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" " oil bath, - . . 190"*

Height of barometer, - . - - 760 mm.

Capacity of bulb, .... 333-5 cc.

Air remaining, 0-2 cc.

The density of the ether at 0°=10589.

Digitized by


8S6 Friedel and Crafts on the Ethers of Silicic Acid,

The normal silicate of methyl is a colorless liquid, possessing
an etheric and rather agreeable odor. It is soluble in conside-
rable quantity in water, and the solution only gives a gelatinous
deposit of silica at the end of some weeks. Moisture or aque-
ous alcohol decomposes it rapidly with formation of condensed
products and ultimately of silica. It burns with a white smoke
composed of silica.

Hexamethylic disilicic etiier is formed, whenever the normal
ether is prepared with aqueous alcohol, and it may also be ob-
tained by heating the normal ether with methylic alcohol con-
taining water. It boils, as we have alreadv said, at 201°-202®-5,
and resembles the hexethylic disilicic ether very much in its

An analysis gave —

L Substance, weight, - - - - 0*2880 gr.

€0,, 0-2960 **

Hj^e, 0-1800 "

IL Substance, weight, - - - - 0-5655 "

SiOa, 0-2665 «

III. Product remaining in the bulb afler the determination of
the rapor-density.

Substance, weight, - - - - 0*3835 gr.

£%, ...... 0-3400 "

HaO, 0-2100 "


I. II. III. Sia(€H3)eer

C, 2804 27-80 27-90

H, 6-95 6-99 6-97

Si, 22-00 21-70

The vapor density =919. The theory requires 8'93.
Difference of 2 weights of bulb, - 1*2422 gr.
Temperature of balance, - - 24®

" " oil bath, - - - 266®'5 mercury therm.

" i« « « . . . 263** air thermometer.

Barometi'ic height, - ^ - . 759-1 mm.
Capacity of bulb, - - - - 253*25 cc.
Air remaining, ... - 0*2 cc.
The density of this ether at O'^zz:!-!*!.

We have not succeeded in isolating any product of a definite
composition with a boiling point higher than that of the hexa-
methylic disilicic ether, ana the result of our experiments has
been exactly the same as in the case of the ethylic condensed
ethers. The per-centage amount of silicic acid rises with the
boiling point. We did not extend our investigations so fieur as
was done with ethylic ethers.

We call attention to the small difference in the boiling points
of the methylio and ethylic normal silicate =44**, only 11^ for

Digitized by


Friedel and Crafts on the Ethers of Silicic Acid. MT

each difference of €H,. The difference in the case of methjlic
and ethylic-disilicic ethers is 88^ or 6^^ for each difference of

Tlje monochlorhydrine of the normal niethylic silicic ether
was obtained, in the same way as the ethylic chlorhydrine, by
heating together during one hour at 160^, three molecules of the
^ther with one molecule of chlorid of silicium. Almost the whole
product boiled at 118*'-117° and after several distillations the
|K)rtion boiling at 114°'5-116®-5 gave on analysis —

L Substance, weight, - - - - 0*5965 gr.
Sie, 0.2295 "

n. Subfitance, wMght, • - - • 0*2695 "

€0,, 0-2805 «

H^e, 01420 "

in. Substance, weight, ... - 0-7255 •*
AgCl, 0-6626 «•


I. n. ni. &iCl(€H3),e3.

C, 23-31 23-00

H, 5-85 5-75

Si, 17-95 17-89

CI, 22-59 22-68

The density of vapor =5-578. Theory 5-420.

Difference between 2 weights of bulb, 1*2147 gr.

Temperature of the balance, - - 19^

** " oil bath, - - 170^-5

Barometric height, - - - - 766*5 mm.

Capacity of bulb, - - - - 369-5 cc
No air remainiug.

The density of the liquid at 0^=1-1954.

The monochlorhydrine is a liquid with an etheric odor, burn-
ing with a green chlorine flame and giving off a siliceous smoke.
It is very easily decomposed by moisture. With methylic alco-
hol it regenerates the normal methylic silicate. It will be seen
in the sequel, that the chlorhydrine can be used for the prepara-
tion of mixed ethers.

The ZHchlorhydrine of methyUc'silicic ether was obtained by
heating two molecules of monochlorhydrine with one mole-
cule of chlorid of silicium during one hour at 160°. The re-
action is somewhat less easy than in the case of the formation
of the monochlorhydrine. The larger part of the product dis-
tilled at QSMOS"", and the liquid obtained, boiling at this tem-
pentture, after four distillations was analyzed.

X Substance, weight, - - . - 0*2565 gr.

e%, 0-1400 "

Ha4, 00855 ••

•Digitized by VjOOQIC

338 Friedel and CrafU on ike Ether$ of SUieic Acid.

II. Substance, weight, - - - ♦ 0*4480 gr.
Sie,, 0-1700 **

III. Substance, weight, .... 0*9325 "
AgCI, 0-166d "


I. II. HI. Si,Cl2,(€H3)ae,.

C, 14-85 14-90

H, 3-70 8-72

Si, 17-68 17-39

CI, 44-28 44-10

Density of vapor =6-66. Theory 6-57.

Difference between 2 weights of bulb, - 0-8755 gr.

Temperature of balance, ... 20®

« "oil-bath, - - - 182«-5

Barometric height, ... - 761-4 mm.

Capacity of bulb, .... 272-75 cc.

Air remaining, 0*5 oc

The density of liquid at 0°=l-2595. The physical properties
of the dichlorhydrine resemble those of the monochlorbydiiDe.

The TrtcMorhydrint of the methyltC'sHicic ether was ootained
by heating one molecule of chlorid of silicium with one mole-
cule of the dichlorhydrine during twelve hours at 220**. It is
formed much less easily than the preceding bodies ; even after
the tube had been heated so long a time, a portion of the chlorid
of silicium remained intact. The principal product distilled at
near 84°. After several fractionated distillations^ the portion
boiling at 82°-86° was separated and analyzed.

I. Substance, weight, .... 0*2980 gr.

eB^j 0-0800 «*

Ha4, 0-0485 **

n. SubsUnce, weight, .... 0-2510 *<

SiOg, 0-0920 **

m. Substance, weight, .... 0-4105 «*

CI, 0-0700 «

L IL in, SiCljeHee.

C, 7-29 7-26

H, 1-81 1-81

Si, 17-05 16-92

CI, 64-46 64-35

Vapor density =5-66. Theory, 5'78.

The density was taken by the method of Gay Lussac.

Weight of substance employed, - 0-445 gr.

Temperature of the oil-bath, - - 134**-5 '*

Volume of vapor, - - - - 1090 cc^

Height of barometer, ... 759 mm. at 23^-5
Beiffht of the mercury in the bell glass

abore the level of Uie mercury in bath, 128*2 mm.

Digitized by


Fiiedel and Crafts on the Ethers of Silicic Acid, 880

Mixed methylie'siUcic ethers, — ^Where the ohlorhjdrines are
treated with an alcohol, they exchange the CI, for the radical of
the alcohol and O, and in this manner, by employing different
alcohols, mixed normal ethers may be obtained. Ordinary al-
cohol reacts immediately on the monochlorhydrine with evolu-
tion of HGl, and the principal product is trimethylic mono-
ethylio-silicic ether. No chlorhyarine remains undecomposed,
ana there is no formation of silicate of ethyl, and after the ex-
cess of alcohol has distilled, the liquid commences to boil at
183°. There is also a small quantity of a product with a boil-
ing point which corresponds to that of the dimethylic diethylic
ether formed.

The product boiling at 188^-185 gave on analysis —

I. Substance, weight, .... 0*2800 gr.
SiO,, 01060 "

II. Substance, weight, ... - 0-2460 "

€02, 0-3240 «

H^e, ...... 01885 "

Theory. •

n. I. Si(€H3)a(€2Hj2,e4.

C, 86-03 8614

H, 8-65 8-43

Si, 1M4 16-86

The density of the liquid at 0**=l-0230.

In order to explain to ourselves the formation of the di-
methylic diethvlic silicic ether, we examined the alcohol, which
distilled after the completion of the reaction.

It distilled in great part at 72^-74°. It was 'treated with
powdered caustic potash to remove the hydrochloric acid it con-
tained in solution, distilled and then left over night in contact
with freshly calcinated carbonate of potash.

An analysis of this alcohol gave,

Substance, weight, - - . . 0*1095 gr.
€e«, .-..-. 0*3000 *'
H^O, .. - .. 0-2250 **

€JH^O. €/2H$0«

C, 40-04 37-5 62-17

H, 12*53 12-5 13-04 -

Common ethylic alcohol containing 21 p. c. of water would
have the same composition ; but we ascertained that, when aque-
ous alcohol was treated in the same way with carbonate of pot-
ash, it marks 96 p. ct. on the alcoholometer of Guy-Lussac. The
alcohol contained a certain quantity of methylio alcohol, which
could only have been formed bj direct elimination from the me-
thy lie-silicic ether with production of an ether, containing a larger
proportion of the radical ethjrL We have before observed, that
the dimethylic disilicio ether is the one most readily produced.

Digitized by


840 Friedel and Crafts on the Elhera of Silicic Acid.

This had already been obtained by the action of methylic
alcohol on the normal silicate of ethyl.* It is also produced,
when the methylic dichlorhydrine is treated with ethylic al-

A product, obtained in this way, and boiling at 143^-146^,
was analyzed.

L Substance, weight, - - - - 0-2700 gr.
SiOg, 0-0910 *•

n. Substance, weight, . - - - 0*2400 "

eOa, 0-3485 «

H^e, 01910 ••

m. Subetonce, weight, . ^ - - 0-3635 '*

SiOa, 0-1226 «


I. II. m. Si{€H,)2(€2HJ,,e^.

C, 89-66 4000

H, 8-83 8*88

Si, 16-73 15-71 16-55

The product used in analysis No. m was that which remained
in the bulb after a determination of vapor-density.
Density of vapor =6-178. Theory 6-288.

Diflferenc^ between 2 weights of bulb, - 0-9569 gr.

Temperature of balance, - - - 21^*6

« *' oil-bath, - - - 192«

Height of barometer, .... 763-7 mm.

Capacity of bulb, - - - * _ 279-75 cc.

Air remaining, - - - - - ' 6*25 cc.

The density of liquid at 0''=l-004.

Tlie Tnonoethylic triethylic ether, was obtained by treating the
monochlorhydrine of the normal ethylic silicate with methylic

It 155^-157^

I. Substance, weight, - . - - 0*3945 gr.
Sie,, 0-1180 «

n. Substance, weight, - - - - 0-2326 "

€0., 0-3640 «

H^e, 01926 ««


I. n. Si'GHj,(€2H5)5,04-

0, 42-71 48-30

H, 9-21 9-28

Si, 13-96 14-43

We repeated with the alcohol, that distilled, the same ezperi*
ment, that was made, where the monoethylic trimethylic ether

* See page 168.

Digitized by VjOOQIC

Friedel and Crttfts on the Ethers of Silicic Acid. 841

was prepared, and we found ethylic aloohol mixed with the por-
tion of methylic alcohol, which distilled 78^-77^.

I. Substance, weight, - - - . 0*1710 gr.

€02, 0'2780 "

HgO, 0*0966 •*

n. Substance, weight, - - - - 0*1646 "

ee^j . - - . . 0-2620 "

H^e, 0-1790 "

I. II. £E^e. ^aH^e.

C, 44'34 4461 37-6 6217

H, 12-69 12-89 12-6 1804

Therefore in this case there is a replacement of ethyl by me-
thyl in the ether with formation of ethylic alcohol and the di-
methylic silicic ether, and doubtless the presence of a small
quantity of this latter bod^ explains the small amount of car-
bon and hydrogen found m the analysis of the monomethylio
triethylic silicic ether.

DimethyUc diamylic ailictc ether. — In the reaction of amylio al-
oohol on the monochlorhjdrine of methylic ether, the displace-
ment of one alcoholic radical by another was still more strongly
marked, for the principal product was a liquid boiling at 226^-
235**, which did not have the composition of the trimethylio
monoamylic ether, but very nearly that of the dimethylic di-
amylic ether.

An analysis of this product gave —

L Substance, weight, - - , - - 0-2426 gr.
€02, - - - - - - 0-4780 '*

H^e, - - - - - - 0-2376 «

IT. Substance, weight, ... - 0-3796 "
SiOa, 0-0866 "


I. n. Si(€H,)2(€,H,02^^.

C, 68-76 64-66

H, 10-89 10-61

Si, 10-64 10-61

The decomposition of this ether cannot be eflfected by an al-
coholic solution of ammonia, and it is necessary to employ an
alcoholic solution of soda for the determination of the silica.

In the production of this ether by the above reaction, we
again notice the tendency to the production of mixed e^ers
containing two atoms of each alcoholic radical.

It should be noticed, that action of an alcohol upon an ether
with interchange of alcoholic radicals, seems to take plaoe more
readily at the moment of the formation 6f the ethers from a
chlorhydrine, than after the ether has been once formed.

Ax. JouB. Sol— Skoond Sibibs, Vol. 2CLm, No. 129.— Mat, 1867.

Digitized by


S42 Friedel and Crafts an the Etker$ of Silicic Add,

Ihe Actions of the Anhydridi of Acids on Silicic I!ther,—AJ^
having observed the substitution of one alcoholic radical for
another in ethers, we determined to try to obtain bj a similar
reaction the replacement of an alcoholic radical by one contained
in an acid. The first experimeh my own. A study of
the details of their analyses elicited the following as the charac-
teristics of this sample of petroleum.

Color, « dark brown." (S.)*

Consistence, ** thin and mobile as water." (S.)

Odor " not offensive," (S.) resembling refined Pennsylvania petrolenm.

Density, -861, (S), '863 (M.), "864 ( W.), average -SeazrSS'S^ B.


"Condensable vapor appeared at 60* C." (S.)
"Boiled at 123*0." (S.)

" Yielded below the boiling point of mercury, 60-60 pr. ct" (S.)
" do. above do. 86-46." (S. and W.)
Sp. gr. of 1st 10 per cent of distillate, '765. (S.)
Reserved as naphtha, s. w. m.

percent, 20 6 7*8

sp. gr, •766 -768 -756

Reserved as burning oil,

per cent, 60 42 60 '837 -806 -8219

Reserved as lubricating oil,

per cent, 26 26 42*2

sp. gr. '806 '010 Residue less in retort

Loss, per cent, 4 7

The portion reserved as naphtha is of the same sp. gr. at
which refiners of Pennsylvania petroleum usually commence to
run off burning oil. (M.) If this oil were fractionated the same
as is customary in treating Pennsylvania oils, it would furnish,
according to —

SillimaD. Warren. Maiach.

60 per cent. 62 per cent 67'8 per cent

Sp. gr. '816=42* B. •806=44* B. '920=41* B.

or about 55 per cent of sp. gr., 'SlOaciS** Baumd

The burmng oil before treatment has very little odor, and
that not at all disagreeable. (S., W., M.) Crudfe oil yields very
readily to treatment with sulphuric acid and soda Ive, furnish-
ing a refined oil of light color and agreeable odor (s., W., M.),
the illuminating qualities of which are not excelled by any.

* QaotatioDi nuurked ** B" art from the report of Pro£ SiUiiiiui; those marked
•*W."arefraii|thatofMr.Wairen; thoM marked **M." art from that of Mr. Jfaiacb.

Digitized by


348 S. F. Peckham on California Petroleum.

The lubricating oils are of very low specific gravity ; of a
reddish color in the crude state, and easily rectified. (S.)

The crude oil yields a very large percentage of distillate. The
lightest oils are not very light (W., M.), and the odor of the
crude distilled oils not more disagreeable than that of many
samples of so-called commercial refined oil. (S.)

I recently obtained from the office of the Philadelphia and
California Petroleum Company, a small portion of a sample of
oil said to have come from the Pico Si)ring. This was supposed
to be a portion of the sample examined by Messrs. SiUiman,
Warren and Maisch. I also obtained from the same place a
small bottle of oil, labelled "crude oil," and bearing upon the
seal the initials " B. S." This bottle of oil accompanied speci-
mens of illuminating and lubricating oils received from f rof.
Silliman. These two oils were identical in specific gravity and
other physical properties. The sp. gr. of these samples is "868,
a difference of only -005 from that examined by those gentle-
men ; a difference which may be accounted for, as the result of
oxydation during two years.

From an examination of 200 cc. of this oil, I note the fol-
lowing additional characteristics.

With the thermometer bulb immersed in the boiling oil, the
oil boiled at 124'^ C, and with Mr. Warren's condensing apparatus,
yielded with the boiling oil at 200° C, 174; at 220*" 0., -250;
at 227"^ C, -276 ; with the bath at 200'' C, 200 cc. yielded 77-5 cc,
or S8'75 per cent of colorless distillate. The sp. gr. of this dis-
tillate is •785=50*' Baum^.

From my own examinations of California oils of undoubted
authenticity, I gather the following characteristics.

Color. — ^The color of genuine ous is dark green, when fresh,
with marked dichroism. Three samples which I gathered in
May and June of last year, when opened in Boston about ten
weeks afterwards, appeared of a dark brownish black, having
nearly lost their dichroism.

Consistence. — I have seen no oils from natural outcrops that
could properly be called " thin and mobile." They are of about
the consistence of olive or linseed oil. The oils from tunnels
when fresh, are lighter colored, and more mobile fluids.

Odor. — The odor of Southern California petroleums is pecu-
liar ; not as offensive as those of Pennsylvania and Canada ; but
at the same time unlike refined kerosene.

Density. — ^The density of the oil from the

Cafiada Laga spring is, - - - •9184=28® B.

Tunnel in ** Brea. Cafion," H. P. Co., - •9028z=26* B.

Pico spring, - - - •8832z=28-6* B,

Lightest oil examined by myself from H. P. Co., •875=30® B,

LightMt oil said to have been procured from the ex-
tremity of a tunnel 96 ft. in length, H. P. Co., •8525=34*5 B.

Digitized by


* J S.F. Peckham on California Petroleum. 849

Petroleam springs existed upon the property of the H. P. Co.,
prior to the commencement of their operations. I have been
told that the oil yielded by them was very dense ; lower than
25° Baumd Upon the property known as the Stanford Oil
Springs, tunnels are said to have yielded oil of sp. gr. 31° Baum^,
and a tunnel upon the property of the Wylie Springs Oil Co.,
yielded in June last, oil of sp. gr. 23° Baumd AH of these
tunnels have been run since July, 1865.

DisUllation. — No condensable vapor appeared from any sam-
ple at 100° C.

Pico spring boiled at 174** C.

CafiadaLaga, 182*"

H. P. Co., heavy, - - - - - - - 182*» "

Pico spring yielded below the boiling point of mercury, 26'6,per ct*
Total amount of distillate from the Canada Laga, - 03'T5 **
Sp. gr. of first 10 per cent of distillate,

Cafiada Laga, ..... -852

Pico spring, '806

Tnnn^ia j H. P. Co., heavy, .... 'IBS

Tunnels, | h. P Co.! lighli .... -766

None was reserved as naphtha.

Eeserved as burning oil sp. gr. •810=48^ Baum^, by ordinary
fractional distillation —

Cafiada Laga, 3'5 per cent,

Pico spring, 13'6 "

H. P. Co., heavy, 28-6 "

H. P. Co., light, 36-9 «

The absence of either very light, or very dense oils, is a
marked peculiarity of the distillate of Southern California petro-
leums, when they are treated by direct heat in the ormnary
process of fractional distillation. The lubricating oils range in from 25^-29° Baumd

The odor of the crude distillate is pungent, resembling that
of the crude distillate of Pennsylvania petroleum. It yields read-
ily to treatment, and furnishes a refined oil of great transparency,
very free from color and of agreeable odor. I have never seen
any refined California petroleum of illuminating power equal to
the best refined Pennsylvania oil.

The lubricating oils are of very low sp. gr., of a reddish color,
and easily rectified.

Mr. Warren's condensing apparatus, with the bath at 200^ C,
gave from the

Cafiada Laga,l 8*5 pr. ct, sp. gr. - - • '810
Pico springs, 18.416 " •* - - - -800

H. P. Co., 26-08 ** ** - . - -800

A comparison of the characteristics of the sample of petrole-
Am. Joux. Sgl^Sscokd Suies, Vol. ZLIU, No. 199.^Mat, 1867.

Digitized by


350 S. F. Peckham on California Petroleum.

um examined by Messrs. Silliman, Warren and Maisch, with
those of the samples of Southern California petroleum, examined
by myself, exhibits the following very marked and important

Consistence differing, as water and olive oil.

The odor of one is strikingly similar to that of refined Penn-
sylvania petroleum ; that of the others without resemblance
thereto, and peculiar though not offensive.

The density of the one is 020=5^ Baum^, lighter than any
oil that could possibly have been procured in that region prior
to July, 1865.

The boiling point of the one is 50° C. below, and the sp. gr.
of 1st 10 per cent of distillate from the same is *050 below that
of the other.

The absence of light oils, that could be classed as naphtha.

The per-centage yield of burning oil of the same grade is
41-6 per cent more in the one than in the other. The odor of
the crude distillate of the one is agreeable, that of the other
pungent. The illuminating oib of the one are of superior qual-
ity, those of the other are not above the average.

One yields of light oils, not condensed at a temperature of
200° C, 88-75 per cent, of sp. gr., -785; the others yield only
from 11-5 to 18416 per cent, of a sp. gr. from -800 to -810.

These differences all point to the falsification of the oil exam-
ined by those gentlemen, by admixture of light oil. It is
further proved by the fact, that the lightest oils obtained from the
sample furnishea them are identical in sp. gr. with the lightest
contained in refined Pennsylvania petroleum ; hj the ease with
which the burning oils are rectified, and by their superior illu-
minating qualities. Finally, their partial California origin is
proved by the low sp. gr. of the lubricating oils ; by their peculiar
red color, and the aosence of paraffine.

The following remarkable coincidences seem to indicate that
the falsification consisted in the addition of an equal portion of
refined Pennsylvania oil of sp. gr. 48° Baum^ ='810, to crude
oil from the Caiiada Laga spring. I tested four different sam-
ples of illuminating oil purchased in San Buena Ventura by the
Cal. Pet. Co. The sp. gr. of each of them was 810 ; and I was
told that the larger portion of the illuminating oil sold on the
Pacific coast, is of that density. The sp. gr. of the CaBada
Laga oil is -918, which added to '810 ana the sum divided by
two, equals *864 as the average density ; '864 is the sp. gr. of
the oil examined by Mr. Warren.

I obtained by ordinary distillation from the Cafiada Laga oil
8-5 per cent of distillate, of sp. gr. 43° B.='810. The results
obtained by Mr. Warren were equivalent to about 55 per cent
of the same grade. This slight increase is a natural result of

Digitized by


Mesfrs. Johnson and Blake on Kaolinite and Pholerite. 851

the distillation of a mixture of light and heavy oils, and is also
due to the superiority of the results given by Mr. Warren's pro-
cess over those obtained by ordinary fractional distillation.

Prof. Silliman notices the &ct that when 485 cc. were distilled
from 1000 cc., the mercury suddenly arose from 320** to 870° 0.
This remarkable phenomenon clearly indicates that when nearly
500 cc. or 50 per cent had passed into vapor, 486 cc. of which
had passed into the receiver, the more dense oils' remaining in
the retort required a higher degree of heat for their distillation.
This phenomenon woula no doubt be observed, during the distil-
lation of a mixture of equal parts of refined Pennsylvania pe-
troleum, and a dense oil like that of the CaHada Laga, yieldmg
a distillate, 90 per cent of which distills at a temperature at or
above the boiling point of mercury.

It will also be observed, that by Warren^s process the Oafiada
Laga oil yields 11-5 per cent of sp. gr. -810 or 48° B, and that
by the same process the oil examined by him yielded about 55
per cent of toe same grade, or 50 per cent plus 5 per cent. I
obtained by the ordinary process 98*75 per cent of distillate, a
very large amount, the loss being 6*25 per cent. Prof. Silliman
obtained 96 per cent, or 50 per cent plus 46 per cent, the loss
being 4 per cent, or a little more than half that which I experi-
enced. However these are mere coincidences, striking though
they may be.

The foregoing details have been gathered from the results of
a laiqge number of experiments, made both in California and in
the Eastern states, for the purpose of ascertaining the commer-
cial value of California bitumens. They are oflfered for the pur-
pose of correcting, what I am confident is an error, and to as-
sist in the dissemination of reliable information respecting Cali-
fornia Petroleums.

PkOYldance, R. J., March 6tli, 1861

Abt. XXXIX. — Contributions from the Sheffield Laboratory of
Tale College.— XIV. On Kaolinite and Pholerite; by S. W.
Johnson and John M. Blake.

The study of certain minerals termed pholerite, nacrite, stein-
mark, and kaolin, leads to the conclusion that a number of sub-
stances which are included under these various desi^ations
must be classed together and constituted into a mineral species
in virtue of possessing chemical and physical properties which

Online LibraryJohn AlmonThe American journal of science and arts → online text (page 40 of 102)