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Some experiments were made on the angle of disappearance
of the red ray with lamp-black produced by the burning of dif-
ferent substances ; where the figures are connected by a bracket
it is intended to indicate that the two angles were obtained from
the same portion of the plate.

Lamp-black Lamp-black Lamp-black from a aoluUnn of

from atearine. from camphor. splrita of tarpentine in alcohol.

18**-26) 16' ) 22°)

18 -76 [ 15 -9 J 21



16

16 f



15 -9 J

16 -1 )
16 -4 J



20



l7*'-25 16°-6 21°

It would appear from these last experiments that the average
size of the particles of lamp-black from burning camphor is
somewhat greater than from paraffine, while in tiie case of
^'burning-fluid'' the particles are smaller.
New York, Dec 4U^ 18«6. ^ ,

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Chemistry and Physics. 107

SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

I. CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS.

1. On a new form of magnetiy-eUctric machine, — When the armatures
of an ordinary magneto-electric machine with permanent steel magnets
are wound with coarse wire, currents of electricity are obtained which
8re capable of developing magnetism in an electro-magnet It is easy
to see that the magnetism thus developed may in its turn be made to
generate a current of electricity, and that this again may induce magnet-
ism in a second and larger electro-magnet, and so on alternately. Mr.
H. Wilde has availed himself of this principle to construct magneto-
electric machines of extraordinary power. As the author's descriptions
are not very clear, even with the aid of figures, we shall content our*
selves with giving the general construction of the apparatus and the
results obtained with a particular machine. In this machine the genera-
tor or primary source of the electric current was a magneto-electric ma-
chine consisting of six small permanent magnets weighing only one
pound each and capable of lifting collectively a weight of, at most, 60
lbs. The current from this excites an electro-magnet weighing three
tons, the total weight being about four and a half tons. The armatures
are driven at a uniform velocity of 1500 revolutions per minute by
means of a steam-engine and a very strong leather belt With this ma-
chine pieces of iron rod fifteen inches in length and one-fourth of an
inch in diameter were melted. With an intensity armature a light was
obtained between points of gas carbon sufficiently intense to cast shad-
ows from the flames of street lamps at a distance of a quarter of a mile.
It is easy to see that by passing the current derived from the electro-
magnet through another and larger electro-magnet a vast increase of
electric force could be obtained, of course at the expense of a greatly in-
creased motive power. With an unlimited increase of motive power an
unlimited increase of electric force could be obtained, as in fact the
whole machine is to be regarded as a means for transforming heat into
mechanical power, and this last into electricity, It is to be regretted
that the author has given no precise data from which the amount of
electricity set free can be determined with precision. The quantity of
water decomposed per minute, with the expenditure of a measured
amount of mechanical work, is what we require in order to form a cor-
rect estimate of the value of the apparatus, as compared with that of
other electro-motors. In any case, however, it is safe to predict a bril-
liant and useful future for the new apparatus. — Proc. of Royal Society y
XV, 107. w. o.

2. On the synthesis of chlorid of ihioxyl, — Wurtz has made the very
interesting observation that chlorid of tbioxyl, SgOgClg or SOCI^, may
be produced by the direct union of anhydrous hypochlorous acid wi^
sulphur, CI,e-fS=:&eCla.

The vapor of hypochlorous acid is passed into chlorid of sulphur hold-
ins; sulphur in suspension, and the operation is discontinued as soon as the
sulphur has entirely disappeared. The chlorid of thioxyl may then be
separated from the chlorid of sulphur by distillation. Chlorid of thioxyl



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108 Scientific Intelligence.

as thus prepared it a oolorlees liquid which has a peDetrating odor re-
minding of sulphurous acid and chlorid of sulphur. Its density at 0' is
1-675, and its boiling point 78^ at 746 mm. Water resolves it into
chlorhydric and sulphurous acids. SOCl2+H2e=2HCl+Se2.

Liquid bjpochlorous acid explodes on contact with sulphur, and it is
for this reason that the action must be moderated by suspending the sul-
phur in chlorid of sulphur and keeping this at a temperature of —12** C.
From the above it is clear that 01 ^O may unite directly with a radical,
a fact which stands related to the observation of Garius that HC10
unites directly with certain hydrocarbons. — ComjAes JRendus^ Ixii, 460.

w. o.

8. On a new series of hydrocarbons. — Schorlemmer has discovered
anoong the products of the distillation of cannel coal, besides the homo*
logues of marsh gas and benzol, other hydrocarbons attacked by concen-
trated sulphuric acid. When the oil, after treatment with the acid, is
distilled, the oils of the benzol and marsh gas series pass over first and
there remains a black tarry mass. If this mass be distilled, a thick
brown liquid with an offensive smell passes over between 300^ and 400^
By repeated distillations with caustic alkali and with sodium a series of
carburets may be obtained with the general formula (C«H2n.2)2 * ^^
these the author describes ^jgH^^j, ^Jj^Hj^^, €,eH2g. These are all
colorless oily highly refractive liquids, having a faint peculiar smell re-
sembling that of the carrot or parsnip root. These oils unite with bro-
mine to form colorless heavy liquids easily decomposed by heating. A
molecule of oil takes up two atoms of bromine. Strong nitric acid dis-
solves the oils, forming nitro-com pounds which with tin and chlorhydric
acid give organic bases. With sulphuric acid and bichromate of potash
the oils yield carbonic, formic, acetic, and perhaps other acids. The
author considers it certain that the oils of this series are polymers of the
acetylene series. — Annalen der Chemie und Fharm.^ cxzxiz, 244. w. o.

4. On the compounds </ tantalum. — Marignao has published the
conclusion of his researches on niobium and tantalum, the first part of
which has already been noticed in this Journal. To determine the
atomic weight of tantalum, pure crystallized fluotantalate of potassium,
KF.TaF^, was treated with concentrated sulphuric acid and carried
finally to a temperature of 400** 0. On boiling with water, bisulphate
of potash is dissolved out and sulphate of tantalum left in small granular
crystals, which by strong ignition yield tantalic acid. The bisulphate of
potash is brought by evaporation and ignition to the state of sulphate
and weighed as such. Four analyses closely agreeing with each other
gave the number 182*3 as the atomic weight of tantalum; a molecule
of tantalic acid has therefore the formula Ta^Og, and the molecular
weight 444*6. The analysis of the fluotantalate of ammonium leads to
the number 162 as the atomic weight of tantalum, and this number is
adopted by Marignac as most probable. The author remarks that the
difference between the atomic weights of niobium and tantalum, which
2>eIong to the same natural family, is the same as that between the atomic
weights of the closely allied metals, tungsten and molybdenum, namely,
68. Tantalic acid forms two classes of salts, in one of which it is mono-
basic and in the other quadribasic. The first class have the formula



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Chemistry and Physics. 109

Ta^Og .MO, and the Beoond the formula STa^Og .4MO : the tantalatea
of soda and potash belong to this last type and crystallise well. The
ozyd and snlphid of tantalum described by Berselius and others have
respectively the formulas TaOs and TaS^. Ohiorid of tantalum has the
formula TnCl^ ; the calculated density of its vapor is 12*84, while De-
ville and Troost find 12*42. Tantalic acid not ignited dissolves easily in
Huohydric acid and forms soluble and crystallizable salts with other fluo-
rids, but it does not appear that there is a class of ozvfluotantalates cor-
responding to the oxyfluoniobates. The fluotantalate of potassium,
TaFg . 2EP, crystallizes in the right rhombic system and is isomorphous
with the corresponding fluoniobate. When boiled for a long time with
water the salt changes to an insoluble body having approximately the
formula Ta205+2(2KF.TaF5), which may, however, he only a mixture.
The formation of this insolable compound gives the means of detecting
the smallest quantity of fluotantalate in the ozyfluoniobate of potassium.
Two fluotantalates of sodium have respectively the formulas TaF^, 2NaF
-i-B^B and TaF^SNaF. The other salts described are TaF^, 2NH4F,
TaFj, 2ZnF+7aq., and TaF^, 2CuF+4aq. In our first notice of Ma-
rignac's researches we have stated that that chemist had detected in nio-
bite a small quantity of an acid which might prove to be new. Further
investigation has, however, shown that this is titanic acid. — Bull, de la
Soc. Chimtque, Aug. 1806, pp. 118 and 116. w. o.

6. On the preparaUon of iodhydrie and phosphoric acids. — Pbtten-
KOFBR has given a very elegant modification of Liebig's process for the
preparation of iodhydric acid and alkaline iodids, and has further ex-
tended the method so as to obtain pure phosphoric acid as a subsidiary
product. To half an ounce of common phosphorus in twelve ounces of
distilled water at 60** or 10^ 0. one ounce of iodine out of eight ounces
is to be added. The whole is to be stirred and the liquid poured off
from the phosphorus and iodid of phosphorus upon the remaining seven
ounces of iodine contained in a separate vessel. The solution of iodine
as thus obtained is to be poured back upon the phosphorus and the alter-
nate process repeated until all the iodine is dissolved and has come in
contact with the phosphorus. The red-brown liquid last obtained be-
comes almost colorless after a short time, and there remains only a little
red phosphorus. The filtered liquid, consisting of water, iodhydric, phos-
phorous and a little phosphoric acid, is to be distilled over an open fire
till the liquid becomes syrupy. The distillate consists of iodhydric acid
containing a little free iodine, and has a specific gravity of 1*39 to 1*40.
It appears to keep well and serves for the convenient preparation of the
iodids of potassium, sodium, calcium, <fec. Saturated with bicarbonate
of potash the acid yields on evaporation and crystallization a pure iodid
in perfectly colorless crystals. The contents of the retort are to be
poured out, the retort washed, and a few drops of concentrated nitric
acid containing nitrous acid added, when the whole remaining iodhydric
acid is decomposed into water and free iodine. The free iodine may be
separated by filtration, after which the filtrate is warmed till it becomes
colorless. The filtrate is then to be evaporated with about one and a half
ounces of nitric acid of 1*20, added in small portions at a time until, on
addition of pure acid, nitrous aeid fumes are no longer evolved. The so-



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1 10 Scieni^ Intelligence.

Itition of phosphoric aoid is then to be eyaporated till the vapor arising^
no longer reddens litrnat. In this manner a pure photphoric aoid, free
from arsenic and salphar, was obtained, although the phosphorus em-
ployed contained traces of both substances. — Ann. der Chemie und
Pharm.y cxxxviii, 57. w. a.

6. On croUmU aeid, — Bulk has given another instance of the conver-
sion of one organic acid into another by simple addition of one molecule
or two atoms of hydrogen. When crotonic acid, ^^^^^2^ ^^ heated
with an amalgam of* senium or with metallic zinc and dilute sulphuric
acid, it passes gradually into butyric acid, ^^HgOjf ^^ ^^^ being in
the modification in which it is obtained by fermentation. — Ann. der
Chemie u. Pharm.^ cxzxix, 62. w. o.

7. On eyniheeee of puanidin. — A. W. Hofmank has succeeded in the

Iv

. . (^

synthesis of guanidin, N, -j H^, by two different processes. An alcoholic



iin, N, j H„
crin, €(Ne^]



solution of chlorpicrin, €(NO2)01q, and ammonia is heated for some
time in a closed tube to a temperature of 100^ Under these circum-
stances the reaction occurs which is represented by the equation
€(Ne,)Cl3+8NH3=€H,N3,HCI+2HCl+HNe,.
When orthocarbonic ether is heated to 100^ G. with aqueous ammonia,
gnauidin and alcohol are formed, according to the equation,

€(C,H,)^e^+3NH3+H,0=€H,N3, H,e+4(€,H„ HO).
The author suggests that the corresponding orthosilicate of ethyl,
8i(C2H^)^0^, may by a similar process yield a species of guanidin in
which silicon takes the place of carbon, and also that the well known
compounds formed by the action of ammonia upon the chlorida of silicon
and titanium may be simply mixtures of sal-ammoniac with the chlorhy-
drates of guanidin containing silicon or titanium in place of carbon. —
Ann, der Chem. u. Fharm.^ cxxxix, 107. w. o.

8. On flame reactions. — Bunsen has made a systematic study of the
action of different parts of the flame of the well known burner which
bears bis name, on various substances, either alone or mixed with fluxes
and other reagents. As no mere abstract can do justice to a paper of
this character we roust refer our readers to the original. It can hardly
be doubted that, wherever gas can be had, the flame of the burner will
soon supplant the ordinary mouth blowpipe in testing upon a small scale
by heat. — Ann. der Chem. u. Fharm.^ cxxxviii, 257. w. o.

U. HINEBALOGY AND GEOLOGY.

1. Geological Survey of Illinoie ; A. H. Worthbn, Director. Volume
I, Geology, xvi, and 504 pp. royal 8vo, with map, sectiouR, Ac. 1866,
Springfield. Published by authority of the Legislature of Illinois.— In
the ^ptember number of this Journal, we gave a brief notice of the
issue of this valuable Report, it having reached us so near our publication
day, that we were unable to do more than merely acknowledge its recep-
tion, and promise a more extended notice in a future number. Circum-
stances beyond our control prevented the preparation of this notice in



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Mineralogy and Qeobgy. Ill

time ibr the November number, but we now propose to ftiifil the promise,
10 £tf as Kmited space will permit.

At stated above, this Report occupies about 620 pages of letter^presa,
and is printed in large dear tjpe, upon excellent paper, with well executed
illnttratiotts ; and the whole is neatly and substantially bound in cloth.
Chspter I consists of remarks on the General Principles of geological
sdeocs, — ^the physical features of the State, its Surface geology, Ac.
In Chapter II the Tertiary deposits and the Coal-measures are described
sad their relations to the other formations of the state explained, by a
Nction showing the thickness, order of succession, ^, of the various
rocb oocurring in Illinois. The Tertiary, consisting of various colored
dsji, greenish sand, ifec, occupies but a limited area in the southern part
of the state, and has yet afforded only a few imperfect casts of fossils,
apparently of Eocene affe.

The Coal-measures being of great economical importance, are de-
Mribed at length, and numerous sections of their various beds are given,
at ascertained from natural exposures, borings, shafts, k^ Contrary to an
opinion somewhat current amonj^ geologists, the State Geologist main-
tains that the Illinois coal-field is not broken up into several isolated
patches, separated by intervals of older rocks, but is a continuous field,
oocopying near three-fourths of the entire area of the State. The max-
imttm thickness of the whole series, exclusive of the Millstone grit, is,
in the southern part of the State, about 900 feet, including six workable
beds of coal, with an aggregate thickness of 80 feet. Goinff northward,
the Coal-measures diminish in thickness, chiefly by the thinning out of
lover beds, so that on the northern borders of the field, where the Mill-
A)oe grit and Snbcarboniferous rocks are wanting, some of the higher
aembers are found resting directly down upon Devonian and Silurian
neks : thoa apparently showing uiat as far back at least as the com-
mencement of the Subcarboniferous period, the northern part of the state
WM nore elevated than the southern, and that as the subsidence of the
vbole area progressed, the successive newer beds extended farther and
fitfther northward. The whole series being, with one or two local excep-
toM, almost entirely undisturbed by upheavals, flexures, faults, Ac, the
miner meets with few of the obstacles here, that so materially diminish
the profits of coal mining in more disturbed districts. From the facts
given, it is evident that we can scarcely overestimate the value and im-
portaooe of this inexhaustible store of mineral wealth, as a source of
power and pn^^resa, to a state like Illinois, which also has a vast extent
of the most beautiful undulating prairie lands unsurpassed in producUve-
Bem and easily brought under cultivation.

la regard to petroleum in Dlinois, the State Geologist remarks that it
hai been found in small quantities in two or three of the southern coun-
ties; aad that from the greater thickness, on the eastern borders of the
State, of the rocks generallv regarded as the source of the oil deposits
in weBlem Pennsylvania and eastern Ohio and Kentucky, it will be most
apt to be found in paying quantities in the region of the Wabash val-
ley. The eoirectnees of tais suggestion has been confirmed since the
pnatiag of the Beport, by a valuable flowing well sunk at Terre Haute,
Indiana.



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1 12 Scientific Intelligence.

In Chapter m, the various Subcarboniferous rooks are fully described
in the order of their succession from above, and various analyses by the
late Henry Pratten, Esq., showing their chemical composition are ffiven.
The thickness, geographical range, general physical characters, charac*
teristic fossils, £c., of each of these rooks are also stated in considerable
detail. This chapter likewise includes an interesting Report by Prod
G. J. Brush of Yale College, on the geodes so abundant at the Rapids of
the Mississippi in the Keokuk beds.

The Devonian and Silurian rocks are similarly treated of in chapter
IV ; while in chapter V, we have a valuable and highly interesting Re»
port on the Galena Lead region, by Prof. J. D. Whitney, now the State
Geol<^st of California. Prof. Whitney's Report is illustrated by a larse,
neatly engraved and colored map of the Lead region, on which the
boundaries of the several formations, the position and bearings of lead
crevices, and the general topography of the country are accurately laid
down. It also contains another map on a larger scale, of the country
around Galena, on which similar information is given in more detail :
likewise a columnar section showing the various rocks that occur in the
lead district, their thickness, composition, order of superposition, <fec.
As it would be impossible in a notice like this, to give an intelligible idea
of the amount of statistical and scientifio information contained in this
Report, respecting the mode of occurrence of the ore, the methods pur-
sued in extracting it, the processes of smelting, the yield of lead, db^c,
we must refer the reader to the Report itself for such details.

Chapter VI is composed of a Report by Prof. Leo Lesquereuz, on the
Coal fields of Illinois, giving a large amount of information respecting
the structure of the Illinois Coal series, and the relations of its v arious
beds and outcrops to each other, and to those of Kentucky, Arkansas,
Indiana, Ohio and Pennsylvania, as determined by a careful study of the
fossil plants found associated with each of these beds. From the long
experience this gentleman has had in exploring the Coal-measures of the
West, and his extensive knowledge of fossil Botany, it may be readily
inferred that this chapter will be found full of interesting and practical
information. In Chapter VII, he likewise discusses at length the mooted
question respecting the origin and formation of prairies, which he thinks
are due to the gradual disappearance of marshes.

The chemical Report of Dr. J. V. Z. Blany, chemist of the survey,
constitutes Chapter VIII. This Report contains much valuable informa-
tion, consisting of numerous analyses of coals, iron ores, <fec., chiefly the
former, with classifications and descriptions of the same.

The remaining portions of the volume consists of detailed county Re-
ports as follows : — On Randolph county, St Clair county, Madison county,
Hancock county, and Hardin county, by the State Geologist. The Re-
port on the latter county is illustrated by a neat colored map, and also
includes an interesting Report on the Rosiclare Lead mines, illustrated
by diagrams, plans of the different workings, db^c, by Prof. J. G. Norwood
of the University of Missouri. The following counties are reported upon
by Mr. Henry Engelmann, viz : — Johnson, Pulaski, Massac and Pope,
These county Reports are all in great detail, and contain a large amount
of practical and scientific information.



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Mineralogy and Ckology. 113

At the end of the yoldnie, there is a copiouB glossary of scientific
ienzis, followed hy the index, and a neatly engraved section of the rocks
seen along the Mississippi fi-om the northern boundary of the State tcf
Cairo.

This volume shows throughout that the survey of the State, so rich in
resources, has been in the hands of an able and successful geologists
We earnestly hope that the Legislature may make the necessary appro-
priation this winter for a third volume, which we are informed the State
geologist has in a forward state of preparation, including detailed reports
of many county surveys, and other valuable information ; and that noth-
ing may prevent the onward progress of the survey to its final comple*
tion, and the publication of all the results. The publication of such
reports not only advances the material interests of a State, by spreading
useful information among the people, but by inviting capital, enterprise
and emigration from other parts of our own country and from abroad.

2. Contributions to the Paleontology of IllinoU and other Western
States; by F. B. Mbsk and A. H. Worthbn, of the Illinois State Geolog-
ical Survey. (Proceed. Acad. Nat, Sci. Philad., July, 1866, p. 261.)— This
paper contains descriptions of the following new species and genera of
fossils from the Carboniferous rooks of the West : — helemnocrinuB Whitiii
Synbathoerinua Waehimutki (type of a new subgenus Nematocrinus),
Cyathocrinns Farleyij Rhodoennus nanus^ Onychoerinus diversus, Granor
iocrinta Shumardi^ SehoBnasterWaehemuthi^ Pteria {Pterinea?) Morganr
ensii, Macrodon micronema^ Platyceras l<»viyatum, Platyceras haliotoideif
P, uneuniy P. (Orthanychia) Chesterensis^ P. (0.) subplicatum, P, (O.)
infundibulum (=P. subrectum Hali, 1860 ; not P. subrectum of the same
author, 1859), Afetoptoma (Platyceras?) umheUa^ Poiyphemopsis Ches-*
ierensiSj Anomphalus rotulus (type of a new genus allied to jRoiella)^
Mierodoma conica (type of a new genus), Orthonema conicn, Trochitaf
earbonaria^ Pkurototnaria eonoides, P. Coxana, P. spironema, P. valva-
tiformis^ Murisonia inomata^ and Nautilus ( Cryptoceras) BoehfordensiSd

It also contains notices of two new genera of Crinoids, which are more
fully described and illustrated in the second volume of the Illinois reports
The first of these genera, StrotocrinuSy is. proposed for those greatly ex-
panded species, such as Actinocrinus perumbrosus. A, reyalis, &c., of
Hall. Prof. Hall had proposed for this type the name Calathocrinus^
which could not stand because von Meyer had previously applied it to
another group in 1848< The other genus, Steganocrinm^ is proposed for
a curious group, of which Actinocrinus pentagonus of Hall is the type.
This type differs from Actinocrinus, in having the rays, when found en-
tire, greatly extended out horizontally in the form of slender, free, rigid
arm-like appendages, covered all the way out by small pieces like the
vault, and bearing the true arms along their lateral margins.

The authors likewise make some remarks on Onychoerinus of Lyon 6^
Casseday, which they think most probably a good genu?, though it has
generally been regarded as a synonym of Forbesiocrinus ; also on the
genus Platyceras Conrad, which they think more nearly allied to the
recent genus Capulus, than has been supposed in this country, though



Online LibraryJohn AlmonThe American journal of science and arts → online text (page 13 of 102)