John Almon.

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blance between the condition and habits of the modem Esquimaux and
these cave-dwellers of France at the Reindeer-period. But now comes
the great question, When was the Reindeer-period in Southern France!
and what is its antiquity?

" It is far easier to indicate its place in the series of observed htts in
relation to ancient Man, than to assign to it any definite antiquity of
years. Geologically, a wide gulf separates it from the Drift-period,
though perhaps wider in the geological than in the paleontological
aspect; but, on the other hand, it will seem, both from the paleontologi-
cal and archsdological bearings, to be of higher antiquity than the Kjok-
kenmoddings of Denmark and the Lacustrine Dwellings of SwitEerland,
and very certainly than the whole group of so called Celtic and Cromlech
remains. Comparing its fauna with that of these various periods, the
Reindeer-period may be placed thus : —

" In the Drift (Valley-gravels) the Mammoth, Rhinoceros, Horse, and
Ox are the predominant animals, and the Reindeer appears but sparingly.
In the Dordogne Caves the Reindeer predominates, associated largely
with the Horse and Aurochs, and exceptionally with some remains of
Mammoth, Hyena, <S?c. ; but all traces of such domesticated animals as
the Sheep, the Goat, and the Dog are wanting.

^^In the Kj5kkenm5ddings of Denmark, though so much nearer the
Subarctic regions, the Reindeer is not found, and the fauna, though more
ancient than that now existing, indicates the presence of domesticated
^animals (Dog).

^ The same may be said of the Swiss Lacustrine Dwellings : domeitic
animals are present ; and the Reindeer is absent even firom the most
ancient of them, though that it was once in the neighborhood is mani-
fested by the existence of its remains in caves (at TEchelle) in the same



^ In none of the Cromlechs or Sepulchres is there a trace of the Rein-
deer ; and the fauna indicated by the remains found in them is cited as
more recent than either the fauna of the Kjokkenmoddings or that of the
most ancient of the lake-dwellings.

*' From the archaeological or industrial point of view, it may be re-
marked that from the Drift we have no example of Man's industry exc^t
implements of flint ; and of these only the larger and coarser have been
detected, though there is no reason to doubt that he had also implements
for finer work than the majority of those found are fitted for.

" In the Reindeer-period, although Man had attained to a great profi-
ciency in chipping, we have a total absence of ground or polished axes ;
and though he had arrived at tlie art of sewing, there is no trace of his
having known how to spin ; and in many of these caves of Dordogne there
are no traces of pottery.

^ In the Ejokkenmdddings pottery is not unfrequent, though ground
axes are very few, but not wholly wanting, and spindle- whorls are scarce.

** In the very oldest of the lake-dwellings (those in which them k do
trace of metal, as at Wangen) the majority of the axes are ground, nod



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Mineralogy and Geology. 121

the grinding-beds are the same as those found in the Surface-period of
Denmark and England. Pottery is abundant; not only spinning but
weaving is presented; and there are evidences that the cultivation of
wheat and other cereals had been attained to. In the Cromlechs and the
Sepulchres, pottery is abundant ; and the frequent occurrence of articles
in bronze indicates a later time.

12. Manual of Ghology; by the Rev. Samuel Hauohton, M.D., F.R.S,,
Prof. Geol. Univ. of Dublin. 2nd ed., revised and considerably enlarged.
416 pp., 12mo. London, 1866. (Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dyer.)
— Prof Hauffhton has aimed to present in his Manual the general results
ef geological investigation without many of its details. He commences
at once with the origin of the globe, and presents deductions as to the
successive steps of progress in its inorganic material and its life, through-
out the history, illustrating this progress with many diagrams. While
we could not subscribe to all of the deductions, thinking them often more
positive than the facts warrant, we commend the book as one that will be
read with profit But it appears to us better for the teacher, to use in
connection with his other works on the subject, than for the pupil. The
author takes strong ground against the hypothesis of Lamarck and
Darwin.

13. On Species ofFosHl Planiifrom the Tertiary of Mississippi] by
Leo Lesqubrbux. 24 pp., 4to, with 10 lithogr. plates. (From the
Trans. Am. Phil. Soc., vol. ziii.) — A brief account of the plants here
figured and described was given in the Geological report on Mississippi
(1860) of Eug. W. Hilgard, by whom the specimens were collected.
22 species are described m>m the Red shale, making with 10 before de-
scribed from Somerville, Tennessee (this Jour., II, xxvii, 363), 32 species ;
and 6 from the White soft day of nearly the same age. They pertain to
what Prof. Hilgard calls the North Lignitic group. One species, the
Calamopsis Danai Leso., is given in Dana's Geology, from a drawing
furnished the author by Prof. Lesquereux. The other species are of the
genera Sabal^ Salisburia^ Fopulus, Salix^ Quercus^ Ficus^ Laurus^
Cinnafnomum^ JBaniksia^ Ferseoj CeanothuSj SapinduSj Bhamnus^ Jup-
lans^ MaynoHoj AsinUntiy Phyllites. Two of the plants of the genera
Rhamnus and Phyllites are referred to living species, and the whole are

?ronounced by Lesquereux to have close relations to Miocene species,
et he admits a resemblance to the Cretaceous plants of the Upper
Missouri, and leaves the question of age unsolved for want of more data.
Prof. Lesouereux closes his memoir with descriptions of fossil leaves
from the ** Upper Cretaceous" of Fort Ellsworth, Nebraska.

14. State Geological Survey of Iowa. Preliminary notice of New
Cfenera and Species of Fossils ; by C. A. White, M.D., State Greologist,
and O. H. StJohn, Assistant. 4 pp., 8vo. — Professor White mentions in
this sheet, the occurrence of Protozoan shells of the genus Amphisteyina
in the Coal-measures of Iowa. He also describes the following species ;
Aulosteyes spondyliformis^ Waldheimia eompacta^ Beyrichia lithof actor ;
and the new genus Meekella to include as the typical species Orthisina
Missouriensis Swallow (Orthisina striaUxostata Cox), together with
Orthisina Shumardiana Swallow, Productus eximius Eichwald, Strep-
torhynehus oceidentalis and S. pyranUdalis Newberry.

Am. Joub. Sci.— Seookd Sbsibb, Vol. XLIII, No. 130.-^ult, 1867.
16



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132 Scientific InUUigence.

15. Bevui de GMogie p&ur let anrUeSy 1864 et 1865, par M. Dklsbo;
Ing^nieur en Chef des Mines, Prof. G60I., eta, et M. db Lapparbnt, Ing6-
nieur des Mines, Vice-Sec. Soc G^l. de France. 279 pp., 8to. Pan%
1866. — This annual is much like its predecessor noticed in volume xlL
While not a complete review of the Geological papers of the years 1864,
1865, it contains much to interest all who would follow the progreas of
the Science of Greologj.

III. BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY.

1. Flora Orientalis^ sive Unumeratio Planiarum in OrienU a Grceeia
et Egypto ad IndicB fines hueusqui observatarum ; aactore Edhovd Bois-
BiKR. Vol. I, Thalamiflxyre, Basel and Geneva, 1867. pp. 1017, roy.
8vo. — We have just received this first volume of the flora of the Orient,
with which, as is well known to botanists, Mr. Boissier has long been en-
gaged. It is greatly needed, and will no doubt be ably and indefatiga-
bly carried on, we trust to an early completion. It connects the proper
flora of Europe with that of Africa on the one hand, and of India and
Siberia on the other ; and covers the most interesting of all ]and% Pales-
tine and all Syria, Mesopotamia and Persia, Egypt and Greece. The
preface briefly sketches the general characters of these regions, the botany
of which is thus combined, notes the eiplorers who have made collections
in any of them, from Rauwolf, Toumefort, and Wheeler down to the
present time, indicates the districts in which he has himself botanixed,
and enumerates generally the sources of the various materials mvailable
for this work. He explains the plan of the publication, and the princi-
pies by which he is guided. He announces his conviction that species
are direct creations as such, and flxed in character, variable more or less,
but only within certain limits. To specific names he prefers to append
the original authority for that name under whatev^ genus it may have
fallen : e. g. *' Matthiola tristis L. sub Cheirantho," — although Linn«u%
who had both genera, referred this species to Cheiranihtu. In their or-
tho^rraphy, he continues to write geographical adjective names with a
capital initial, afiter the manner of DeCandolle, e. g., Matthioia Anbie^
an usage whicb has never been universal, and from which in general
there is a tendency to recede ; while on the other hand, he writea proper
substantive specific names with a small initial, e.g. B a mme u l u M fiam-
muh^ — ^in which perhaps he stands nearly alone. Neither the ^eoes
nor the genera are numbered. The name, specific character, and syn-
onymy form one paragraph, the habitat another, in smaller type, descHpi-
tive notes or observations (when there are any) a third, and the geo-
graphical distribution, when wider than the limits of the work, is indi-
cated in a fourth paragraph. Varieties also occupy separate paragn^phk
The whole arrangement is very clear and convenient ; but the type is ao
large and the page so open that the work will be more bulky than we
should have thought expedient Of its substantial excellence and con-
scientious accuracy there can he no doubt a. o^

2. Catalogue dee V^itaux lAgneux du Canada^ pour eervir a VInitlU
ligenee dee CoUeetione de bote iconomiquee envoyiee a VExpoeitiati Umi-
vereeiie de Parie^ 1867 ; par l'Abb6 Ovidb Brukbt, etc Quebec 8vo



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Botany and Zoology. 123

pamph., pp. 64tf-^Prof688or Branet has brought out this oonrei^ient cata-
logue for ihe special purpose mentioned in the title ; but it ought to be
otherwise useful. He has not numbered the species, nor given their
enumeration, so that we cannot without counting ascertain how many
woody plants Canada can boast of. Plants so little woody as Clematis
Virpinianay and even Cktogenes^ and ffelianihemum Oanadenae are in-
cluded. But there is no mention of Smilax, nor of Juniperut ScUnnOj
nor of the Red Spruce, nor Gray Oak, both probably mere varieties of
other species, but worthy of examination by Canadian botanists. There
are, also, two distinct kinds of Mountain Ash growing in the vicinity of
Quebec, which Canadian botanists should notice.

ffUtoire des Picea qui se reneontrent dans Us limites du Canada, is a
smaller pamphlet by the same author, issued in 1866, with a plate of the
two species, P. alba and ntgra — the White and Black Spruce, and two
photograph views of trees of the former. The glaucous-leaved variety
of the Black Spruce, the common and almost the sole form of the species
in Eastern New England, is named by Prof. Brunet, var. yrisea ; it is
popularly called in Canada Epinetts Blanche, or Oray Spruce. Spruce
Deer (made from Black Spruce), it appears, is an early invention. Prof.
Brunet copies from Duhamel a curious account of the manner of making
it more than a hundred years ago. ▲• g.

8. Report of Proceedings of the International Horticultural Exhibition
and Botanical Congress held in London, May 22-81, 1866. — We re-
printed at the time the masterly address of the President of this Botani-
cal Congress, A. DeCandolle, and notices of most of the botanical
papers read at the sessions, gathered from the abstracts published in the
Gardeners' Chronicle. The Honorary Secretaries, Messrs. Moore, Hogg,
and Masters, have how issued an official account of the whole proceed-
ings, in a handsome royal 8vo volume of 428 pages, with plates, maps,
Ac. The volume is replete with interest, both horticultural and botani-
cal. One of the most interesting articles is that of Dr. Masters on
Double Flowers, which, did time and space allow, we should have been
glad to present to our readers, in full or in abstract. ▲. g.

4. Collections of Dried Plants of CcUifomia are oflem asked for, and
may now be supplied. Mr. Bolander, who has formerly supplied some
Grasses, d;c., in this way, has now made up, from his recent collections
in California, a dozen sets of beautiful and complete specimens of about
350 species of choice Californian plants ; of which over one-third are
Cyperaeecf (chiefly Carex) and Oramineat, and more than a quarter Com-
posites. The specimens will be named, according to the numbers. Sets
can be had for $12 in currency per hundred, by making early applica-
tion to Mr. Horace Mann, at Harvard University Herbarium, Cambridge.

▲. G.

5. Growth of Lycoperdon giganteum ; by F. Moigno, in the Chem.
News, Apr. 19, 1867. — The unexpected observation of the Lycoperdon
giganteum has led M. Ernest Baudrimont to some very interesting conclu-
sions. Fourteen days after its apparition at the surface of the ground it
bad acquired a considerable size. Plucked on September 17, 1866, when
it commenced to decrease visibly, it was nearly of a regular spheroidal
form, with a very short peduncle of a very beautiful white color, dull, and



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124 Scientific Intelligence.

slightly rosy ; the skin was distended, and elastic under the pressiire of
the finger ; its circumference measured Im. 4c. on its greatest diameter,
the weight being 3 kilo. 500 grams. When detached circularly by means
of a sharp instrument, a great quantity of turbid liquid was disengaged of
a greenish-yellow color. It was pla<^ immediately in a baking-oireD,
where it remained twenty days. Taken out completely dried, It weighed
805 grams, thus showing that before desiccation it contained 91*28 per
cent of water. Analysis has proved that .nitrogen gas represented alone
8*96 per cent of the weight of the dried fungus, or 0*78 per cent of the
weight of it in its normal state. If we suppose all this nitrogen to ha?e
been in the state of albumen, a substance which contains 17*70 per cent
of nitrogen and 53 per cent of carbon, the total mass of lycoperdon (305
grams) contains 174*063 grams of carbon; we have even 142 grams by
adding the carbon contained in the non-nitrogenized substances, its celiu-
lose, <fec. This being ascertained, we have 142 grams of carbon lepresent-
ing 520*66 grams, or 265 liters of carbonic acid, and thence 530,000
liters of air. It is from this enormous volume of air, which is about equal
to a cube of 8 meters linear edge each way, that the fungus in question
must have drawn, without losing a single trace, and, if we may so term it^
with mathematical precision, the 142 grams of carbon necessary for its
development of fourteen days. This is at the rate of, per day of twenty
four hours, 10*15 grams of carbon, 18*9 liters of carbonic acid gas, and
37,800 liters of air. At 86,400 seconds per day, it is upon nearly half a
liter of air that the plant must have operated per second to effect die total
extraction of the carbonic acid gas which was in it By what means can
we estimate the prodigious activity that this inferior plant could develop
to be able to take in fourteen days all the carbonic acid belonging to
530,000 liters of air? How astonishing, then, must be the delicacy of
the absorptive organs which seize on its flight an elastic fluid — if we may
so call it — intangible, disseminated in such an enormous mass, continoally
moving with great rapidity ! But this is not all. The mean eireamfer-
.ence of the fungus was 0*990 m. ; the radius, 0*157 m.; its volume more
than sixteen millions of cubic millimeters ; and its mass formed of oellnles
1 millimeter long at most, and the ^^th of a millimeter in thickness,
between which are placed the reproductive spores. The total number of
the cellules exceeds fourteen billions (14,589,140,400) ; and since the
development lasted fourteen days, a million of cellules had to be produced
every four hours — twelve thousand cellules per second ! Just let one
stroke of the pendulum, and then another, be heard, and conceive, if yon
can, that in that space of time the fungus constructed 12,000 cellolesi
besides (as the spores are a hundred times at least more numerous than
the cellules) 1,200,000 spores, without any sensible shock or any hurried
interior derangement capable of disturbing the mysterious equilibrium
that reigns through all the parts of this living body. How great, then,
is the prodigious energy which animates the material substance, and
which can accommodate itself instantaneously to the exigencies of life!
6. On the Parallelum between the different stages oflAfe in the Indirid-
ual and those in the entire Group of the Molluscous Order Te t rairan-
chiata ; by Alpheus Hvatt. (From the Memoirs of the Boston Society
of Natural History, vol. I.) — ^In this paper the remarkable changes, whi<^



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Botany and Zoology. 125

take place in the advanced period of life of an Ammonite by a process
of degeneration or degradation of its structural character, are shown to
have a singular analogy with the gradual decline in the characters of the
genera and species just previous to the extinction of the order in geolog-
ical times. The analogy of the process of decline in old age with that
of development during the young state is also discussed, as well as the
correspondence of the latter with the first appearance and gradual in-
crease of the order in its geological history. v.

7. JVbtef on the Eadiata in the Museum of Yale College^ mth Deeerip-
tions of New GeMra and Species ; by A. £. Vsrrill. (From the Tran»-
actions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, Vol. I, Part II,
1867.) — No, 1. Descriptions of New Starfishes from New Zealand,
Published March, 1867. — In diis paper four new species of starfishes
are described, two of which represent new genera, viz., Coelastericu aus"
traliSy Coscinasterias murieata, Asterina regularis, and Astropecten Ed-
wardsii. The genus Coslasterias is allied to Asterias^ having four
rows of suckers, but is multiradiate, with a large disk and large swollen
arms. It has the aspect of Solaster. Coscinasterias is an allied genus,
also with numerous rays, which are long and slender, arising from a
comparatively small disk

No, 2. Notes on the JEchinoderms of Panama and West Coast of
America^ with Descriptions of New Genera and Species, Published, in
part, March, 1867.* This paper embraces a complete review of all the
Echinoderms, except Holothurians, contained in the Yale College Museum,
from the west coast of Central and South America. Most of the mate-
rials are derived from the collections of Mr. F. H. Bradley, who has
spent the past year on that coast. Sixty-eight species are enumerated,
nearly all of which are described in detail, whether new or previously
known. Twenty-two new species are included in this paper, together
with four new genera. Among the more interesting new species are
the following : Astrophyton Panamense^ Ophiura Daniana, Jlemipholis
gracilis^ Ophiothela mirabilis (new genus,) Astropecten fragilis, A, Pe-
ruviana, Asterina modesta, (master occidentalis, Mithrodia Bradleyi^
Echinodiadema eoronata (new genus), Astropyga venusta, Euryechinus
imbecUis (==E. gibbosus Val. ?), Psammechinus pictus, Boletia viridis^
Melliia Pacifica, Astroclypus Manni (new genus), Metalia nohiliSy
Brissus obesus.

The name, Ophiothela, is proposed for peculiar, small, six-rayed
Ophiurians allied to Ophiothrix, of which this group is made a sub-genus.
Echinodiadema is allied to Diadema but has a spinose buccal membrane,
trigeminate pores, and hollow spines. Astroclypus is allied to Eneope
and Lobophora, It difiers from the first in having but four ovarial open-
ings and in lacking the posterior perforation, and from Lobophora in
having five ambulacral perforations, the position of the anus, etc.

Several changes in the nomenclature of known species are introduced,
some of which are as follows : Oreaster armatus M. and Tr. is made a
separate genus under Gray's subgeneric name, Nidorellia ; Echinodda-

* The first part of this article embracing the Ophivaroidea and Aiteraidea was
priated and distributed in March and April ; the remaining signatures, bdnding
the Echinoidea, etc, were not issued until June.



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126 SeientHic Intelligence.

ris incita A. Ag. (JS, kngispina Lutk.) is referred to B. siellata Ag. /
Boletia rosea A. Ag. is referred to Lytechinus; Encope tetrapora Ag.
{non Gm.) is redescribed under the Dew name, E, oecidentalU ; Kleinia
nigra A. Ag. is referred to Meoma Gray ; Meialia (Gray's subgenus of
Brissus) is made identical with Xanthobrissus A. Ag. Four species of
Heliaster are recognized.

The last part of the paper contains a discussion of the Geographical
Distribution of the West Coast Echinoderms, with comparative lists of
all the known species of various localities, and also a list of the West
Indian and Aspinwall species for comparison with those of Panama.

8. Bemarkable Instances of Crustacean Parasitism ; by A. K Vkrbill.
— ^In a collection of about ninety specimens of a small sea-urchin {Ewry-
echinus imhedllis Verrill) from the coast of Peru, not one could^be found
in which the anal area and surrounding parts of the upper side of the
shell were not more or less irregularly distorted, or imperfect. An exam-
ination of the interior showed that in each specimen a crab {FaUa CkU-
ensis Dana), allied to the common crab of the oyster {Pinnot?ieres ostre-
um\ had effected a lodgment in the upper part of the intestine, which
haa thereby been greatly distended in the form of a membranous cyst,
attached to one side of the shell, and extending around to the lower sur-
face near the mouth. The shell is usually swollen on the side over the
cyst, and the anal area is depressed and distorted, with a large open ori-
fice passing obliquely into the cyst, out of which the crab may thrust its
legs at pleasure ; but is apparently unable, when full grown, to come en-
tirely out. All the specimens examined in the cyst were females, carry-
^°g ^SS^i ^"^ * ^^U fii^^ll <^^^^ found clinging among the spines appears
to be the male. The crab probably effects an entrance into the intestine
through the anus while quite young, and, by its presence and growth in
that position, causes the gradual distortion of the shell and formation of
the cyst In Prof. Dana^s Report on the Crustacea oi the U. 8. Expl.
Expedition this crab is described as from Valparaiso, from an Echinus,
but no special notice of its mode of occurrence and remarkable frequency
'appears to have been published.*

Another peculiar mode of parasitism I have observed in a singular crus-
tacean {Hapalocarcinus marsupialis Stimpsonf) from the Sandwich Isl-
ands. This creature lodges itself among the slender branches of a coral
(Pocillipora ccespitosa Dana) and causes, probably by its incessant mo-
tions, the branches to grow up and surround it on both sides by flat expan-
sions of coral, terminating in digitations, which often interlock above,
leaving openings between them suitable for the uses of the parasite, but
usually too small to allow of egress. Most specimens of the corals of this
species sustain one or more, and often numerous, examples of these cu-
rious enlarged bulbs among the branches. The habits were unknown to
Dr. Stimpson, when he described his specimens, which had dropped from.
among recently collected corals.

9. On the external characters of the Young of the Central AiMriea»
Tapir (Ulasmognathus Bairdii Gill) ; by A. E. Vbrrill. — ^This remarka-
ble animal has hitherto been known only by its skull, and a skeleton, not

* Pinnaxodii hirtioet Heller, recently described fram Ecuador and found in an
£chinu9, is probably the same species.
t Proceedings Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., yi, 412.



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Astronomy. 127

entirely complete, belonging to the Smithaonian Institution. The Mnie-
um of Yale College has recently been so fortunate as to receive from J.
H. Sternberg, Esq., a specimen of the young animal, preserved entire in
alcohol. This individual is a female, and is supposed by Mr. Sternberg
to have been about three months old in April. He states that its weight
is not more than that of the head of the adult, one head that he former*
]y examined weighing 82 pounds.

Its entire length is 31 inches; nose to occiput 11 ; nose to eye 4*26 ;
nose to incisor teeth 1*5 ; eye to ear 3*2 ; lower jaw 6*5 ; lengUi of ear



Online LibraryJohn AlmonThe American journal of science and arts → online text (page 65 of 102)