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BRITISH PKOVmCES.

Newfoundland.

1889.* /. B, Jukes, Prelim. Rep. (Legislative Doc.), folio, SL Johns.
1842.* *' General Rep. in Author's *' Excursions in and about

Newfoundland,^' London, 12mo, 2 vols. (Separate, with sec*

lions, London, 12 mo, 160 pp. 1843.)

Nova Scotia.

1846.* /. W» Dawson, Rep. on Coal-fields of Caribou Cove, ko, (Legis.
Doc) Halifax, folio.

1860. Joseph Howe, and Henry How, Rep. on Discovery of Gold in

Nova Scotia, (Legis. Doc.^ Halifax, folio, 4 pp.

1861. /. Howe^ Rep. on Gold-fielas. (Legis. Doc) Halifax, folio, 7 pp.
1862! Henry Poole, Rep. on Gold-fields, Western Section. (Appendix

on Minerals, by H. How.) (Legis. Doc.) Halifax, folio, 25 pp.

1862. /. Campbell, Rep. on Gold-fields, Eastern Section. (Legis. Doc.)

Halifax, folio, 8 pp.

1863. J, Campbell, Rep. on Gold-fields. (Legis. Doc.) Halifax, folio,

12 pp.
1864* David Honeyman, Rep. on Geol. Survey of Nova Scotia, and

Cape Breton. (Appendix on Minerals by H. How.) (Legis.

Doc.) Halifax, folio, 7 pp.
1865. H. How, Rep. on Minerals collected by D. Honeyman. (Legis.

Doc) Hali&z, folio, 4 pp.



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Mineralogy and Geology. 403

New Brunswick.
1839. Abraham Gesner, Ist Ann. Rep., St. John, 8vo, 87 pp.
1840.* " " 2d



1841.* " " 3d " " ** 88 pp.

1842. " " 4th " " " 101 pp.

1843. " " Rep., with account of Public Lands, St. John, 8vo.
1850.* «71 Bobb, in Johnston's Agricultural Rep., Frederickton, 8vo, map.
1865. L. W. Bailey, Rep. on Southern N. Br., Frederickton, 8vo, 169

pp., map, section.
* Henry Y, Hind^ Rep., especially on the Quebec Group, Freder-

idkton, 8vo, 293 pp.

Canada.

1845. Wm. E, Logan, 1st Rep. (for 1843), Montreal, 12mo, 150 pp.
1846.* " Rep. (for 1844,) '* " 110 pp.

1847.* " " (for 1846), " « 125 pp.

« * " " (for 1848), " " 66 pp.

** * " 2 Repts. on Mining Region of Lake Superior,

Montreal, 12 mo, 31 pp.
1849.* W.E, Logan, Rep. (for 1847), Montreal? 12mo, 166 pp.
1849.* ^* Rep. on N. shore Lake Hu ron, Montreal, 1 2mo, 5 1 pp.

1850. *' Rep. Progress for 1848, Toronto, 12mo, 65 pp.

" " " " 1849, " " 116 pp.

1852. " " " 1860. Quebec, « 64 pp.

" " " 1861, " " 131pp.

1854. « « " 1862, " " 179 pp.

1857. " « " 1863-6, Toronto, 12mo, 494 pp.
Atlas, 4to, 22 pi.

1858. W. E. Logan, Rep. Progress for 1867, Toronto, 12mo, 240 pp.

1859. " " " 1868, Montreal, ** 263 pp.
1863. <" General Report, from 1843 to 1863, Montreal, 8vc,

xxvii and 983 pp. Atlas.

1858. E. Billings, J. W, Salter and T. R. Jones, Decade HI, Cystidea,

AsterideiB and Entomostraca, Montreal, 8vo, 102 pp., 11 pi.

1859. J. W, Salter, Decade I, L. Silurian fossils, Montreal, 8vo, 47

pp., 10 pi.
** E, Billings, Decade lY, L. Silurian Grinoidese, Montreal, 8vo,
72 pp., 10 pi.
1365. Jas, Hall, Decade II, Graptolites of Quebec Group, Montreal,
8vo, 151 pp., 23 pi,

1865. E. Billings, Paleozoic fossils of Canada, Montreal, 8vo, 426 pp.

1866. ^ Catalogue Silurian Fossils of Anticosti, Montreal,
8vo, 93 pp.

1866. W. E. Logan, Rep. Progress from 1863 to 1866, Ottowa, 8vo,
322 pp.

British America.

1858. Henry Y. Hind, Rep. of Explor. between Lake Superior, and

Red River, Toronto, 8vo, 426 pp., maps.
I860.* H. Y. Hind, Rep. on Assiniboine Exped. in 1868-9, Toronto,

folio, maps.



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404 Scientific Intelligence.

1863.* JET, Y. Bind, Rep. of Explor. in Labrador, London, 8to, 3 Tolt.,

maps.
1860. 0»car M, Lieber, Rep. on Geology of Labrador, (U. S. Coast

Survey), Washington, 4to, 1 pp.

ABCTIC REGIONS.

1819. John Ro$9, Voyage to Baffina' Bay, &c (Appendix, on Geology,
by John McCiillocb), London, 8vo.

1822. John Franklin, Ezped. to Polar Sea, 1810-22. (Appendix on
Geolo^ by John Richardson), London, 4to.

1828.* W. E. Farry, 8d Voyage of Discovery in 1827. (Appendix on
Geology by Robt. Jameson), London.

1828. J. Franklin, 2d Expd. to Polar Sea in 1825-7. (Appendix on
Geology, by J. Richardson; Paleontology, by K. Jameson),
London, 4to.

1885. /. Rom, 2nd Voyage of Discovery in 1829-88. (Geology by
Author,) London, 4to, 2 vols.

1886.* G. Bach, Arctic Land Exped. in 1833-5. (Appendix on Geol-
ogy, by W, H. Fitton), London, 8vo.

1839. F, W, Beechey, Exped. to Pacific and Behren Strait (Appen-
dix on Geology, by Wm. Buckland), London, 4to.

1852.* P. C. Sutherland, Journal of Voyage in Baffin's Bay, in 1850-^1.
(Appendix on Geology, by J. W. Salter), London, 8vo, 2 vols.,
plates.

1855. E, Belcher, Exped. to Arctic in 1852-4. (Appendix on Geology,
by J. W. Salter), London, 8vo, 2 vols.

Additionb and Corrbotions to Part I.
Maine.
For the last three Reports on this State read as follows : —
1839. Eukiel Holmes, Explor. and Survey of Aroostook River Terri-
tory, Augusta, 12 mo, 78 pp.

1862. E. Holmee and Chae. H, ffiteheoek, Ist Ann. Rep., Nat Hiat.

and Geol., Augusta, 8vo, 387 pp.

1863. E, Hotmes and C, H, Hitchcock, 2nd Ann. Rep., Nat. Hist, and

Geol., Augusta, 8vo, 447 pp.

North Carolina.

1867. W, (7. Kerr, Rep. Progress of Survey, Raleigh, 8vo, 56 pp.

Florida.

1851. Louie Affoeeiz, Rep. on Florida Coral-reefi^ (U. S. Coast Survey),
Washington, 8vo, 15 pp.

Illinois.

1867. A. ff. Worthen, Rep. Paleontology, vol. II, Springfield, large
8vo, 474 pp. 50 plates. (Vertebrates by J. S. Newberry and
A. H. Worthen ; Invertebrates by F. B. Meek and A. H.
Worthen ; and Plants by Leo Lesquereux.)



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Minjeralogy and Geology. 406

6. NoU to Article onKaolinite^ eic^ p. 861 ; by the authors. — When
our article was just going to press, we received a letter from Prot A.
Enop, dated Oarlsruhe, March IStb, directing our attention to his extreme-
ly interesting paper, Beitrdge zur Ketmtniti der Steinkohlm-Formatiim
vnd de$ JRothliependen im erzgebirgisehen Batiin, Neuet Jahrhuch Jur
Min,j 1859, in which we find, p. 544, details of his investigation on the
crystallography of the Schneckenstein " Kaolin." Pro£ Enop has an-
ticipated our observations on this substance in good part, as appears
from the following quotation. ^ The crystals of the Kaolin from Schneck-
enstein have dimensions admitting of measurement under the micro-
scope. They have an average length of about 0*021 mm., and a breadth
of about 0*015 mm., and show, in part, the form of very sharply de-
fined rhombic tables; in part, these are variously truncated on the an-
gles connected by the macrodiagonah Here and there the crystal-plates
are aggregated to rhombic prisms and exhibit, on the assumption of
rhombic crystallization, the combinations ocP . OP and ocP . OP . cc p oc.
Repeated measurements gave constantly 118° for the obtuse angles of
the planes."

The specimen from Schneckenstein kindly sent us by Prof. Enop,
who first brought it to Wdhler's notice, perfectly resembles that received
from Prof. Clark, as well as others adhering to topaz specimens from
Schneckenstein in Prof. Brushes collection. These crystals are, however,
too small for measurement by the means at our command. K the angle
given by Prof. Knop be correct, we presume that more exact goniometry
would prove the same true of the kaolinite from Summit Hill, the crys-
tals of which, being six times larger in linear dimensions, we have meas-
ured without difficulty, though not with great precision. In our figures
of the last named substance, drawn by the camera lucida, the angles
vary one and in some cases two degrees; but they never fall below 118°,
the opposite angles vary as much as those contiguous to each other, and
they all point to 120° as the mean.

Prof. Enop has also favored us with a portion of the kaolin from
Zeisigwald before referred to. The plates average '0002 inch in breadth,
and are finer than those of some plastic clays we have examined. Under
an I in. objective we have detected short bundles of plates, but in a cur>
sory examination did not discover plates with a definite angular outline.

As regards pholerite, we learn from Prof. Enop^s paper, that the min-
eral from Niederrabenstfin, described by him, is not a homogeneous sub-
stance, but in the sample analyzed contained 7*91 per cent of quartz and
other impurities, insoluble in concentrated sulphuric acid. The analysis
quoted in our table is that of the portion soluble in sulphuric acid.

The substance itself, known as Thonsiein or Felsittuf, was of dose
texture, easily cut by the knife and appeared when ** magnified 3d0 di«
ameters as a mass of fine crystalline colorless scales, which were of them-
selves only in part well defined or aggregated in parallel position to small
thick packets.''

This description agrees with what we have given of various days, and
leads to one of two conclusions, viz., either the substance is impure kao-
linite, or, if pholerite, the latter has an appearance and prismatic orys^
tallization closely similar to kaolinite.

Am. Joub. Sol—Sbooito Saans, Vol. XLIII, No. HM.— Mat, 1867.
52



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406 Scientific Intelligence.

In his analysis, Prof. Enop decomposed the substance by hot concen-
trated sulphuric acid, evaporated off the excess of this acid, warmed with
chlorhydric acid, and dissolved in distilled water. From the undissolved
residue silica was extracted by solution of caustic soda. There is one
point in this method that is open to objection and might introduce a
serious error in the results. In evaporating off the excess of sulphuric acid
which requires a high temperature, the heat may easily rise at the close
of the operation to a degree at which silica decomposes sulphate of
alumina, and on subsequent treatment with chlorhydric acid, soluble
silica would pass into the liquid and be included in the alumina pre-
cipitate, unless special precautions were taken. For this reason we do
not regard the single analysis as conclusive of the existence of pholerite.

It is further to be observed that the pure kaolinite of Zeisigwald oc-
curs in the same neighborhood and in cavities in a similar " thonstein."

The Naxos pholerite analyzed by Prof. J. L. Smith is described as as-
sociated with emerylite. But for the great care which Prof. Smith is
known to employ in the selection of pure material, we might suppose he
analyzed a mixture of kaolinite and emerylite. In fact, if we assume
the 1*21 per cent of lime in his analysis to belong to emerylite, and cal-
culate the corresponding quantities of silica, alumina and water, accor-
ding to the theoretical composition of this substance as given in his pa-
per, we obtain, after deducting these quantities from the percentages in
^ pholerite," proportions of silica, alumina and water that represent kao-
linite quite closely.

^ _ _ _ _

99-96 8-94 = 91*02 99*98

We do not regard such calculations as conclusive, but their indications
are worthy of being followed up. s. w. j. and j. m. b.

6. On a new specimen of Telerpeton Elginense ; by Prof. T. H. Hux-
LBY, LL.D., F.R.S., V.P.G.S. — The specimen which was described in this
paper had been broken into five pieces, exhibiting hollow casts of most
of the bones of Telerpeton Elginenee, It is the property of Mr. James
Grant of Lossiemouth, and came from the reptiiyerous beds of that local-
ity, along with some highly interesting fragments of Staponolepie and
Hyperodapedon. The casts described by the author consisted of impres-
sions of the bones of the skull, together with the lower jaw, and the
teeth ; of most of the vertebne and ribs; of the greater portions of the
pelvic and scapular arches ; and of representatives of most of the bones
of the fore and hind limbs ; and it was stated that the characters of all
these portions of the skeleton indicated decidedly Lacertilian afSnities.

In describing these remains Professor Huxley discussed especially the
biconcave character of the vertebrae ; the mode of implantation of the
teeth, which he believed to be acrodont, and not thecodont ; and the
anomalous structure of the fifth digit of the hind foot, which presents
only two phalanges (a proximal and a terminal), a structure whi(^ differs
from that of all known Lacertilian reptiles, whether recent or fosiiL His



pholerite.


Emerflite, calc.




Refidaecalc


from lime.




on 100. UBollnite1>


44*41


2*98 =


41*48


45*67


41-20


4*42 =


86-78


40-40


1*21


1*21






1814


0-88 =


12*'76


14-01



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Mineralogy and Geology. 407

research es had led him to cAclnde that the animal is one of the Reptilia,
and is devoid of the slightest indication of affinity with the Amphibia.
In all its characters it is decidedly Saurian, and accords with the sub-
order Kionocrania of the true Lacertilia ; but the author had not been
able to make sure that it possesses a columella. He also remarked that
the possession by Telerpeton Mginense of vertebrsd with concave articular
faces does not interfere with this view, as although most recent Lacertilia
have concavo-convex vertebrae, biconcave vertebrae much more deeply
excavated than those of T. Elginense are met with among the existing
geckos.

Professor Huxley in conclusion drew attention to the interesting fact
that Telerpeton presents not a single character approximating it toward
the type of the Permian Protoroeauria^ or the Triassic Bhynchoeaurus^
and other probably Triassic African and Asiatic allies of that genus, or
to the Mesozoic Dinosauria ; and that whether the age of the deposit in
which it occurs be Triassic or Devonian, Telerpeton is a striking example
of tLpereietent type of animal organization. — Geol. Mag.,, iv, 78.

7. UTote on Taltalite ; by F. Pisani. (From a letter to J. D. Dana,
dated Paris, Dec. 6, 1866.) — Taltalite of Domeyko,* recently described
by Mr. David Forbes,f comes from a copper mine of Sefior Moreno near
Taltal, in the desert of Atacama, where it is associated with atacamite
and copper glance. It occurs in large masses, fibrous, silky in luster,
brownish-black in color, and has a dark gray powder. Domeyko obtained

Si £l 9e iLg Ca txi CI A
20-8 16-2 11-8 0-8 24 446 07 2-26 = 98-95

affording the oxygen ratio for the bases and silica 21*83 : 11*08.

On a close examination of the mineral I have found that it is only a
mixture of fibrous tourmaline and oxyd of copper. Treated with chlor-
hydric acid, it leaves a residue which contains boracic acid, and has
the reactions of tourmaline; and the solution includes all the copper
with but very little iron, no cobalt or manganese, and traces of lime.
Besides, if from Domeyko's results we take all the oxyd of copper which
the acid takes up, we obtain for the remainder —

Si 88-7 Si 801 Fe 212 fig 149 6u 441 fi 4*1 = 100.
These numbers agree with those of a very ferriferous tourmaline, except-
ing the absence of boracic acid which Domeyko did not detect. I have
in my collection a specimen of blackish-brown fibrous tourmaline from
Chili, which is free from oxyd of copper. What has been called taltalite
is similar, excepting the accidental mixture of oxyd of copper.

8. On the punctate shell structure of Syringothyris ; by F. B. Meek.
(From a letter to one of the editors, dated Washington, April Idth,
1867.) - -I write a brief note to inform you that I have recently examined
Prof. Winchell's types of his genus Syringothyris, which he was so kind*
as to loan me, and that I find them all, with the exception of two sili-
cified specimens (showing no structure), distinctly punctate. It is prob-
able that Prof. Winchell had happened to examine chippings from speci-
mens not in a condition to show the punctures. I have likewise ascer-
tained, since the publication of my former paper on this subject, that
jSpirifer propinquus Hall, and S. Hannibalensis Swallow, both neariy

* Domeyko's Mineralogy, Sd edit., p. 189, 1860. f I^hfl. Mag., [4], zxv, 111.

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408 ScierUific Intelligence.

like S. cuipidatus, have a clearly punctate Aructure, and hence probably
belong to the group SyringothyrU,

I have also juat read a letter from Mr. Davidson, written to Mr.
Worthen, in which he quotes, from a letter to him from Dr. Carpenter, a
paragraph giving the results of his examinations of specimens of Syrin-
gothyris^ and of the same Irish shell examined by me (and at one time
supposed to be Spiri/er cuqndatus). These chippings were sent over by
Mr. Worthen at Mr. Davidson's request some little time back. Dr. Car-
penter says he finds the Syringoihyru (that from Floyd Co., Indiana, I
suppose) distinctly punctate^ the punctures being as I stated, small and
scattering. The chippings from the Irish specimen, sent over to Mr.
•Worthen with the name S, cuspidatus attached. Dr. Carpenter also

- ^found to be punctured, though the punctures are not so clearly seen as
^ the other. Chippings of S. aubctispidatus Hail, sent by Mr. Wor-

* then, he says are not in a condition to show the structure.

At the time of writing. Dr. Carpenter had evidently not received a
package of chippings I had sent him, containing specimens of S. subcus-
pidatus showing the punctures clearly. He says these examinations of
the structure of Syringoihyris confirm its generic or subgeueric differen-
tiation established upon other characters, and that the Irish specimen he
believes belongs to this group. He is still confident, however, that the
true S. euspidtUus is not a punctate shell, which you will remember I
had not supposed to be the case. I never doubted or questioned the ac-
curacy of Dr. Carpenter's conclusions on that point ; and there is no
xnicroecopist living ia whose results I have more confidence than in his.*
0. Geological Researches in China, Mongolia, and Japan during the
y«ar« 1862 to 1863; by Raphael Pumpsllt. 144 pp., 4to, with 9
plates. Washington City. Published by the Smithsonian Institution,
being No. 202 of the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge. — In vol.
xli of this Journal, Mr. Pumpelly gave a very brief notice of the princi-
pal results to which he had arrived after his explorations in China and
Japa0. The volume issued contains a full account of his very interesting
observations. It treats of the General Outlines of Eastern Asia; its
general geology, with an account of his special explorations in China
and Japan; the structure of the Southern edge of the Great Tuble-
Land, and of Northern Shansi and Chihli ; the Sinian system of eleva-
tion ; the Yellow Stone and its delta and changes of course ; and the
Mineral Productions of China; and gives, in an Appendix, Dr. New-
berry'a descriptions of the Fossil Plants of the Coal rocks, with plates ;
J. A. Macdonald's analyses of Chinese and Japanese Coals ; and the re-
sults of Mr. A. M. Edwards's microscopic examination of some Japanese
infusorial earths and other deposits of China and Mongolia.

The Sinian system of elevation is the "extensive N.E. and S.W. system of

* upheaval, which is traceable through nearly all Eastern Asia, and to which

this portion of the continent owes its most salient features." It is stated

* In a paper on certain types of the Spiriferidae published in the Proceedings of
the American Philosophical Society for 1866, and presented to that Society in May
of 1866, Mr. J. Hall presents facts confirming my observations, communicated in a
paper read before the Philad. Acad. Nat Sci., in Dec. 1866» and published Feb.
1866, in which the presence of a punctate structure in shells of this type, and its
coincidence with the internal tube of Syringothyris, were first announced. He,
however, makes no allusion to my investigations, of which he certainly was not
ignorant.



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Botany and Zoology. 400

to be extensively apparent in the oouraes of the mountains, the strike of
the strata, and the hydrography. It characterizes the trend of the metar
morphic rocks over the plateau from Mongolia from the Great Wall to
Siberia ; and a map shows that it belongs to all Eastern Siberia, the
Yablonvi, Altan-Eingan, and Stanovoi Mts., with their intermediate
ridges, conforming to it The period of the uplift is placed before that
of the Coal-measures (Mesozoic^. Mr. Pumpelly remarks that striking
analogies are observed to exist between the Sinians and our own Appa-
lachians, as to structure, strike; and dip; and that as the elevation of the
Appalachians determined the outline of Eastern America, so the Sinian
revolution fixed the eastern boundary of the great Asiatic continent.

10. Nuove Osservazioni Oeoloffiche stUle Rocce Anthraciii/ere delle
Alpi; del Commendatori Anqki^ Sibiionda. Prof, di Min. nella Regia
Universita di Torino. 26 pp., 4to, with colored maps. Turin, 1866.-^
Prof. Sismonda, in this paper, treats of the age of certain stratified rooks
occurring among the metamorphic of the Alps of Savoy, which contain
anthracite and plants of the Carboniferous age along with remains of
animals of Liassic and Oolitic age. Sismonda concludes that there are
three consecutive groups of these rocks ; a lower, which is Liassic in
its mollusks ; a middle, with Liassic and Oolitic fossils ; and above this
a auartzose conglomerate and sandstone with anthracite, and supposed
to be of the age of the Oxfordian clay. The Carboniferous plants are;
found both in the lower and upper.

11. Ud>er dn ^Equivalent der takonischm Sekiefer Nordamerika^a in
DeuUchland und desien geoloffitche Stellung ; von Dr. H. B. Gkinitz
und Dr. E. Th. Lisbk, Professoren in Dresden und Gera. 52 pp^ 4to,
with 8 lithographic plates and several wood-cuts. — ^The plates of this
memoir contain figures of different Annelids and Fucoids from the slates
near Wurzbach, which bear much resemblance to those that occur in
rocks called Taconic in North America.

12. Note on the genus Palceaster and other Fossil Starfishes^ with
descriptions of some new species ; by James Hall. 24 pp., 8vo. From
the Twentieth Report on the State Cabinet of Natural History. Published
(to page 21) in advance of Report, Nov. and Dec., 1866.

13. Descriptions of some new species of Crinoidea and other fossils
from the Lower Silurian strata of the age of the Hudson River Group
and Trenton limestone ; by James Hall. Printed, in advance, from the
Report on the State Cabinet for 1866) and issued Nov. 1866.

III. BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY.

1. Catalogue Plantarum Cuheneium^ exhihens Collectionem Wrighti-
anum aliaeque minores ex Insula Cuba missas quas reeensuit A. Griss-
bach, Professor Gottiogensis. pp. 301, 8vo. Leipsic, 1866. (Engelroann.)
— Although printed a year ago (the preface bears the date of April, 1866),
the derangements incident to the short war which last summer wrought
such changes in Germany, in some way delayed until recently the publica-
tion of this little volume. It is now to be had of B. Westermann ^ Co.,
440 Broadway, New York ; and it is indispensable to those botanists who
possess any part of Mr. Wright's rich Cuban collections of botanical spe-
eimens, which are cited by the numbers under which they were distribu-
ted. A goodly number of clerical or typographical errors (beyond those

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410 Scientific Intelligence.

indicated on pp. 287, 288), as also errors in the distribution, call for cor-
rection. It is to be hoped that Mr Wright will some day print a revised
list in the order of their numbers. Meanwhile the writer of this notice
will furnish to any possessors of these specimens who apply for them
«uch corrections as he has been able to make in his own copy. As might
have been expected the flora of Cuba proves to be very rich. This Cat-
alogue contains —

Dicotyledons, 2350, of which 781 are peculiar to the Island.

Monocotyledons, 634 " 148 " "

Vascular Cryptogamia, 279 " 10 " " "

Totol, 3263 " ~939 « " "

And Mr. Wright's more recent explorations, which are still in progress,
will largely increase the number. If Hayti could now be equally ex-
plored, the flora of the West Indies could be written with some approach
to perfection.

Characters of the new species only (and these are very many) are

given in this volume. The diagnoses of the new EuphorbvacecB are,
owever, unfortunately omitted, having been published by anticipation,
in the Nachrichten of the Gottingen Royal Society of Science. Now
that we have, thanks to Professor Grisebach's studies, so good a founda-
tion for Cuban botany, we may hope that our indefatigable explorer mar
crown his prolonged and laborious researches by a general revision oi
the flora of the island. a. o.

2. Flora Australiensis, Vol. IIL Myrtcxeoi to CampositcB^ 1866. —
This great work makes rapid progress in Mr. Benthara's able hands.
The present volume comprises the largest and most difScult Australian
order, the Myrtacta^ and the usually paramount order CompositcBj these



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