John Almon.

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two filling a little more than three quarters of the 680 pages of this vol-
ume, which also contains the Umbelli/ercB and the MubiacecB, usually of
DO small size. a. g.

3. The Geographical Distribution of Mammals ; by Andrew Murray.
420 pp., 4to, with 105 chromo-lithographic maps. London, 1866. (Day &
Son.) — This beautiful volume treats those subjects in extenso which are
merely glanced at in the physical atlases of Johnston and others, includ-
ing the distribution of fossil species according to their geological position,
and discussions of the views of Agassiz and Darwin, without adopting
either in full. The work extends to forty-three chapters, with an ex-
tended appendix and numerous cuts illustrating animal peculiarities.

Geological questions are discussed and maps given of the 100-fathom
line of soundings ; the effect of a depression of the land 600 feet ; Ter-
tiary and Quaternary formations; localities of glacial action; rising and
falling of land of the present period ; and the sargasso seas. The maps
of mammal distribution then commence with the human race, chapter
vii, p. 56, but two branches of which are acknowledged, the black and
white, the latter including all except the negroes and Australians, with
their affinities.

The completeness of the work may be judged from the extent to which
groups and genera are located. Maps 7-10 are devoted to the distribu-
tion of monkeys; 13, to the lion; 14, to the tiger; 17, fossil hyenas;
18, existing hyenas; 26, bears; 29, hippopotamus (living and fossil);



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Astronomy. 411

80, Bwin^; 34, goats; 35, sheep; 46, rhiDoceros (living and extinct);
47, mastodons and elephants in Lower Miocene ; 48, in Upper Miocene ;
49, in Pliocene ; and 50, existing elephants.

The appendix (pp. 312-412) is devoted to the classification of maos-
mals proposed by different authors ; a synonymic list of the species and
their localities, distinguishing the extinct species ; and mammals of spe-
cial districts, as Spitsbergen, Nova Zembla, Greenland, Iceland, Sweden,
France, Sahara, Japan, d^c North America is given under eight districts
exclusive of Mexico.

A work of so much value, published in a style which precludes a re-
turn for the outlay, should have a place in the libraries of all who wish
to encourage research in the cognate fields upon which the learned
author is understood to be engaged. s. s. h.

4. Observations on the Genus Uhio, together with Descriptions of nets
species in the Family UhionidcSj and Descriptions of new species of the
MelanidcB^ lAmneidce^ Pdludince, and Helicidce ; by Isaac Lba, LL.D.
146 pp., 4to, with 24 plates. Philadelphia. (Read before the Academy
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, and published in their Journal.) —
This volume is the eleventh in Dr. Lea's series on the Unionidae. Like
Uie preceding, it contains very large additions to the number of spedee,
and is beautifully and generously illustrated. The introduction states
that the number of new species of Unionidse here described is 180, and
of the other groups mentioned above, 118. The former are mainly from
the Southern States, a few from Western Asia, and Lake Nyassa in Cen-
tral Africa. The univalves are mostly of the U. States, but some are
from Central America and Asia.

5. An Inquiry into the Zoological relations of the first discovered
traces of Fossil N'europterous Insects in North America : with JRemarka
on the difference of structure in the wings of living Neuroptera ; by S.
H. ScuDDEB. 20 pp., 4to. From Vol I of the Mem. of the Best See
Nat Hist, Jan. 1865. — ^The paper discusses the characters of the fossil
insects from the coal rocks of Illinois, described in vol. xxxvii of this
Journal, with results of great interest to science.

6. On ^ Osteology and Myology of Colymhus torquatus ; by Eluott
CouBS, A.M., M.D., Brevet Capt and Assist Surgeon, U.S. Army. 42 pp.,
4to. From vol. I of the Mem. of the Bost Soc. Nat. Hist, Nov. 1866.

7. Notes on the Zygomidoe of Cuba ; by A. R. Grots. 18 and 38
pp., 8vo, with plates. From the Proceedings of the Entomological So-
ciety of Philadelphia, Part I, July, 1866, and Part II, Jan., 1867.

IV. ASTBONOMY.

1. On the Obscuration of the Lunar Crater ^Linni;"*^ by W. B. Birt,
Esq. — The interesting phenomenon of a change in the appearance of the
crater **Linn6" was communicated to me by Herr Schmidt, the Director
of the Observatory at Athens, an extract from whose letter is as follows :

'* For some time past I find that a lunar crater situated in the plain of
the Mare Seremtatis has been invisible. It is the crater which M&dler
named Linn6, and is in the fourth section of Lohrmann, under the sign
A. I have known this crater since 1841, and even at the full it has not
been difficult to see. In October and November, 1866, at its epoch of



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413 Scientific Intelligence,

maximum yisibility, i. e., about the time of the rising of the sun on its
horizon, this deep crater, whose diameter is 5*6 English miles, had com-
pletely disappeared, and in its place there was only a little whitish lu-
minous cloud. Be so kind as to make some observations on this locality.''

The earliest information respecting the crater I received from Mr.
Buckingham, who favored me with a copy of a photograph taken bv
him on November 18, 1866. On this photograph the place of ^Linn6^'
is visible, but faint I have during the last lunation received records of
observations from the following gentlemen : Doctors Mann and Tietjen,
and Messrs. Talmage, Webb, Slack, Orover, and Jones. On the ISth,
when the terminator passed over the east boundary of the Mare Sereni-
iatis^ the place of **Linn6'' was seen by Messrs. Webb and Talmage;
Mr. Webb's aperture 9^-inch silvered glass reflector, and Mr. Talmage's
10-inch refractor of Mr. Barclay at I^eyton. Mr. Webb described the
appearance as an ill-defined whitishness on the site of " Linn6.'' Mr.
Talmage recorded " a dark circular cloud." The exact position of these
appearances was carefully ascertained afterward and found to agree with
the place of " Linn6." Doctor Mann and myself at Leyton were pre-
vented by a thin veil of cirrus seeing the " cloud " recorded by Mr. Tal-
mage. With smaller apertures both Mr. Grover and myself were unable
to detect the slightest trace of '*Linn6," while the small crater ^^Linn6
B" of Beer and Madler, and also Bessel, were very distinct with the
ehadowa within them. On the following evening, December 14th, obser-
'vations were made by Messrs. Webb, Slack, Grover, and Birt. A wJiite
spot was seen in the position of '* Linn6." Mr. Webb described it as
the most conspicuous object on the east half of the Mare Seren%iati$,
Mr. Slack saw a whitish spot not remarkably bright, but could see no
trace of a crater. Mr. Grover recorded ^ a tolerably defined roundish
whitish speck," but he could not see the interior or margin of the crater,
and ^ in this respect the spot showed very different from Bessel and other
craters which were well seen.'* My own observations perfectly agree
with the above. I estimated the light at 3^. On the 15th the spot was
brighter, and I obtained the measures recorded below. On the 16th
Messrs. Jones and Grover described the appearance as a white spot not
over bright

On the 20th Professor Foerster and Dr. Tietjen observed ^^Linnd" with
the Berlin refractor. Tbe following is the translation of the letter which
I received from Dr. Tietjen, dated Berlin, 21 December, 1866 :

*^0n viewing the moon last night about IS'^ M.T. Berlin with our re-
fractor, in order to convince ourselves of the disappearance of the crater
' Linn6,' Professor Foerster and myself perceived that crater very dis-
tinctly. If^ therefore, an obscuration has taken place, on which certainly
no doubt can exist, as it is affirmed by so competent au authority as
Herr Schmidt of Athens, it has evidently now ceased."

Although Dr. Tietjen considers that the obscuration has ceased, it does
not appear that either he or Professor Foerster has seen into the crater.

The whole of the observations are so accordant among themselves, and
tbe measures appended so clearly indicate tbe white spot to be larger
than the crater ** Linn6," as to leave no doubt that a change of some
kind has taken place ; and this conclusion appears to be supported by
previous records which are here appended :



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Astronomy and Meteorology.



413



Date.


Authority.


BrifhtneM.


1668,


Ricdoli.





1788, Not. 5,


SchH>ter,


0-6


1828, May 28.


LobrmaoD,


70+


1881, Dec 12, 18,


Beer and Madler,


60


1868, Feb. 22,


De la Rue,


60


1866, Oct 4.


u


60




Rntherfhrd,


6^


1866, Not. 18,


Buckingbam,


2-0



The last four determinations of brightness are from photographs. There
18 some uncertainty in determining this element on the prints. Schrdter,
in plate ix of his Selenophotographische Fragmente, gives a large dark
spot in the place of "Linn6 ;^* and the Rev. T. W. Webb informs me that
'^Linn^*^ is not to be found on Russell's globe or maps, 1797, from which
it may be inferred that the crater has previously been obscured.

The following measures were made during the last luna*tion :



Date.


DioDysius.


Linn6.


Mag.


Miles.


Brightoi


1866.










o


Dec. 16


14-70


li'61


0-79


10-9


4


18


14-13


7-07


060


6-9


6-6


19


18-96


7-82


0-62


7-2


6


21


1332


6-76


0-61


7-0


4



The numbers in column 4 headed " Mag.'^ are obtained by dividing
the measures of "• Linn6 " by the measures of the standard spot ** Dio-
nysius." The normal magnitude of ** Linn6'' is 0-40 (** Dionysius" being
unity) as determined by two independent methods. The numbers in
column 5 headed ** Miles'' are not absolute, but only relative as compared
with " Dionysius," by means of the numbers in column 4. ^ Dionysius,"
according to Lohrmann, is 13*8 English miles, and ^^Linn^," according to
Schmidt, 5'6 English miles in diameter. During the lunation no trace of
the crater was seen. — Monthly Notices Boy. Astr, Soc., Jan. 11, 1867.

2. Shooting Stars seen in Colorado. — The Denver News gives the fol-
lowing numbers of meteors seen at that place (N. lat 39° 40', W. long.
105®) in intervals of five minutes at different times on the morning of
Nov. 14th, 1866. The number of observers is not stated.



At'12h 0°^, 6 meteors.

12 20 8

12 80 7

12 46 9

10 4"



At Ih 260), 6 meteors.
2 6"

2 30 14

2 46 11

8 21



At 8h 80m,
4
6 16



6 meteors.
12 '*
10 «



Total in 66m, 101



3. Astronomical and Meteorological Observations made at the United
States Naval Observatory during the year 1864. Captain J. M. Gauss,
U.S.N., Superintendent. 624 pp., 4to. Published by authority of the
Hon. Secretary of the Navy. Washington, 1866. — This important volume
contains the following tables : (1.) Observations with the Meridian Tran-
sit Instrument ; (2.) ib. with the Mural Circle; (3.) ib. with the Equa-
torial ; (4.) Mean right ascensions, for 18600 of stars observed with the
Transit ; (5.) Mean declination, obs. with the Mural Circle ; (6.) Right
ascensions, declinations, and semi-diameters of the Sun, Moon, and Plan-
ets ; (7.) Constants for the reduction of fixed stars ; (8.) Catalogue of
stars observed in 1864; (9.) Meteorological ohservations.
▲m. Joub. Sol— SKCOH9 Sbriis, Vol. XLIU, No. 119.— Mat, 1867.
53



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414 Miscellaneous Intelligence



V. MISCELLANEOUS SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

1. Additional Gifts to Science from George Peabody, Esq, — Since the
notice of Mr. Peabody's recent donations to science, which appeared in
the January number of this Journal, this gentleman ha.s gi^en about
$2,000,000 for the promotion of education in the South and Southwest.
This munificent gift was accompanied by the following letter to the
Trustees of the fund : —
To Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, of Massachusetts ; Hon. Hamilton Rsh, of

New York ; Right Rev. Charles P. Mcllvaine, of Ohio ; General U. S.

Grant, of the United States Army ; Admiral David G. Farragat, of the

United States Navy ; Hon. William C. Rives, of Virginia ; Hod. John H.

Clifford, of Massachusetts ; Hon. William Aiken, of South Carolina;

William M. Evarts, Esq., of New York; Hon. Williani A. Graham, of

North Carolina; Charles Macalester, of Pennsylvania; €reorge W.

Riggs, Esq., of Washington; Samuel Wetmore, E«q., of New York;

Edward A.Bradford, Esq., of Louisiana; George N. Eaton, Esq., of

Maryland ; and George Peabody Russell, Esq., of Ma8sachu8ett&

Gbntlsmbn : I beg to address you on a subject which occupied my
mind long before I left England, and in regard to which, one at least of
you (the Hon. Mr. Winthrop, the distinguished and yalued friend to
whom I am so much indebted for cordial sympathy, careful considera-
tion, and wise counsel in this matter) will remember that I consailed
him immediately upon my arrival in May last.

I refer to the educational needs of those portions of onr beloved and
common country which have suffered from the destructive ravages, sad
the not less disastrous consequences of civil war.

With my advancing years my attachment to my native land has bot
become more devoted. My hope and faith in its successful and glonoos
future have grown brighter and stronger, and now, looking forward be*
yond my stay on earth, as may be permitted to one who has passed the
limit of three score and ten years, I see our country united and prosper-
ous, emerging from the clouds which still surround her, taking a higher
rank among the nations, and becoming richer and more powerful than
ever before.

But to make her prosperity more than superficial, her moral and iotel-
lectual development should keep pace with her material growth ; and in
those portions of our nation to which I have referred, the urgent and
pressing physical needs of an almost impoverished people must for some
years preclude them from making, by unaided efiort, such advances in
education, and such progress in the diffusion of knowledge among all
classes, as every lover of his country must earnestly desire.

I feel most deeply, therefore, that it is the duty and privilege of the
more favored and wealthy portions of our nation to assist those who are
less fortunate ; and, with the wish to discharge so far as I may be able
my own responsibility in this matter, as well as to gratify my desire to
aid those to whom I am bound by so many ties of attachment and re-
gard, I give to you, gentlemen, most of whom have been my personal
and especial friends, the sum of one million of dollars, to be by you and yoar



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Miscellaneous Intelligence, 415

successors held ia trust, and the income thereof used and applied in your
discretion for the promotion and encouragement of the intellectual, moral,
or industrial education among the young of the more destitute portions
of the Southern and Southwestern States of our Union ; my purpose
being that the benefits intended shall be distributed among the entire
population, without other distinction than their needs and the opportuni-
ties of usefulness to them.

Besides the income thus derived, I give to you permission to use from
the principal sum, within the next two years, an amount not exceeding
forty per cent

In addition to this gift I place in your hands bonds of the State of
Mississippi, issued to the Planter^s Bank, and commonly known as Plant-
er's Bank Bonds, amounting, with interest, to about eleven hundred
thousand dollars, the amount realized by you from which is to be added
to and used for the purposes of this trust. **♦**♦♦

The details and organization of the trust I leave with you, only re*
questing that Mr. Winthrop may be Chairman, and Crovernor Fish and
Bishop Mcllvaine Vice-Chairmen of your body; and I give to you
power to make all necessary by-laws and regulations, to obtain an act of
incorporation, if any shall be found expedient, to provide for the expen-
ses of the trustees and of any agents appointed by them, and generally,
to do all such acts as may be necessary for carrying out the provisions
of this trust. ^

All vacancies occurring in your number by death, resignation, or other-
wise, shall be filled by your election, as soon as conveniently may be,
and having in view an equality of representation so far as regards the
Northern and Southern States.

I furthermore give to you the power, in case two-thirds of the trustees
shall at any time, after the lapse of 30 years, deem it expedient, to close
this trust, and of the funds which at that time shall be in the hands of
yourselves or your successors, to distribute not less than two- thirds among
such educational or literary institutions, or for such educational purposes
as they may determine, in the States for whose benefit the income is
now appointed to be used. The remainder may be distributed by the
trustees for educational or literary purposes wherever they may deem it
expedient.

lu making this gifl I am aware that the fund derived from it can but
aid the States which I wish to benefit in their own exertions to difi^use
the blessings of education and morality. But if this endowment shall
encourage those now anxious for the light of knowledge, and stimulate
to new efforts the many good and noble men who cherish the high pur-
pose of placing our great country foremost, not only in power, but in
the intelligence and virtue of her citizens, it will have accomplished all
that I can hope.

With reverent recognition of the need of the blessing of Almighty
God upon this gift, and with the fervent prayer that, under his guidance,
your counsels may be directed for the highest good of present and future
generations in our beloved country, I am, gentlemen, with great respect,
your humble servant, George Pea body,

Washington, Feb. 7, 1867.



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416 Miscellaneous Intelligence.

More recently Mr. Peabody Iras giveD $140,000 to the Essex Institute
in Salem, Mass., for the promotion of the Natural and Physical Sciences
in his native county. Of this sum $100,000 is to be kept as a perma-
nent fund, and the income to be devoted to various branches of science.
The remainder of the gift will be chiefly expended on the Museum
of Natural History. Mr. Peabody's letter to nis Trustees announcing
this donation was as follows : —

Salem, Feb. 26, 1867.
To Francis Peabody, Esq., Prof. Asa Gray, Wm. C. Endicott, Esq., Geo.

Peabody Busself, Esq., Prof. O. C. Marsh, Henry Wheatland, A. C.

Goodell, Jr., James R. Nichols, and Henry C. Perkins, E^sqs.

Gentlemen : As you will perceive by the inclosed instrument of Trust,
I wish to place in the hands of yourselves and your successors, the sum
of one hundred and forty thousand dollars, for the promotion of Science
and Useful Knowledge in the County of Essex.

Of this, my native county, I have always been justly proud, in com-
mon with all her sons, remembering her ancient reputation, her many
illustrious statesmen, jurists and men of science ; her distinguished record
from the earliest days of our country's history, and the distinction so long
xetained by her, as eminent in the education and morality of her citizens.

I am desirous of assisting to perpetuate her good name through fu-
ture generations, and of aiding through her means in the diffusion of
science and knowledge ; and, ailer consultation ^ith some of her most
eminent and worthy citizens, and /encouraged by the success which has
already attended the efforts and researches of the distinguished Scientific
Association of which your Chairman is President, and with which most
of you are connected, I am led to hope that this gift may be instrumen-
tal in attaining the desired end.

I therefore transmit to you the inclosed instrument, and a check for
the amount therein named (1140,000), with the hope that this Trust, as
administered by you and your successors, may tend to advancement in
intelligence and virtue, not only in our good old county of Essex, but in
our Commonwealth, and in our common country.

I am, with great respect, your humble servant,

(Signed) Gkorgk Pkabody.

Mr. Peabody has, moreover, recently given $20,000 to the Massachu-
setts Historical Society, and $1^,000 each to Newbury port, Mass., and
Georgetown, D. C, to found free public libraries in those cities.

These various gifts increase the amount of Mr. Peabody's recent bene-
factions to science and education in this country to nearly four millions
dollars, -^a truly noble and unparalleled record of private munificence.

2. Ascent of Mount Hood, Oregon ; by the Rev. H. K. Hikes.* — In
September of 1864, in company with three gentlemen of Vancouver, I
first attempted to reach the summit of Mount Hood. On reaching an
altitude about 800 feet below the summit, a dense cloud came sweeping
against the north side of the mountain, and, drifting rapidly over it, in-
stantly enveloped us in its folds. The air changed suddenly to a fierce
cold. The driving ssow filled the air so entirely that a cliff of rocks
300 feet high, standing not more than fifty feet from us, was invisible.

* From th« Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, March 2S, 1867.



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Miscellaneous Intelligence. 417

To go up or to go dowQ, was, for the time, alike impossible. One of my
oompanioDS was chilled nearly to insensibility, but we struggled against
the tempest for hours, unwilling to be defeated in our purpose to reach
the summit.

On the morning of the 24th of July, 1866, in company with three
gentlemen of the city of Portland, Oregon, I set out full of determina-
tion to stand upon the summit, if energy and endurance could accom-
plish the feat Our rendezvous was at the house of a Canadian, who,
fourteen years before, had erected a cabin at the place where the emi-
grant road leaves the mountains and enters the valley of the Willamette.
From this place the track enters the mountains along the gorge through
which flows a dashing river about 800 feet in width, which r ses beneath
die glaciers of Mount Hood. Up this stream we travelled for 30 miles,
when, leaving the gorge, the way makes a dStour to the south to gain
the summit ridge. Here is the celebrated ^ Laurel Hill." For three or
four miles the ascent is continuous, and in many places very steep.

Beaching the top of Laurel Hill we were on the general summit of
the range: a comparative level of perhaps 10 miles in width, whose gen-
eral character is that of a swamp or marsh. On this plateau is a dense
and grand growth of fir, cedar {Thuja gigantea^ Nutt.), pine and kin-
dred evergreens, with an alm(9st impenetrable, undergrowth of laurel
{Rhododendron maximum^ Hook). Straggling rays of sunlight only
here and there find way through the dense foliage to the damp ground*
Passing over this level we crossed several bold clear streams, coursing
down from the direction of Mount Hood, and then, turning to the lei^
we took an old Indian trail leading in the direction of the mountain.
After a ride of an hour and a half up a continuous and steep ascent, we
came to an opening of scattered trees which sweeps around the south
side of the mountain. It was about five o'clock when we emerged from
the forest, and stood confronting the wonderful body of rock and snow
which springs up from the elevation.

We selected a place for our camp on a beautiful grassy ridge between
one of the main affluents of the Deschutes river and one of the Clacka-
mas, and which nearly constitutes the dividing ridge of the mountain.
Having erected here a hut of boughs and gathered fuel for a large fire
during the night, we spread our blankets on the ground and slept well
until the morning. We picketed our horses in this place. At seven
o'clock of Thursday we were ready for the ascent For the first mile
and a half the ascent was very gradual and easy, over a bed of volcanic
rock, decayed and intermixed with ashes. Huge rocks stood here and
there, and occasionally a stunted juniper found a precarious foothold ;
some beautiful variegated mosses were also seen dinging to little knolls
of sand. We soon reached the foot of a broad snow-field, which sweeps
around the south side of the mountain several miles in length, and ex-
tending upward to the immediate summit. The first part of this ascent
is comparatively easy, being smooth, and only in places so steep as to
render the footsteps uncertain. Near the upper edge of this field of
snow, the deep gorges, from which flow affluents of the streams De-
schutes on the right, and Sandy river on the lefl, approach each other



Online LibraryJohn AlmonThe American journal of science and arts → online text (page 48 of 102)