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eqnivaleDt radical in a compound, " object" for the body saturating it, and "result-
ant** for the product. In ammonia, for example, N is the determinant, U the ob-
ject, and NH3 the resultant.

Am. Jour. 8ci.~Sbcond Sbribs, Vol. XLIII, No. 127.— Jan., 1867.

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138 Miscellaneous Bibliography.

of atomic sataration. In this stage bodies can neither combine with
other bodies nor replace them ; and they cannot take part in any chemi-
cal change without undergoing decomposition. Below this point, how-
CTor, there are in most cases certain points of comparative stability, at
one of which this stability may be at its maximum, the compound un-
dergoing decomposition less readily than when atomically saturated.
Thus nitrogen atomically saturated is a pentad ; but it has a trivalent
and a univalent stage, of which the former is the stage of maximum sta-
bility. In this stage bodies may unite directly with or replace other
bodies, thus acting like compound radicals. This fact Dr. Frankland ex-
plains by supposing that the units of attraction or bonds of an atom may

saturate each other by pairs. Nitrogen as a pentad is IZlslZ, as a triad

— N>, and a monad <N>. The maximum number of bonds he calls
the ^^ absolute atomicity,'' the number of bonds united to each other
" latent atomicity ;" and those free to unite *' active atomicity." The ab-
solute atomicity equals of cx)urse the sum of the other two. The hexad
iron forms ferrous chlorid ^▼Fe"Cl2, in which the active atomicity is two ;
ferric chlond '"Fej^'Clg, in which it is three ; and ferric acid Fe^'OgHog,
in which all the atomicity is active.

The book above mentioned is a synopsis of a course of lectures de-
livered at the Royal College of Chemistry in the fall of 1866-6, and is
devoted to* a development of these views. In all the rational formulw it
contains, the determinant is written first, printed in heavy type, thus :
OHg, SnOj, FtCI^, OOKoj ; indicating that **it is united wi\h all the
active bonds of the other radicals, following upon the same line." With
one atom of the determinant as above, formulae are mon-adelphic ; with
two of equal power di-adelphic, etc In the latter case one symbol is

( OH
written below the other, connected by a bracket, thus: ] #|h'* ^^'

Frankland uses the bracket solely to signify that the atoms it connects
exchange one bond. These atoms may be united indirectly as in me-

thylic ether, i O , where the dyad oxvgen atom links them together.

(OH,
Speaking of rational formulse the author says, ** the formula ought to
ahow, first, whether the hydrogen is combined with the carbon or with
the oxygen ; or if combined with both, it should indicate how many
atoms are united with the carbon and how many with the oxygen. Sec-
ondly, the formula ought to show whether the oxygen be united with the
carbon or with the hydrogen, or partly with the one and partly with the
other; or, lastly, whether it be performing the function of linking hydro-
gen to carbon." p. 201. The representation in a formula of the mode
in which the atoms are held together (and not of course their relative
position in space) so necessary to explain cases of isomerism, and which
cannot be given by the ordinary typical formulae, is well obtained by

those of Dr. Frankland. In aluminic oxyd, for example, \ aiq^' ^^^

aluminum atom exchanges one bond with its fellow, two with the dyad



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Miscellaneous Bibliography. 139

oxjgen atom on the same line, and one with the single oxygen atom in-

{ OMeH^
termediate ; in ethylic ether, •< O , the carbon atoms are linked by

( OMeH,
the oxygen atom, while the other three bonds of each are united respec-
tively with one atom of Me and two of H. To farther elucidate this im-
portant fact of combination, Dr. F. makes use of the graphic notation of
Cram Brown (using in lectures the glyptic formulae of Hofmann).*'

Aluminic oxyd is 0=A1— Al=0; and ethylic ether is

H H H H

in which the mode of union of the atoms is the same as that above
given. These graphic methods, used more or less by Eeku]6, Wurtz, Roe-
coe, Foster, etc., are most happy in the clearness with which they express
the manner in which the bonds of an atom are saturated. Thus Dr. P.

/0\
represents a molecule of oxygen as 0=0, and one of ozone as O— O.
The formulae of complex minerals given opposite pages 103 and 177,
cannot fail to be of the highest value in mineralogy, if only we know
enough of their constitution to say that these are their true rational
formulae.

Dr. Frankland has been remarkably successful in developing these
views, and in applying them alike to mineral and organic chemistry.
We notice, however, the objectionable term *^ anhydride" retained; while
to our view the term ''carbonic dioxide" of Foster (or ''carbonylic oxide"
CO yO) is far preferable. Again, we think his reason for excluding car-
bonic acid from the organic acids hardly sufficient The volume deserves
careful study. The novelty of many of its views, coming from so distin-
guished a chemiHt, are most suggestive, and cannot fail to exert an im-
portant influence upon theoretical chemistry. All the more important
elements and compounds, with their modes of preparation, the reaction
in each case, their physical and chemical properties, and their modes of
decomposition, are moet clearly described. And thus the object of the
work, to furnish names, formulas and reactions, and so to save to the
student the time spent in copying these in the lecture room is most sue-*
cessfully accomplished.! a. f. b.

7. Chemical Tables; by Stxphen P. Sharples, SJB. Cambridge,
Sever & Francis, 1866. pp. 192. — We cannot give a better idea of the
value of this book than by stating the heads under which the tables
are arranged. Tables for the calculation of analyses; relating to specific
gravity; relating to heat; for gas analysis; relating to light; miscella-
neous tables. A table of logarithms closes the volume. A collection
of physico-chemical constants like this cannot fail to be of great use
both to the physicist and chemist. We need no higher endorsement of
the work than that of Dr. Wolcott Gibbs, under whose supervision it
was prepared.



* Not Roy. Inst of Great BriUin, April 7, 1866.
t Quart. Jour. Chem. Soo, xUi, 177, and [2], iv, 872.



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140 Miscellaneous Bibliography,

8. A new Chemical Nomenclature ; by S. D. Tillman, A.M., Professor
of Technology in the Am. Inst, of the city of New York. pp. 23. —
This paper was read before the American Association at the Buffalo
meeting last August. Prof. T. attempts to embrace both nomenclature
and notation in one mnemonical method, which is certainly very ingen-
ious, and surprisingly successful. He exhibits an accurate acquaintance
with chemical facts and relations. But his system does away with the
old landmarks too entirely to be received into the philosophy of chemistry.

9. Memoirs of the National Academy^ Vol I. pp. 344, 4to. Wash-
ington, 1866. — This first volume of the Memoirs of the National Acad-
emy of Sciences contains the following papers read before the Academy
in 1864, 1865:

(1.) lieduction of the observations of the fixed stars made by Joseph
Le Paute d'Agelet, at Paris, during the years 1783-1785, with a cata-
logue of the corresponding mean places referred to the equinox of 1800*0 ;
by B. A. Gould, (2.) On the Saturnian system ; by Benjamin Peirce.
(3.) On shooting stai-s ; by H. A. Newton. (4.) On the distribution of
certain important diseases in the United States; by Augustus A* Gould.
(5.) On rifled guns ; by W. H, C. Bartlett.

Dr. GouldV paper was noticed in this Journal in our last volume, and
the principal part of Prof. Newton's appeared in vol. xxxix.

First AnnuAl Report of the Geolo^ of Kansas ; by Prof. B. Mudob, A.M. 66
pp., 8vo. Lawrence (Kansas), 1866. Report for the year 1864.

Preliminary Eeport of the Geological Survey of Kansas ; by Prof O. C. Swal-
low, State Geologist. 198 pp.. 8 vo. Lawrence, 1866. Report for the year 1866.

PaocBRDiNGS Boar. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. X.— P. 858, Formation of the exca-
vated lake basins of New England; N. 8. Shaler.— Vol XL P. 1, Anatomy and
physiology ot the ciliary muscle in man; B»J. Jeffries. — p. 8, On a cat with super-
numerary digits ; B. O, Wilder.-^^, 8, Formation of mountain chains ; N, 8. Skaler.

PaocBEDiNos AoAD. Nat. Sci. Philadslthia. No. 8, June, July and Augast, 1866.
-^p. 236, Introduction of American shad into the Alabama river; W. O. DanielL —
p. 238, Description of some new species of Diurnal Lepidoptera ; Trytm Reakirt. —
p. 251, Contributions to the paleontology of Illinois and other western states; F.
B, Meek dr A* H, Worihen.^-^. 275, Remarks on the remains of a gigantic Dinosaur
from Cretaceous green sand of New Jersev ; E, D. Cope. — p. 279, Notes on the
Vespertilionidie of tropical America ; H, Allan.

PaooEEDiNOs Amer. PmLosoPH. Soc. PHiLADEr.PHiA, Vol. X, No. 75. — p. 196,
Observations on skylight polarization; P. JS. Chaee. — p. 199, Practical applioatioD
of diamagnetism ; /. O. Creewn. — p. 201, Native Siamese photography; Jhthois, —
I. 203, Odjibow6 Franyois dictionary ; G. A. Belco9u>t.—p. 206, The auroral display
'eb. 20-21 ; J. O. Oresnofu-^p. 210, On Sullivant <ft Lesquereux's Musci Bor. Amer. ;
T. P.Jamea.-'p. 211, Obituary of Oswald Thompson; JS. K. Price.^p. 223, On
the comparative visibility of Arago's, Bobinets and Brewster's neutral points; P,
E. Chane. — p. 227, Records of oil-borint^ (with map) ; J. P. Lesletf. — p. 243, On
some specimens of Indian pottery (with plate) ; F. Peaie. — p. 246, Ol)8ervations on
some species of Spirifera; J. Hall.

PaooBKDiNGS Ameb^ Acad. Arts and Sci., Vol. VII.— P. 2, On certain formulaa
of interpolation; Ferrell. — p. 31, An annual variation in the daily mean level of
the ocean and its causes ; Ferrell. — p. 87, Right ascensions observed at Harvard
Coll. Observatory \n the years 1862-1865; T. H. Safford.—p. 89, Some focal prop-
erties of quadratics; /. E. Oliver.-^p. 62, On the Nephila plumipes, or silk-spider ;
B. O. Wilder. — p. 67, The aqueous lines of the solar spectrum; J. P. Cooke^ Jr. —
p. 68. Notes OQ the cells of the Bee ; /. IVyfwan,— p. 84. New process of organic
/jiementary analysis for substances containing chlorine ; O. M. Warren.



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AMERICAN

JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ARTS.

[8EC01I D 8 SBIE8.] «-




Art. XVL— On the Decrease of the Bate of Increase of Population
now obtaining in Ehirope and America; by Horatio Eobinson
Storsr, of Boston, rrofessorof Obstetrics and the Diseases
of Women in Berkshire Medical (College.

(Read before the Americen Aeademj of Arts and Sciences, Dec. 14» 1858.)*

Ik calling the attention of the Academy to some remarkable
and hitherto unexplained facts in the present history of powerful
nations, bearing upon their prosperity, progress and even their
future existence, I beg heed to the various steps by which I shall
arrive at certain astounding conclusions, of tne deepest interest
to political economists, as well as to moralists.

In many countries of Europe, it has been ascertained that the
'^ fecundity " of the population, in other words the rate of its
annual increase, is rapialy diminishing.

* The above paper, as will be seen, was prepared and read nearly ten years ago.
It was thought best at the time to confine its discussion to the Medical profession,
that any error either in statistics or reasening might be detected. Portions of it
"Were accordingly published in Philadelphia under the auspices of the American
Medical Association, as oorrelatiTe to the report of a committee, of which the
writer was chairman. The event has shown the justice of bis conclusions. Not an
attempt eren has been made tt» controvert them, while evidence in their favor has
been steadily accumulating of an overwhelming character. Physicians are now of
one mind as to the existence of the main facts proved. This has been shown by
the authoritative issue for general circulation of the late Prise Essay of the Am.
Med. Association (Why Not I A Book for Every Woman), and by the publication
of corroborative testimony by many practitioners, in different parts of toe country.
This fact and the increased interest taken in the subject by the leading poliUcal
economists of Europe, would show that the time was now ripe for its discussion
by the scientific world— h. r. s.

Am. Joub. Sgi.— Secokd Series, Vol. XLIII, No. 128.— March, 18C7.
19



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142



H. R. Siorer ^n the dtcreasing increase



In Sweden, it has lessened by one-ninth in sixty-one years ; in
Prussia, by a third in 182 years ; in Denmark by a (quarter in
82 years; in England, by two-sevenths in a century ; m Buasia,
by an eighth in 28 years ; in Spain, by a sixth in 80 years: in
Germany, by a thirteenth in 17 years; and in France, by a^fcird
in 71 tears.* Or, to reduce these fractions to decimal& - >in Swe-
den tne rate of increase has lessened by a fifth, in Prussia bjr a
iwrth, in Denmark and England by a third, and in Russia, Spain,
Germany and France by a half, in a single century.

For convenience sake, larger bodies of statistics existing oon-
oerning it, and from the fact that it represents the extreme of
the alleged decrease, I shall take France as the basis of my com-
parisons.

In France at large, according to the official returns as analyzed
by Legoytjf the increase of the population, which from 1801-06
was at the rate of 1*8 per cent, annually, from 1806-46 had fallen
to about *5 per cent. The exact ratio of decrease after this period
is better shown by the figures themselves. The increase from

1841-46 was 1,200,000
1846-61 *" 880,000

1851-66 "* 266,000

In England during the latter period, with a population of but
one half the size, the returns or the' Registrar-General showing
a relative increase nine times greater.^

In 87 years from 1817-64 the mean annual increase in France
was nbt more than 156,000 ; yet in five years, from 1846-61, it
had fallen to 76,000 yearly, and from 1861-56 to 51,200; and
this, with a population ranging from 29 to 84 millions!

A comparison of these &cts with those obtaining iu other Eu-
ropean states, will make the above still more evident



Tabu L— J2ato of incrnue in £uropi (acoordiog to Ratt).g



Netharlandi, 1821-28

Saxooy. 1816-80

Baden (HMmlsdi), 1820-80

BtLTwm, 1814-28

Naples, 1814-24

France (MaUiieo), 1817-27







Per cent


Hj^(Roh«rX


1811-21


2-40
1-78


M


1821-81


1-80


Pnwk.


1816-27


1-54


a


1820-80


1-87


M


1821-81


1-27


Atieirla (Bobm),




180


Bcoilaiid,


1821-81


1-80



PerceoL
1-2S
MS
MS
1-OS
O'SS
0-6S



" more reeeotlj (DeJonndt), OliS



A similar and corroborative table, containing additional mat-
ter, is given by Quetelet;] its differences from the preceding are
owing to its representing a different series of years.

• Moreau de Jonn^t, BIteenU de SUtietiqae, 1868, p. 202.

f Journal dee Eoonomittee, Biarch and May, 1847.

i Edinb. Bmr^ Jan. 1887, p. 842; Med. Timet and QaaeiU. Maj, 1867, p. 48S.

I Lehrbocb der PoUtitcheQ Oekonomie.

I Sar rHomme ei le Diveloppemeui de aet Faonltis, torn, i, ch. 7.



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ofpoptdalian in Europe arid America.



148



Table IL-^RaU of inerMie in Europe (aeeordlog to Qoetetot).

Per cent

iraland, 2-46

HongAiy, 2*40

Spain, 1*66

BnffUnd 1*66

Bheoiflh Pramft, I'SS



Percent

Atwtria, ISO

Bavftrift, 1-08

Netberlaods, 0-94

N«ple8» 0-8S

FntDoe, 0*68



And more recently, Legoyt* brings up these results to the
close of 1846| by census, and by the annual excess of births
over deaths,, and is therefore more reliable.

Taslb IIL— JSote of inertMe in JBurope (Mooffdlng to Legoyt) 6y cenmn.

Percent

HoUiiod, OiM)

Austria, 0-86

Sweden, 0*88

FhuMe 0-68



Percent

EngUnd and Scotland 1*96

PruMia, 1-84

SaxoDj, 1-46

NorwaT, . < 1*86

SMxlinia, 1-08



Tabu IY.— i2a/« of inereoH in Europe (aooordlog to Legoyt) 6y annutil €xen% q/

birthe.



Per cent.

Korwaj, 1-80

PniMia^ 1-18

Sweden, .^ M4

Holland 1*08

Wortembeie, 1*00

Bogland and Scotland, 1-00

Denmark, 0-96

Auatria, 0-90



Percent

Saxony, ,, 0-90

HanoTer, 0-86

Belgium, 0-76

Bavaria, ,,..,,... 0-71

RuMia, ..•• ^«, 0-61

France, 0-60

Nonnandy, , -—



In four departments of France, among which are two of the
most thriving of Normandy, the deaths actually exceed thQ
birth8.t

Froai the above facts the general mortality not being excesh
sive, it is evident that the percentage of births to the whole pop-
ulation must be smaller in France than in most other Eurojpean
countries ; and from the lessened annual rate of increase ot the
population, that the percentage of births must be decreasing in
similar ratio.

From larger statistics furnished by De Jonn&, I have com-
piled the following table of the comparative ratios of births to
the population in the different countnes of Europe.

Tablb V. ^-Annual ratio of Biriki in Europe.



Yenioe and dependencies 1827, 1 to 28

Tittcany 1884, **

liombardy 1828, 1 to 24

Baarial886 1 to 26

WnrtembeiK 1821-27. -

Pninia 1886,

Me^enberg 1826. 1 to 26



Sardinia 18^0, , ^ . , , ., . 1 tp 24

N'aples and dependencies 1880, **
uroooe lozo, ■«•«•, •f«.«»»«»

Poland 1880, , , 1 to 21

Ireland 1821-81, ,.,.. "

Germany 1828, •*

Switaeriaod 1828, <«



* Joomal des Eoonomistea, May, 1847.
t MUl. Prin. of PoL Ecoo^ i, p. 848.



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144



H. K, Storer on fhe decreasing increoMS



Table Y— oontiniieii

8|MU0 1826,. 1 to 27 Roman States 1886, 1 to 80

Portugal 1816-19, 1 to 27-6 Turkey 1885,



Sweden 1826 1 to 28

Aiutrial829, *'

Belfpnm 1886 **

BaTarUl826, ., **

Two Sicilias 1631 "

Holland 1882 "

Sweden and Iforway 1828, ... 1 to 80
Denmark 1888 '*



Hanover 1836 1 to 31

;iicily 1882, -

lAnstria 1828-30, I to 82

.Great Britain 1821-81, "

.Scotland 1821-81 1 to 34

England 1821-81 lto36

Norway 1882 "

iFrance (1771, 1 to 26) 1861, . . 1 to 87



In a total population at different periods of 282,678,000, there
were 8,788,000 births; .wtience an average on the grand scale of
1 birth to every 26*6 individuals.

In France, however^ the ratio has been steadily lessening; as
seen by the following table.

Tablb YL-^Annual ratio of Birth* in France.



1771-76 1 to 26

1801-10, 1 to 80

1811-26, 1 to 32

1826-86, ....,.,. 1 to38



1886-40, 1 to84

1841-46, 1 to36

1846-60 1 to 37



The position of France as compared with the rest of Europe,
in respect to the ratio of births to the population at different pe-
riods can be made still more manifest.



Tails YTL^Oomparatine ratioi o/Birtki in JSurcpt,



lto28,

1 to 23'fi,
lto24,

I to 24-6,
lto26,

1 to 26,



lta27,



1 to 27-6.
ItoSS,



Venetian Provinees 1827, Tus-
cany 1834.

Kingdom of IFaplee 1822-24.

TuMany 1818, Sidly 1824.

l>>mbardy 1827-28, RuaualSSL

Pruwia 1826-26.

Franot 1781, Austria 1827, Boa-
■ia 1836, Pruseta 1836.

Sardinia 1820, Hanover, Wur-
temberg and Mecklenberg
1826, Greece 1828, Naples
1880.

Spain 1826, Oermany, Switser-
land 1828, Poland 1830, Ire-
land 1881.

Portugal 1816-19.

Holland 1818-24, Bavaria, Swe-
den 1826. Austria 1829, Bel
gium 1836.



I to 29, Canton Lnceme 1810, HoUand
1882.

1 to 29-8, Franae 1801.

ItoSO, Sweden and ITonray 1828. Bel-
giuoi 1882, Denmark 1888.
* Turkey 1886, States of the
CbunA 1886.

1 to 81, Sicily 1882, HanoTer 1886.

1 to 31-4, France 1811.

1 to 31-6, France 1821.

1 to 82, Austria 1880. Great Britain,
Switcerland 1881.

1 to 88, France 1828-31.

1 to 34, Norway, Holstein 1826, Scot-
land 1831, France 1834-41.

1 to 36, Denmark 1810, EngUnd 1881,
Norway 1882.

1 to 36-f , France 1861.



In Paris, strange to say^ the decrease in the ratio of births to
the population, though decided and steady, has not in actual
proportion been as great as in the Empire at large; showing
that the cause, whatever it may be^ is not one depending on the
influenee of a metropolis alone for its existence.

From 1S17-31 there averaged in Paris 1 birth to 26*87 inhab*
itants, and from 1846-51, 1 to 81 '98.*

* Husson, Les Consummations ds Parii^ 1866.



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of papulation in Europe and America. 145

The facts thus far stated are admitted bj the leading atatisti*
cians and political economists of the day, ignorant as they seem
of much of the evidence soon to be brought forward, and of the
<conclaaion to which the whole matter directly and with almost
mathematical exactness may be proved to tend.

"In France," remarks De Jonn&, "the fecundity of the people
is restrained within the strictest limits."*

*'The rate of increase of the French population," says Mill,
'' is the slowest in Europe. The number of births not increasing
.at all, while the proportion of births to the population is consi£
drably diminishing. "f

We turn now to this country, to the conmionwealth of Massa*
^ohusetts.

In the state of Massachusetts, it has been found of late years
that the increase of the population, or the excess of the births
over the deaths, has been wholly of those of recent foreign origin.^
'This in 1860, and asserted of the sUte at large. In 1858, 'Mt
is evident that the births within the commonwealth, with the
usual increase, have resulted in favor of foreign parents in an
increased ratio."§ In other words, it is found that in so far as
•depends upon the American and native element and in the ab*
sence of the existing immigration from abroad, the population
of Massachusetts is stationary or decreasing. This is shown also
to threaten, even if we allow the foreign element to enter the
calculation.

In 1860, the population of Massachusetts was by census
994,6fe6, and the births were 27,664: in 1865 they were 82,846
and the population 1,182,869. The proportion of births to the
population was therefore 1 to 86 in 1850, and in 1866 1 to 84;
a ratio much smaller than that obtaining in most countries of
Europe, and but little over that of France, which in 1860 was 1
to 87.1 ■

'*Tbis result," remarks Dr. Chickering, page 49 of the pamph-
let just quoted, "will doubtless surprise many, who will hardly
think it possible. Is it general or is it accidental ? If it be gen*
eral, how has it happened ? What causes have been in opera-
tion to produce it ? How is it to be accounted for ?" These ques-
tions have hitherto been unanswered. '

Decrease in the births of a nation, its lessened rate of inoreaae,

* El^mento de Stattttique, p. 196.
t Principles of Polit Eoonoiny, i, pp. 848, 844.

X Chickering: ComparatiTe view of the Population of Bostoa. 1860. City
Document, No. 60, p. 44.

fl2th Registration Report to tbe Legislature of Maaaaehusetta, 1868, p. 11«.
The present statistics and others subs^uentlj presented, I have computed from
the fourteen published Registration Reports of the State of Massadiusetta. Those
concerning New York I have drawn from a series of official reports, kindly fur-
nished me by the present City Inspector, Mr. Qeo. W. Morton.



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146 JET. IL Siorer on the decremng increase

must depend, according to one writer, De Jodd<$s, '* either on
physical agents, especiiuly climate, or od the degree of civiliza-
tion of a people, their domestic and social habits." *' In France,"
he a^ain remarks, ''the climate is favorable to an increase of
population, and this obstacle, this restraint, is found in its ad*
vanoed civilization."*

" This diminution of births," says Legoyt, " in the presence of
a constant increase of the general population and of marriages,
can be attributed to nothing else tnan wise and increased fore-
sight on the part of the parent"t

" The French peasant,^ writes Mill, " is no simple countryman,
no downright ^paysan du Danube;' both in fact and in fiction he
is now ' le ruse paysan.' That is the stage .which he has reached
in the progressive development which i/ie cansiitiUian of things
has imposed on human intelligence and human emancipation."^

" These facts," he again asserts, " are only to be accounted for
in two ways. Either the whole number of births which nature
admits of and which happen in some circumstances, do not take

Slace ; or if they do, a large proportion of those who are bom,
ie. The retardation of increase results either from mortality
or prudence ; from Mr. Malthus's 'positive,' or from his 'preven-



Online LibraryJohn AlmonThe American journal of science and arts → online text (page 17 of 102)