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still generically distinct

Aic. JouB. ScL— Secokd Sbbibs, Vol. XLIII, No. 127.— Jak., 1667.
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114 Scientific Intelligence.

Most of these fossils, and others previoasly described by the same
authors, will be fully illustrated and more elaborately described in a future
Report of the Illinois Survey.

3. A Geological and Agricultural Survey of \0Q miles vfe$t of
Omaha ; by the American Bureau of Mines.* New York, 1 866, 44 pp^
8vo. — This lUport embodies the results of a reconnoissanoe made during
the past summer by Prof. Thos. Egleston, along the line of the first hun-
dred miles of the Union Pacific Railroad, west of Omaha, Nebraska.
The survey was made under a commission from the railroad company,
the chief object being probably to throw some light upon the question of
the probabilities of finding workable beds of coal in that region, within
accessible distances beneath the surface.

When it is remembered that the publications of previous eiplorers had
made the general features of the geology of that part of the country so
well known as to prevent the possibility of new and startling discoveries,
it must be conceded that Prof. Egleston has made up quite an interesting
report upon the physical features of the district explored — its agricultu-
ral capacities, climatology,! <fec. He has also accurately described the
Upper Carboniferous, Cretaceous, Drift, and alluvial formations previously
known to exist there. From the Carboniferous beds he collected some
thirty-five species of fossils, one of which (NautUu* Illinoien»i$) had
not, we believe, been before discovered at the localities mentioned. These
fossils were identified by Mr. Meek^ and a list of them is given on pages
12 and 13 of the Report.

In regard to coal. Prof. Egleston thinks, from what is known respect-
ing the structure of the Coal formation in northern Missouri and western
Iowa, that workable beds may possibly be struck at a depth of 550 feet
below the surface of the Missouri at Omaha, and at near 600 feet below
the same horizon at Bellevue.

4. I^otes an the Geology of Western 8, America; by A. Remond, (from
a letter to Prof. W. H. Brewer, dated Santiago, Chili, Oct. 11, 1866). —
The following are among the discoveries which I hare made on the west
coast of South America.

(1.) Jurassic fossils in the metamorphic rocks about Lima ; some of the
species strongly resemble those found in the belt of the same age in Cali-
fornia.

(!2.) At the Morro of Arica, lat. 18^ 28' S. on the coast of southern Peru,
Jurassic species, one of them identical with fossils found by Dr. Philippi
near Chaco, east of the Desert of Atacama, lat 25^ 12' S.

(3.) A collection of fossil plants, probably of Triassic age, from the
coal-bearing formation of northern Chili, a region previously unexplored
by geologists. Some of these species are similar to those I brought from

* It should be here noted that the American Borean of Mines is a private asso-
ciation, and not a government iosUtutioo.

f The Smithsoman Institution's publications are credited for the meteorological
data upon which the remarks on the climate are based.

X Our attention has been called by Mr. Meek to quite a number of typographical
errors in this list of fossils, for which he is not responsible, as the list was not
printed from a manuscript written by him, andlie saw no proof of it as the Reptti
went through the press.



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Mineralogy and Otology . 115

8ovom two years ago ; and two of the apeciet, a Peoopteris and a Ptero-
phyllum, are probably ide*Dtical.

(4.) At the silver minee of Tres Puntas and Ghanar^iUo, species of lower
Cretaceous ; and above the coal beds many species of Lias, but most of
them have been found before by Prof. Domeyko at Las Juntas and Tres
Graces.

(6.) Eocene fossils at Caldera, lat 27^ 4'. Near this port are also ex-
tensive beds of recent shells well preserved.

(6.) Near Coqnimbo many species from the middle and upper Tertiary.

6. Oarta C^eoiogioa di Savqjoj Piemonte e lAguria ; del oommenda-
tot^ Anoblo Sibmonda, Professore di Mineralogia nella Universita di
Torino, etc. 26X31 inches, colored. Published by the Italian govern*
ment — ^This geological chart, by Prof. Sismonda of Turin, gives, in colors,
the geology of perhaps the most interesting part of Europe. It covers
northwestern Italy, west of Cremona and Milan, and extends north, acrcss
the Alps, to Lake Geneva and the Rhone. It hence exhibits the rock
formations of Italy stretching north over the regions of the southern Alps.
Thus we observe, among its many points of great interest, the region of
cnrstalline rocks (protogine, gneiss, mica schist, etc.) in which stands Mt
Blanc, lying within^ and trending with, the great Jurassic belt that di-
vides Italy and France ; this Jurassic formation to the westward of Mt
Blanc being mostly unaltered, while that on the east is metamorphie.
The difficult geological problem of the Alps receives a large pan of its
solution from the facts observed in northern Italy.

6. (hmptoir MinSralogiqw of F, Pisani at ParU. — ^Mr. Pisani has
opened rooms for the sale of minerals in the same court recently occu-
pied by the late Louis Ssemann, No. 6 Rue de M^zi^res. He is an ex-
cellent mineralogist as well as chemist, and many difficult points in min-
eralogy have been elucidated by his analyses. We take pleasure in com-
mending his establishment to all who desire to procure minerals either by
the specimen or cabinet.

7. Discovery of additumal Mastodon remains at Cokoes, N. Y. — A
few weeks after the discovery at Cohoes of the lower jaw of a mastodon,
a notice of which appeared in the last number of the Journal (p. 426),
some additional remains were found in the same locality ; and subse-
quently the skull and many other parts of the same skeleton were
brought to light These also are in an excellent state of preservation,
and the whole, when seen together, exhibit admirably the prominent
characters of the species, as well as some structural peculiarities of much
scientific interest

The remains are evidently those of the common North American mas-
todon — M, Okioticus (M. giganteus Guvier). The imperfect ossification
of some parts of the skeleton, especially the epiphyses, shows that the
animal was comparatively young, while the absence of tusks from the
lower jaw would indicate a full-grown female.

The missing portions of the skeleton are without doubt in the same
pot-hole, which contained those already found, and, although their recov-
ery may involve considerable expense, it is greatly to be hoped that all
may be secured ; as the skeleton would then be one of the most perfect
ever discovered, and prove a most important addition to the New York



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1 16 ScienHfic Intelligenee.

State oolleetioii, in which, through the generonty of the Harmony Mills
Co. of Cohoes, it is to be perinanently deposited.

The pit, in which the mastodon remains were found, had evidently
been formed by several potholes wearing into each other. It was about
forty feet in diameter at the top, and forty in depth ; and was filled chiefly
with decayed vegetable matter, resembling peat, in which were imbedded
many fragments of trees, mostly conifers. The arrangement of the ma«
terials showed that they had been deposited rapidly, and a part of a
beaver dam, found near the bottom, would indicate that the whole had
been swept in by a freshet. No other animal remains were found except
those already mentioned, although the ^^beaver-sticks" probably indicate
one cotemporary of the mastodon.

Some of the specimens of wood found with the skeleton, and evidently
introduced at the same time, were sufficiently well preserved to admit of
determination. Among these were noticed species of the white pine
(^Pintu strobus L.), the common hemlock {Abies Canadensis Michz.), the
black spruce {Abies nigra Poir.), the AmericAn larch (Larix Americana
Michx.), the swamp maple {Acer rubrum L.), and the white birch {Betula
alba Spach.) o. o. m.

8. A Catalogue of Official Reports upon Geological Surveys of the
United States and British Provinces, — In arranging a set of American
Geological Eteports in the Library of Yale College, the following cata-
logue became necessary; and it is here published in order that its inaccu-
racies and deficiencies may be noticed and corrected, while, in its incom*
pleteness, it may be of assistance to some.'

Part L — Statks kast of the Hississippi River.
Maine.
183Y. Chas, T. Jackson, Ist Ann. Rep., Augusta, 12mo, 128 pp. Atlas,
24 pi.

1888. C. T. Jackson^ 2d Aau. Rep., August^ 12mo, 168 pp.

1889. «* «d ^ ** 276 and Ixiv pp.

1837. *< 1st '< Geol. of Public Lands, Mame and
Mass., Boston, 12mo, 47 pp.

1838. (7. T, Jackson, 2d A«n. Rep., Ged. of Public Lands, Maine and

Mass., Boston, 12mo, 93 pp.

1 839. Stekiel Holmes, Expior. and Survey of Aroostook River Territory,

1st Ann. Rep., Augusta, 12rao, 78 pp.
1862. S. Holmes and Chas. H Hitchcock, Nat. Hist and Geol., 2d

Ann. Rep., Augusta, 8vo, 387 pp.
)«63. B. Holmes and C. H, Hitchcock, Nat Hist and GeoL, Augusta,

6vo, 447 pp.

New Hamfbribe.

1841. <7. T* Jacifson, 1st Ann. Rep., Concord, 12mo, 164 pp.

1842. ^ ?d •' ti H 8 pp.

' Of those Repoi^t parked vltb an * one oopj is needed at the Library of Tale
X>>llege ; and also oae copy of any Report not iooluded in the list : persons having
^ein to dispo^B o/ ivre xe^uested to notify the Librarian.



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Mineralogy and Creology. 1 IT

1844. C. T. Jackson^ Final Bep., Concord, 4to, 8 79 pp., map, 2 sectioDi,

1845. ^ Views and Map, illustrating Scenery and Geology,
Boston, 4to, 20 pp., 8 pi.

Vbrmont.

1845. Cha8. B. Adams^ Ist Ann. Rep., Burlington, 8vo, 92 pp.

1846. «* 2d " " " 267 pp.

1847. ** 3d " " " 32 pp.
1848.* " 4tli •* « « 8 pp.

1856. Augustus Young, Prelim. Rep. on Nat. Hist., Burlington, 12mo,

88 pp.

1857. E, Hitchcock, lat Ann. Rep^ Montpelier, 12mo, 12 pp.
1858* ^ 2d *" Burlington, 12mo, 13 pp.

1861. Edward Hitchcock, E. Hitchcock, Jr^ A. D. Hager, and Ohas. H.
Hitchcock, Final Rep., Proctorsville, 4to, 2 parts, 988 pp., 38 pl«

Massachusetts.

1832. E. Hitchcock, Final Report (Ist Part), Economic Geology, Am-*

herst, 8^0, 71 pp.

1833. E. Hitchcock, Final Report (complete), Amherst, 8vo, 700 pp.,

At^as, 19 pi.

1835. E, Hitchcock, Final Report (2d edition), Amherst, 12mo, 702 pp.

Atlas, 19 pL
1838. E, Hitchcock, Rep. on Reexamination Economic Geol., Boston,
12mo, 139 pp.

1841. E, Hitchcock, Final Rep., Amherst, 4to, 831 pp., map and 55 pi,

1858. "" Rep. on Surface Geology, Boston, 8vo, 44 pp.
1858. ' ^ *^ Conn. River Sandstone (Ichnology of New

England), Boston, 4to, xii and 220 pp., 60 pi.
1865, E, Hitchcock, Supplement to Ichnology of New England, Boston,
4to, X and 96 pp., 20 pi.

Rhode Island.

1840^ Chas, T. Jackson, Final Rep., Providence, 8vo, 312 pp., map,
section.

Connecticut.

1837. Chas. U, Shepard (Mineralogy and Economic G«ol.), New Haven,
8vo, 188 pp.

1842. Jos, &. Perdvat, Final Report, New Haven, 8vo, 495 pp., map.

New York.

1836. John A. Dix, Rep. on proposed Survey, Albany, 8vo, 60 pp.

1837. John Torrsy, James E. DeKay, Le\ois C. Beck, Wm. W. Mather^

Ebenezer Emmons, Timothy A, Conrad, and Lardner Vanuxem,
Ann. Rep., Albany, 8vo, 212 pp.

1838. {The same, vfith exception of J. Torrey, and addition ofJas, Hall,)

Ann. Rep., Albany, 8vo, 384 pp.

1839. {The same, with exception of J, E, DeKay ^ Ann. Rep., Albany,

8vo, 351 pp.

1840. {The same,) Ann. Rep., Albany, 8vo, 484 pp.



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118 Scientific InieUigence.

1841. (The iame,) Ann. Rep., Albany, 8fo, 164 pp.

1842. L. C. Beck^ Final Rep. Mineralogy, Albany, 4to, 536 pp., 8 pi.
1848. W, W. Mather, Final Rep. Ist Diet., Albany, 4to, 663 pp., 46 pi.

1842. E. JEmnums, Final Rep., 2d Dist, Albany, 4to, 427 pp^ 17 pi.
*' L. Vanuxem, Final Rep., 3d Diet, Albany, 4to, 306 pp.

1843. J. Hall, ** ** 4th •* •• 4to, 626 pp., 19 pi.
1847. *« " ** Paleontology, Vol. I, Albany, 4tA| 388

pp., 100 pi.
1852. J. Mall, Final Rep., Paleontology, Vol. II, Albany, 4to, 862 pp.

104 pi.
1869. J. Hall, Final Rep., Paleontology, Vol III, Albany, 4to, 632 pp.,

140 pi.
1846. E. EmmoM, Final Rep^ Agricnlture, Albany, 4to, 371 pp., 21

pi, map. (Contains Emmons's *' Taconic System.")
1860. /. Hall, 3d Reg. Rep., Appendix L, Oontrib. to Paleontology,

Albany, 8vo, 13 pp., 3 pi.
1867. /. Hall, 10th Reg. Rep., Appendix C, Contrib. to Paleontology,

Albany, 8vo, 148 pp.
1869. J. Hall, 12th Reg. Rep., Appendix — Contrib. to Paleontology,

Albany, 8vo, 00 pp.
1860. J. Hall, 13th Reg. Rep., Appendix F, Contrib. to Paleontology,

Albany, 8to, 76 pp.
' '' ckl



1861. X. Lineklaen, 14th Reg. Rep., Appendix B^ Guide to Geology
N. Y., Albany, 8vo, 68 pp., 19 pi.

1861. J. Hall, 14th Reg. Rep., Appendix C, Contrib. to Paleontology,

Albany, 8vo, 22 pp.

1862. J. Hall, 16th Reg. Rep., Appendix — , Contrib. to Paleontology,

Albany, 8vo, 170 pp.
1868. /. Hall, 16th Reg. Kep., Appendix D, Contrib. to Paleontology,

Albany, 8vo, 210 pp. 11 pi.
1864. J. Hall, 17th Reg. Rep^ Appendix H, Albany, 8vo, 11 pp.
1866. '• 18th « " — , " "

New Jbrsit.

1836. Henry D, Borers, Ist Rep., Philadelphia, 8vo, 188 pp., map.
1840.* Henry D. Rogers, Final Rep. (Descr. Geol. N. J.), Philadelphia,
8vo, 301 pp., map. (Reprinted without map, Trenton, 1866.)
1866. Wm. Kitehell, Ist Ann. Kep., New Brunswick, 8vo, 100 pp.

1866. " 2d, " Trenton, 8vo, 248 pp.

1867. " 3d, •* " 79 pp.

1867. Geo. H. Cook, Rep. on Cape May Co., Trenton, 8vo, 211 pp., map.

1864. " Ist Ann. Rep., Trenton, 8vo, 13 pp.

1866. «t 2d "^ ** 24 pp., map, section.

PlHKSTLTAVIA.

1886. H. D. Sogers^ 1st Ann. Rep., Harrisburg, 8vo, 22 pp.

1838. «» 2d " •• "91 pp.

1839. *• • 3d " " " 119 pp.

1840. ** 4th a u u 252 pp.

1841. « 6th " « "179 pp.

1842. " 6th ** a • «i 28 pp.



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Mineralogy and Geology. 1 19

1858. ff. D. Sogers, Final Rep^ Vol. I, Philadelphia, [printed at Edin-
bnrghj 4to, xzvii and 688 pp., 27 pi., 8 sect.

1858. IT. D. icogen. Final Rep., Vol. II, Philadelphia, [printed at £d-
inbargh.] 4to, ixiv and 1045 pp., 46 pi., 7 sect

1868. H. D, Bogen^ Final Rep., Atlas, 2 maps (5 sheets), 2 sections.

Delaware.
1889.* JoM, C. Boothy 1st and 2nd Ann. Rep., Dover, 8vo, 26 pp.
1841. '^ Final Rep., Dover, 8vo, 188 pp.

Maryland.
1834. J. T, Ducatel and /. R. Alexander^ Rep. on Projected Survey,

Annapolis, 8vo, 39 pp., map.
1834. J, jGT. Alexander^ Rep. on New Map, Annapolis, 8vo, 12 pp., map.
1836.* ^ Rep. Annapolis, 8vo, 84 pp.

1837. " Rep. " 8vo, 44 pp.

1834. J. T. Dueately 1st Ann. Rep., Annapolis, 8vo, 44 pp.
1885.* *♦ 2d Ann. Rep., " 8vo, 60 pp. Map and

sections.

1836. /. T. Ducatel, 3d Ann. Rep., Annapolis, 8vo, 60 pp. Map and

sections.

1837. J, T, Ducatelj 4th Ann. Rep., Annapolis, 8vo, 60 pp.

1838. ** 6th « " 8vo, 83 pp., 4 pi.
1839.* " 6th « " 8vo, 49 pp.
1840. " 7th " « 8vo, 69 pp. 8 pi.
1860. Philip T. TyeoHf Ist Bienn. Rep., Annapolis, 8vo, 146 and 20

pp., map.
1862. P. T. TysoHj 2d Bienn. Rep., Annapolis, 8vo, 92 pp.

ViROIKIA.

1836. Wm, B. Bogere, Rep. Geo!. Reconn., Philadelphia, 8vo, 143 pp.,
section.

1838. W. B, Rogers, 1st and 2d Ann. Reps., Philad., 8vo, 87 pp.

1839. " 3d Ann. Rep., , 4to, 52 pp. *

1840. "^ 4th '' Richmond, 8vo, 161 pp.

1841. •* 6th « " " 132 pp.

North Carolina.

1824. Denison Olmsted, Ist Ann. Rep., " Part I," , 12mo, 84 pp.

1852. K Emmons, <' *« Raleigh, 12mo, 181 pp.

1856. " Rep. on Midland Counties, New York and Raleigh,

8vo, 351 pp., 15 pi.

1868.* K Emmons, Rep. Agric. Eastern Counties, New Tork and Ra-
leigh, 8vo, 314 pp.

South Carolina.
1826.* L. Vannxem, Rep. published in newspapers, and most of it in

Mills' Stetistics of S. C.
1843.* Edmund Buffin, Agricultural Rep., with Appendix, Columbia,

8vo, 176 pp.
1844. M. Tuomey, Ist Ann. Rep., Columbia, 12mo, 63 pp. (including
SuppL to Ruffin's Rep.)



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120 Scientific Intelligence.

1 848. M. Tuomef/y Final Rep., Columbia, small 4to, 293 and 1 vi pp., map.
1857. Oscar M. Lieber, Ist Ann. Rep., Columbia, 8vo, 186 pp., 9 pi.
1868. " 2d •* " 8vo, 143 ** 6 "

1859. •* 8d " *' 8vo, 223 « 8"
I860.* •* 4th « ** 8vo, 194 »* 4 "

Alabama.
1850. jW. Tuameyy Ist Biennial Rep., Toscalooea, 8to, xxxii and 170 pp.

1863.* ** map. .

1868. ** 2d Biennial Rep., Montgomery, 8vo, xiz and 292 pp.,

map (edited hy J. W. Mallet).

MisaiBsipPL
1864. £. X. O. Wailes, Ist Rep., Jackson, 8vo, 371 pp.
1867. L. Harper, Prelim. Rep., Jackson, 8vo, 360 pp., 7 pi, map.
1868.* Hug. W. ffilpardy Ann. Rep., Geol. and Agric, Jackson, 12mo,
22 pp.

1860. * K W. Hilgard^ Rep. Geol. and Agric.^ Jackson, 8vo, 391 pp.) map*

TXNNBSSBB.

1836. Q. Troosty 3d Rep., Nashville, 12mo, 32 pp., map.
1887. " 4th " « ** 37 pp. *'
1840* « 6th " « 8vo, 76 pp. "
1841.* " 6th « « 12mo, 48 pp. *'
1844.* " 7th ** " 8vo, 45 pp. **
1846»* •* 8th " « 12mo, 40 pp. «
1848. " 9th « " " 89 pp., 2 pi.

[Trooftt's Ist and 2d Reports were not published.]

1866. Jas, M. Saffordy 1st Biennial Rep., Nashville, 8vo, 164 pp., map.

1867. ** 2d " « " 11 pp.

Kentucky.

1 839. W. W. Mather, Rep. of Geol. Reconn. (1 838), Frankfort, 8vo, 40 pp.

1856. David 2>. Oi»en, 1st Rep., Frankfort, 8vo, 416 pp., 7 pi., 2 maps,

7 sections.

1857. 2). A Owen, 2d Rep., Frankfort, Svo^ 891 pp.. Atlas of 10 pi.,

and 1 chart.
1867. D. D. Owen, 8d Rep., Frankfort, 8vo, 589 pp., Atlas of 10 pi.,
and 1 chart.

1861. I>.D. Owen, 4th Rep., Frankfort, 8vo, 616 pp.

Ohio.
1886. S, P, Hildreth, Legislative Rep. on Survey, Columbus, 12mo,
18 pp. 2 sections.

1837. John L, Riddell, Legislat Rep. on Survey, Columbus, 8vo, 84 pp.

1838. W. W.Mather, 1st Ann. Rep., Columbus, 8vo, 134 pp.
" " 2d " " 8vo, 286 "

Indiana.

1838. D. D. Otoenj 1st Rep., Indianapolis, 8vo !, 34 pp.

1839. « 2d " " « 64 **



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Mineralogy and Cfeology. 121

1805.* IL T. Bromiy Letter to Ap:ric. Board, iDdianapolis, 8vo, 80 pp.

1863. J). D. Owen and Biehard Otoen^ Rep. Qed. Reconn., Indianap*

olis, 8vo, xvi and 368 pp., II pL

Ilunois.

1853. tT. 0. Nwrwood^ Rep. Pr(^., Springfield, 8vo, 13 pp.

1867. " " on Coals, Chicago, " 98 "

1866. A. H. Wortheny Rep. Geologjr, Vol. I, Springfield, large 8va,
504 pp., with map and aectionB.

MiOHIOAN.

1838. Douglass Houghton^ Ist Rep., Detroit, small 8vo, 37 pp.

1839. ** 2d " " " 39 and 123 pp.
1840.* •* on Salt Springs, (House Doc. Vol. I, p. 1 8.)

•* " Sd Ann. Rep., Detroit, 8to, 124 pp.

1841. •• 4th " " 184 **
•* * " Rep. Progress of Maps,

1842.* •* 5th Ann. Rep.,

1861. A. Winchellj 1st Biennial Rep., Lansinc^, 12mo, 339 pp.

1846. A B. Gray, Rep. to War Dept on Mineral Lands, Ledce Supe-
rior, Washington, 8vo, 23 pp., map.

1849. Chas. T. Jackson, Rep. (U. S.) on Mineral Lands, Washington,
8vo, 237 pp., 6 maps.

1849. J. W. Foster and /. D. Wkiinsy, Rep. (U. S.) on Mineral Lands,
Washington, 8vo, 330 pp., 9 maps, 7 pi.

1849. Wm. A. Burt, Rep. (U. a) Mineral lands L. Superior, Washing-
ton, 8vo, 63 pp.
«* Bela Hubhard, Rep. (U. S.) Mineral lands L. Superior, Washing*
ton, 8vo, 76 pp.

1860. J, W. Foster and J. D, Whitney, Rep. (U. S.) Geol. L. Superior

Land Dist, Part I, Washington, 8vo, 224 pp., 4 maps, 12 pi.

1851. J. W. Foster and /. D, Whitney, Rep. (U. S.) Geol. L. Superior

Land Dist, Part II, Washington, 8vo, xvi and 406 pp., 35 pi.

WlSCONBIV.

1864. Edward Daniels, 1st Ann. R^., Madison, 12mo, 84 pp.

1865. J. G. Percival, •* « - « u loi •* map.

1866. ** 2d " ** « 111 **

1868. Edward Daniels, •* •« «' « 62 "
" " and others, « « « " 12 "

I860.* J. Hall, Ann. Rep. (for 1859), Madison,

1861. "^ *" Madison, 12mo, 52 pp.

1862. J. Ball and /. D. Whitney, Final Rep., Vol. I, Albany, 8vo,

455 pp<^ 10 pi., 2 maps.

[To be concluded.]
9. Human remains in Belgium. — Mr. Edward Dupont has presented
to the Royal Academy of Brussels (June 30, 1866) a paper on his later
researches in the caverns on the borders of the Lesse, near where it emp-
liea into the Meuse. He has examined two localities near Walsen, one
▲m. Joub. Soi.— Sbcoud Suuas, y«L. XLm, Ho. IST.-^av., 1867.
16



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122 Scientific Intelligence.

of vhich was not known before, and he has had the good fortune to find
there numerous bones which he has described in detail.

It is known that in a work upon the Quaternary deposits of the prov-
ince of Namur the author of these researches has distinguished three
stages, which he designates, respectively, (1) from the presence of the
Mammoth (Elephoi primiffenius)^ (2) of the great Cave Bear ( Ursus
spelopui)^ and (3^ of the Reindeer {Oervus tarandtis). But up to the
present time he had found but few traces of the fauna of the first two
stages. The two caverns called the Hjena cave and the Naulette cave
have given him numerous remains which have confirmed his first im-
pressions. In the first of these caves, called the cave of the Hyena, be-
cause of the quantity of bones of the Hyoena gpelaa which it contains,
he found teeth of the cave bear ( Ursus spelctut), of the Ekphas primi-
gtniu9 (a milk tooth), also bones of the Rhinoceros ticharinus, horse,
fox, reindeer, dbc, nearly all bearing marked traces of the teeth of a
strong Carnivore. All the extremities are 'gnaiffed and there are no traces
of the epiphyses; a great number of splinters are also gnawed. The
bones of the hyena, on the contrary, bear no such traces, and as this,
moreover, is the only Carnivore he has found there, he is inclined to be*
lieve that this was a hyena cave, and that the bones of other animals
found in the same bed are the remains of their repast. The results of
the explorations of this cave Mr. Dupont considers very important in
their bearing upon the Quaternary deposits. These excavations deter-
mine the exact place, in the series, of the ^reat cave Mammifers. In
fact, the debris of the principal animals which compose this fauna are
found also in the sandy-argillaceous stratified beds of alluvium ^or
'* lehm ^) of the country ; they evidently existed immediately before uie
deposit of these beds. Moreover, these stratified beds of gritty clay are
found in the caverns as well as in the Quaternary outside in the province
of Namur, between the great deposit of rolled pebbles on one side, and
the argillaceous pebble deposit on the other. But the deposit of the
rolled pebbles in the valleys is eminently characterized by the remains of
the Elephas primigeniitSf so that the beds have justly received their name
from their presence. On the other hand the deposit of yellow clay con-
taining pebbles, which accords exactly with the deposit called red allu-
vium in the Paris basin, includes in the caves the fauna of the reindeer
properly so called, that remarkable fauna whose distinguishing feature is
the absence of all extinct species, and the presence of a series of animals
still in existence, but now banished to colder climates. The true cave
fauna, characterized principally by the great Carnivores, which are at the
present day wholly extinct separates the two fauna. This accords with
the ideas Mr. Dupont had before brought forward in his paper on the
Quaternary division of the province of Namur.

In the second of these caverns, named La Naulette, Mr. Dupont has
found, among other organic remains, a bone of the Elephas primipenius^
and a human jaw with a human ulna. The antiquity of these last bones
cannot be contested since they are covered by several beds of stalagmites
between which Mr. Dupont has recognized his medium stage, and upon
which rest the deposits of the reindeer a^e. On the other hand this jaw
differs from those of all the races found m Europe at the present day, in



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Mineralogy and Cfeology. 123

its forward prolongation (prognathism), a characteristio which is appar-
ent to a certain degree in a jaw bone found by Mr. de Vibraye in the
grotto of Arcy, in Bourgogne, associated equally with the EUpfuu primi-
gtniu9 and the Rhinoceros Hchorinus ; this peculiarity has also been ob-
served in nine other jaws collected together in a cavern called the Cave
of Frontal, at Furfooz. Mr. Dupont's discovery of these human remains
18 confirmed by Mr. Dumon, chief engineer of bridges and causeways^
Mr. Eugene Ooemans, Mr. John Jones, and Lord Talbot of Malahide, who
visited the cavern at the precise moment that the jaw was found, and



Online LibraryJohn AlmonThe American journal of science and arts → online text (page 14 of 102)