticed, 141.

Music, harmony in, BxUy L

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Nebraska, jfeol., survey of, 384.
Neutral point, Brew8ter*8, Chamy 70.
Nmoton. H. A., astronomical abstracts, 137,

shooting stars of Auz.. 1867, 436.
New York, notice of Paleontology of;

RaU, 142, 376.
Nomenclature, mineraloglcal. No. I,

DancL 145, 436.
Norton^s Astronomy, noticed, 39K.

Obscrvatorio dell Collegio Romano, 143.

Day, Jeremiah, 391.

Faraday, 303.

Hayes, Ezeklel, 139.

Pelouze, Theopbile Jules, 187.

Pickett, £. J., 393.
Oils, drying of, MiOdm-y 488.
Organisms, living, observations and ex-
periment on, in heated water, Wyman^

Ozone, density of, SemauUj 106.
Palieacis, Haime, Meek, Verriti, 419.
Paleontology, see oboloqt.
Parasitism, Crustacean, VerriR, 136.
Parks of Colorado, a51.
Acr^*Aam, S. i^^pparatus for analysis of

petroleum, 380.
Peiouze, T. J., obituaiy, 137.
Perfumery, art of, noticed, 141.
Petroleum, apparatus for analysis of, Aefe-

fiam^ 280.
Photo-chemistTy, theory of, Zto, 71.
Pickett, £. J., obituary, 392.
Planets, discovery of, Watton^ 436.
Plants of Cal., dried, 138.
Poisons, Wormley^s micro-chemistry of,

JhoU, H. VT., harmony in music, L
Precipitates, apparatus for collecting and

washing, in test tubes, ifcDono^d, 188.


Railroad, between the Athintic and Paci-
fic, 881.

Bautin^ F., secular yariatlons of terres-
trial magnetism, noticed, 148.

BaxolirMm. H. (7., changes in the Aral
Sea, 188.

Bodinan^ (7. S., analyses of tundte, 219.

Russian America, geography of, 879.

Sehraufy A,, determination of M<miic

weights by optical means, 113.
Schwabe, on Sun spots, etc., 387.
Secchi^s L'Unita delle Forze, noticed, 148.
Shades and Shadows, Warren's problems

in, noticed, 139.
Sheffield Laboratory contrib.,No. XV, 319.
Shooting sUrs, Nov. orbit of. Adorns^ 137.

connection with comets, 138.

of May, 1866, 139 ; of July 1867, Kirk-
wood, 388.

Aug., 1867, Neiffton. 43G.

fiedl of, June 19, 1866, Ifaidinger, ISL

in the southern hemisphere, 439.

treatise on, Kirkwoodj noticed, 4d6L

Silicates, chemical formulaB ofl Danoj

determination of protozyd of iron

in. Choke, 847.
Silicon, graphitoidal, crystallization of;

new compounds of, 105.
SiUimarij R. Grass Valley Ckdd-mliiiQg

District, 286.
Sitka, scientific party for, 39L /
Skylight polari&ktion in Nelft^eka, CAoas,

Sponges, new genus from* the £ower Si-
lurian, J/ar<A, 88. * - • 5 .

Smithsonian Institute, history' oi( Bern-
thtun, 805.

Soap and Candle^ unanuflicture of, no-
ticed, 141.

Summer, Indian, HWM, MOL

Sunlight, action <rf;^flljiii, G4i0dd, 944,

Suttspots, and ether
&;&M*e,287. •

Tapir, young, VerriU^ 136.
ThaUic acid, Oaar^agUeH^ 369.
Tr«es, tall, in Australia, 43S.

Vapor, adhesion of. OiMt, lOL
Vapor Index, LipDincott's. 139.
V^riUj A. K.on Radiates in the Museum
of Tale College, and on some new spe-
cies, 136.

Echinoderms of Panama, and west-
ern America, 135.

Cretaceous parasitism, young of the
Central American Tapir, 130.

Warren, S. £., shades and abadows, no-
ticed 189.

fFashington, ML, height of; 877.

Wattoti, discovery of planets, 436l V

WiOherm, a J/., on itacolumite, 61.

Whtder^ C, &., action of peroxyd of man-
ganese on urieracid, 218.

Tf^Oe, C ^.geology of Iowa, 28.

PFUder, JL &., morphology pf^tbehand,

WUrs quaiitotive analysis tab^, Botfced,

140. rfW . / *

Wormley*s Micro-chemiJtry of pdlslons,

noticed, 140. )

W-ifman, /., observations and experiments

on living organisms in heated water,



ZooiiOOxoAL W0BK8, uoticed—

Bickard. Invertebrate fiiuna, of Labra-
dor, 117.

Byatt, Molluscous order Tetrabranch-

VirrUl. Radiata in Museum of Tale Col-
lege, 136.

Bischoff, on Gorrilla, Chimp«&s4 and
Orang-outang, noticed, 142^

Record of ZooL literature for 1866L 144.

Gray, Synopsis of the starfishM in tht
British Museum, 436.

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Online LibraryJohn AlmonThe American journal of science and arts → online text (page 102 of 102)