John Almon.

The American journal of science and arts online

. (page 68 of 102)
Online LibraryJohn AlmonThe American journal of science and arts → online text (page 68 of 102)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


9. Anntidl Report of the Truetees of the Museum of Comparative 2o-
<^<^y* together ufith the report of the Director^ 1866. — ^This, the eighth
annual report, shows continued activity in increasing the already vast
collections of the museum. The Director's Report contains a eeneral
statement of the present condition of the museum, and a somewhat de-
tailed account of his Brazilian Expedition and its important results.

10. The Art of Perfumery and the Methode ofohUdning the Odors of
Plants^ with Instructions for the manufacture of perfumes for the hand-
kerchief scented powders, odorous vinegars, dentifrices, pomatums, cos-
metics, perfumed soap, etc, to which is added an Appendix on preparing
artificial fruit-essences, etc. ; by G. W. Ssptimus Pnsax, Analytical Chem-
ist 2nd American from the 3d London Ed. 402 pp., 12mo. Philadel-
phia, 1867. (Lindsi^ and Blakiston.)

11. The Art of Manvfacturing Soap and Candles^ including the most
recent discoveries, embracing all kinds of ordinary hard, soft, and toilet
soaps, especially those made by the cold process, the modes of detecting
frauds, and the making of tallow and composite candles ; by Adolph
Ott, Ph.D^ Practical and Analytical Chemist 194 pp., 12mo, with wood-
cats. Philadelphia, 1867. (Lindsay h Bhikiston.)



Digitized by



Google



143 Miscellaneous Bibliography.

Tho two volames whose title pages are here cited are popular and
practical works od the eubjects of which they treat The first dips some*
what into the history and esthetics of the art, as well as its science.

12. NoUce of Volume IV of the Paleontology of New York; by
Jamxb Hall. 24 pp., 18mo. Published March, 1867. — We have barely
space to announce the appearance of this pamphlet, just now received.
It contains a brief statement of some of the views and facts which are
contained in the forthcomiDg fourth volume of the Paleontology of New
York, with lists of the species described. The limits and characteristics
of several genera of Brachiopoda are discussed, and some points are illus-
trated by ^gures.

13. Ueh^ die Verschiedenheit in der Schddelbildung dee Gorilla^ Chim-
paneif und Orang-Outang^ vortuglieh nach Oeechleeht und Alter^nehei
einer Bemerkung uber die Barwineche Theorie; von Dr. Th. L Bibohost,
Professor der Anatomic und Physiologie in Miinchen. Mit 22 lithograph-
irten Tafeln. Miinchen. — This work will be valuable to those engaged
in the study of the Quadrumana, and especially to those interested in
the comparison of their anatomy with that of man. The plates are of
folio size, and admirably executed.

The part of the work which possesses most general interest, is of course
the appended note on the Darwinian Theory. Some of the points are
as follows. — ^The assertion so confidently brought forward that the an-
thropoid apes are the direct ancestors of man, is entirely unsupported by
evidence; moreover it is even contrary to the Darwinian theory rightly
understood, for the extinction of the parent form is the direct consequence
of the development of an improved form. The great problem of organic
nature is twofold : 1. The origin of the simplest original forms ; 2. The
causes and the mode of their operation, by which more perfect forms
were developed. A great defect of Darwin's theory is that he leaves the
first question unanswered. Admitting that certain organisms must have
been created, what right has he to say that other organisms may not
have been created at intervals, even to the present time t Another de-
fect of the Darwinian theory is, that no cause is assigned for the com-
mencement of variation. To say that organisms have at once the power
of transmitting peculiarities by inheritance, and of spontaneously orig-
inating variations, is a contradiction in terms. Darwin's treatment of
the second half of the second question is more successful. Natural se-
lection and the struggle for life must henceforth be fundamental prin-
ciples in anv theory of development. Since no general cause is assigned
either for the origin of life or for the commencement of variation, all
that can be considered as proved is that certain forms have been pro-
duced by variation from certain other forms. The facts warrant no gen-
eral induction. We must be very cautious in accepting plausible theories
without sufficient proof The vagaries of the "naturphilosophie'' fur-
nish an instructive example. The psychical difference between man and
brute is not merely quantitative, but qualitative. The distinctive pecu-
liarity of man may be designated as eelf-coneciousnees (selbstbewusstsein),
or the faculty of making one's self and one's mental condition a distinct
•ttbject of thought On this faculty depend other important peculiarities
of man, viz., the capability of indefinite progress, the idea oi morality,
the notion of a future state, and the power of language.



Digitized by



Google



Miscellaneous Bibliography. 148

14. Z' Uniia delle Forze Fisicke Saggio di Filosofia Naiurale. Del P.
Ano«lo Seochi, D.C.D.G. 611 pp., 8vo. Roma, 1864. — ^The principal
object of this work, as stated by the author, is to present to Italian read-
en an adequate representation and exposition, in their own language, of
the modern doctrine of the unity or convertibility of natural forces, and
of the principle of conservation of energy. The style is professedly adap-
ted to the comprehension of the majority of readers, especially for those
not deeply versed in science. But though, for this reason, divested of
the appearance of abstruseness, and free from difficult mathematical in-
vestigations, it is not, in the proper sense of the word, a popular treatise.
Important modem discoveries and theories are very fully cited, and every-
where the work bears evidence of extended research, and a wide ao-
Suaintance with the literature of modem science. Though there is little
lat is absobately new in it, the book is valuable and interesting, being
as it is an able exposition of principles which may almost be called the
comer-stone of modem physics. There is probably no book in which
the subject is more fully and satisfactorily treated than in this. The au-
thor appears to us to do but scant iustice to Mayer, to whom the whole
subject is so deeply indebted ; for he does not even mention him in the
prerace, where are cited the names of those who have contributed most
to this branch of science, and he makes subsequently but slight reference
to his discoveries. ▲. w. w.

16. Oarte Bydrologiqtte du Dipartement de la Seiney public d'aprea
les ordres de M. Hausmann, Pr^fet de la Seine, et execut^e sur la carte
topographique de ITng^nieur des Ponts et Ghauss^es, par M. Dxlxssx,
1862, 4 sheets. — This admirable map represents, as its title indicates, all
the natural and artificial water-courses of Paris and its vicinity. The
basis of the map is the topographical survey by Letellier and Potiquet,
officers of the department of des ronts et Chauss^es. Its scale is 1 : 26,000.
The curves of equal elevation are given at intervals of four meters. The
map is tinted according to the geological formations. On a map of this
character all the drainage by rivers, rivulets, sewers, gutters, etc., is ao-
eurately given. The execution of the work is excellent, and its practical
importance is very great.

16. Memorie aeW Ohservatorio dell Collegio Romano ; Nuova Serie,
vol. n, dair anno 1860 al 1863, Pubblicate dal P. Angelo Secchi, della
Oompagnier di Gesu, Direttore, etc. Roma, 1863. 4° (16 numbers), pp.
128. — This volume contains the astronomical observations made at the
Collegio Romano during the period indicated in the title. The principal
subjects are the Comets II 1861 and m 1862, the solar eclipse of July
18th, 1860, and spectral analysis of the light from th# heavenly bodies.
With these is given also a memoir upon the connection between meteor-
ological varieties and those of terrestrial magnetism.

Diagrams are given representing the appearance of the two comets, of
the solar eclipse, of the planets Jupiter, Mars and Saturn, and of about
twenty spectra of the planets and fixed stars.

The relations of the second of these oomets to the August meteors makes
the numerous representations of its telescopic appearance of special interest

17. Quelques vfUs generahs sur les Variations Skulairss du Magnet"
lisme terrestre, l«r Fascicule, par V. Rauun. 8vd, pp. 92. Eztrait des
Ajctes de la Soci6t6 Linn6enne de Bordeaux ; t xxvi, 1897.— Hie author



Digitized by



Google



144 Miscellaneous Intettigsnce.

gives a large number of observations showing the Becular variations of
the magnetic needle in all parts of the earth. He explains them by a
hypothesis similar to that proposed in this Journal, xxxviii, 69, 1840, by
the late Chancellor Lathrop. Mr. Raulin supposes that a body of greater
density than the fluid portion of the earth, more- or less irregular in form,
and having the properties of a magnet, forms part of the earth's mass, but
is not attached to the external crust. The line joining the poles of this
magnetic mass is directed along the chord that joins the actual magnetic
poles of the earth. This mass does not rotate exactly with the earth's
crust, but falls behind it one revolution in about 600 years.

18. Annales MHiorologiques de r Observatoire Eoyal de Bruxdles ;
publics, aux frais de T^tat, par le direoteur A. Quetelet, 4^, premiere
Ann6e, 1867, Nos. 1-5 (Jan.-May). — ^Theee annals give, in 8 quarto
pages for each month, observations at Brussels of the barometer and
thermometer for 15 stated hours each day, with maxima and minima,
observations of August's psychrometer four times a day, of Osier's ane-
mometer 12 times a day, of the direction of the wind, the state of the
sky, and the declination of the needle four times a day, and of the eleo-
tricity of the air, and the amount of rain daily.

19. The Laboratory: a weekly record of scientific research. Lon-
don. (James Firth.) — We have now received the 13th issue of this active
little journal and find that it increases in value with every number.
Originated to provide a more efficient means of interchange in thought
between men of science, especially chemists, it has brought to the task
men of the first ability ; and now we see it announced that Prof. Eekul6
has consented to contribute regularly to its pages. We commend ^ The
Laboratory" to the notice of men of science, confident that the papen
published in each number are well worth the price of subscription.

20. The Record of Zoological Literature for 1865. Vol. XL 798 pp.
8vo. Edited by Dr. Albert C. L. 6. Gunthkr. (London, John Van
Voorst). — A book ahnost indispensable for every working Zoologist

21. Chambers^s Encyclopedia. — The American edition of this import-
ant Encyclopedia, issued by Lippincott ^ Co., Philadelphia, has reached
Part 116, which nearly finishes the letter T.

Mining and Metallurgy of Gold and Silver ; by J. Aetbur Phillifs, Mining En-
gineer, Graduate of the Imperial School of Mines of France, <bc. 8vo. Prepariii^
for publication. (E, A F. N. Spon, London ; J. Wiley A Son, New York.)

Notes upon the Geology ot aome portions of Minnesota, firom St Paul to the
western part of the State; by Jamxs Hall. 12 pp., 4to. From the Trans. Amer.
PhiL Soc., voL xiii, 1867.

On the Distribution of Temperature in the lower region of the Earth's atmos-
phere; by HsiraT Hxnitxsst, F.R^., Pro£ Nat. Phil, in the Catholic ITniy. of Ir*»
land. 68 pp., 4to, with a folded plate. Dublin, 1867. From the Trans. Boy. Irish
Acad, Tol. z]dy.

PaooBDiNQS AtiAD. Nat. Soz. PmLADELPmA, No. 1, Jaa, Feb., Maidi, 1867. —

62, On a new eenus of Homoptera ; if. Skinner » — p. 11, On some points in the
ammaliansknll; JST. ^i/tfn.— p. 18, On Itacolumite ; C. Jf. Wd<Am«.— p. 15, Oq
colonies of plants observed near Philadelphia; A. IT. BmUh, — p. 24, TJm OoUii^
Ant of Texas ; O. Lineeeum.-^p. 81, Notice of a fossil skull of a large Turtle from
the Cretaceous of New Jersey. Euclastes platyops ; Oape,

PBOonoxNos BosT. Soc. Nat. Hist., Vol. XL— p. 71, Analysis of Meteoric iron
of Colorado ; C, T, Jaekton^—p. 76, Diatoms of a deposit near L. Winisquam, in
Laconia, N. H.; IL 0. (?reen/M/.— Diatoms of the White Mts., the minutenesB, etc ;
a iSfoiMsr.— Infusorial Earth from Peru; G. Stodder^—p. 79, Diatoms nod other
micTDsoopic objects of the Gulf of Mezioo; R, O. QrwnUaf,



Digitized by



Google



THE

AMERICAN

JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ARTS.

[SECOND SERIES.]



Abt. XIV. — On Mineralogicdl Ifimenclature; by Jakbs D. Dana.
No: I. On System in Mineralogical Nomenclature.

MiNEBALOGlOAL nomenclature had already a commencement
of system among the old Greeks and Romans ; and this system
was the same as that of the modem science. It consisted in add-
ing to the word signifying a quality, constituent, use, or localilgr
of the stone, the termination iiea or itis; and although, through
the many wajrs in which names were originated and the absence
of any scientific purpose, those of other kinds are numerous,
this was the oommon method of forming names for objects in
inorganic nature.

The following are a few examples, from Pliny's Natural
History.

1. Ifamee derived J^rom physical ch(m»eier».

Ebematitea, from ^S«^, hlood^ in allusion to the color of the powder.

Steatites, jfirom iniu^^faiy in allusion to the greasy feeL

Pyrites, (including millstODes, as well as our pyrites, etc) from nSp, fire^

because supposed to have a peculiar affinity for fire, as shown by the

sparks given out when struok.
Bhoditis, from ^odov^ a rose, in allusion to the color.
Chloritis, from jr^<^?» frcm, in allusion to the color.
Ceramitis, from MiQufios^ a tile, or earthenware, from the color.
Ceritis, from »^f , wax.
Iritis, from rainbow-like reflections.

Phen^tes, from ^^of , brighinessj in allusion to the transparency.
Selenitis, from craAijyt^, the moen^ in allusion to its reflections.
Molochitis (our Malachite) in allusion to its green color, from the Greek

for the Mallow.
Am. Joub. Sci.— Sxoohd Sbribs, Vol. XLIY , No. 131.^SBFr., 1867.
19



Digitized by



Google



146 /. D. Dana on System in Mirueralogical Nomenclature,

PorphyriteB, from no^^P^, purple,

Pra8ites - 9r^<r^Tvs of IJieophraBtus, from th« leek-green color.
Crateritis, from «^T«^y etron^t in alinsion to the hardneis.
Anthracitis, for a stone resembling coal in being black and yielding a

black color when rubbed on a whetstone; also for another kind

whidi resembled a bnming ooal.
Ophites, for stones having streiocs of green color, like serpents.

2. Nizm^ having reference to the form of the stone.

Osiraoites, for fossil shells.

Ostritis, a fossil oyster shell, or related species.

Phenacites, for stones resembling a date.

Botryites, '^ ^ a bunch of grapes.

PhyciteSr ** *' a seaweed, from g^vxog, a seaweed.

Scorpitis^ ^ ^ a scorpion* in color or shape.

Dendritis, ** •* a tree.

3^ Names derived from the uses of the mineral

Alabastritis, for the stone (mostly, if not wholly, stalagmite) from which

the kind of vase called <Uabasiron was made.
Chrysites, from x9^<f6Q, gold, it being used in trials for gold..
Basaniies, from ^daayog, a UntcksUms.

4. Names having rtference to the constitution of the stone.

Ghaldtis, from x^M6g^ copper or droM, for a copper ore.

Sideritis, from otdf^^^ iron.

Chrysitis (from the Greek for polcQ, Argyritis (from the Oreek for sUvsr)^
and Molybditis (from the Greek for lead), were names of producta
obtained in the reducUon of silver orei ; Uie first is supposed to hare
bee» a yellow litharge.

5. Names derived fiom the names of localities.

Pharanites^ from the name of a locality in Arabia.
Syrtites, from a locality on the shores of the Syrtes.
Choaspitis, from a locality on the river Choaspes.

Srenitis, from Syene, in Egypt-^probably the red Syenite of Syene.
emphites, from Memphis in Egypt — a kind of marble.

The termination ties or itis was thns distinctiTe of the names
of minerala, stones, or fossila* Moreover, the names were de-
rived from qualities, forms, uses, and localities, or from the same
characteristics that are now referred to in making the new
names of the science. The only modern kind of name not in
vogue in Pliny's time is that q^ persons.

Werner appears to have been the first to introduce this class of names
into Mineralogy. The earliest example, if I mistake not, was that of
naming what de Bom had called Green Mica (Mica viridis) TotheriU^

* This termination does not come from the Greek word )u9o(, «ton«, for this word
when in composition retains in Latin names (and also in the modem (German)
its original form, as in OhryiotithM.



Digitized by



Google



/. D. Dana on System in Mineralogical Nomenclature. 147

after its inYestigator, the chemist Torber Bergmann (more correctly
written Torhemite by some mineralogists of last centary, as Bei^gmann,
wrote his name in Latin, the langQsge of his scientiflc works, Torbemus
Bergmann). The name encountered objections ; and Werner, in view of
Bergmann's announcement (after some incorrect trials) that the mineral
was a copper ore, substituted in 1789 the name Chalcolite. He however,
immediately afterward (early in 1700) showed that he saw nothing bad
in the style of name by designating other new species Prehnite and
Witherite^ the former after Col. Prehn the discoverer, and the latter after
Dr. Withering the discoverer and analyst of the species. The same year,
Estner, a mineraloffist of Vienna, issued a pamphlet against the Werner
school, with the titfe ^ FreymHthige Gedanken ftber Herm Inspector Wer*
ner's yerbesseruneen in der Mineraloeie," etc, (64 pp. 16mo, 1790), in
which he makes light of Werner's lfu>ors in the science, and under, the
head of Prehnite ridiculed this method of creating a paternity, and pro-
viding the childless with children to hand down their names to posterity
(p. 25). Such names were, however, too easily made, too pleasant, as a
general thing, to give and receive, and withal too free from real objection^
to be thus stopped o£^ and they have since become numerous, even Vi-
enna contributing her full share toward their multiplication.

As a part of the history of mineralogical nomenclature, it may be here
added that Werner, when it was proved tliat his chalcolite was an ore of
uranium with but little copper, instead of a true ore of copper, dropped
ihe name entirely, and called the mineral siooply Uranglimmer (Uranium
mica) ; and Earsten, in his reply to Abb6 Estner (Berlin, 1793, 80 pp.
12mo), makes out of the necessary rejection of chalcolite an argument
against chemical names, and in &vor of names after persons, as the
latter could never turn out erroneous in signification.

Daring the Middle sgdB many provincial names for stones and
ores originated, or oame into nse^ in the mining r^ons of Europe ;
and some of these have since had general acceptance, such as
Quartz, Blende, Hornblende, Talc^ Feldspar, Schorl, Mispickel^
Copperas (from Kupferwasser of the Germans, like Couperose
of the French*).

In the course of the last century, when the science of min-
erals was taking shape, and progress in chemistry was helping it
forward, there was an effort, on one side, to introduce, unaer the
influence of Linnseus, the double names of other branches of
Natural History ; and, on the other, under the influence of Oron-
stedt and Bergmann, names expressive of chemical composi-

* llie Germsn word KnpliMrwa«er, literaUv dignifying CoppeMrater, (the Chal-
ctmilmmt and AtraumUum Mi<ort««i of Fliny,) indndod the diAirait TitriolB, whether
in aolotloik or erystslUned, which are a eonunon resolt of the alteration of eopper
and iron pyritee and blende. Both the eopper and iron pyrites passed for copper
ores among the older mineri from the Greeu down, and tney oocnr mixed together
akxig with blende in most mining regions. The words couperose and copperae have
been eoppoaed to oome from the latin ei^roea. Bat emrum gave cuwre to the
French, and it ie hardly a pocaibiiity that the Latin u ahould in another caae, or
erer, have become changed to the French ou instead of the sharp u ; while the Oer-
1 14 would naturaUy take this form.



Digitized by



Google



148 /. D. Dana on System in Mineralogical Nomenclature.

tion as £ftr as it was ascertained ; and the two methods have had
their advocates till late in the present century. Bnt, at the
same time, the necessity of single names was recognized by most
of the early mineralogists ; and in the spirit of the system which
had made its appearance among the Greeks and Bomans ont of
the genius of tne Greek language, they almost uniformly adopt-
ed for the new names the termination tfe.

Thus we have from Werner the names Torberite, Chalcolite,
Qraphitei Prehnite, Witherite, Boracite, Augite, Pistacitei Finite,
Aragonite, Apatite, Leucite, Cyanite (Kyanite) ; and from other
sources in the same centui^, 2ieolite, Actinolite, Tremolite, Coc-
colite, Arendalite, Baikalite, Melanite, Staurolite, Lepidolite,
Cryolite, Chiastolite, Collyrite, Agalmatolite, Sommite, Moroxite,
Pharmacolite, Strontianite, Delphinite, Titanite, Ceylanite, Ga-
dolinite, Bubellite, Sahlite, Wemerite, Scapolite, Mellite, eta

The termination tne, was also adopted for a few names, as Tour-
maline, Olivine, Mascagnine, Serpentine; and an in Yesuvian;
but the great bulk of the names were systematically terminated
in ite.

With the opening of the present century (in 1801), Haiiy came
forward with his great work on Crystaflography, and in it he
brought out a variety of new names that defy all system, having
nothing of the system of the earlier science, and no substitute of
his own. Forgetting that the unity of law which he had found
in nature should be a feature of scientific language, he gave
names to minerals as a gardener might to his varieties of pinks
and roses, introducing thus the terminations —

ane, in Cymophane ;

OM, in Eudase, Idocrase, Anatase, Dioptase;

(Wte, in Pleonaste ;

ogre, in Diallage ;

€n«, in Disthene, Sphene;

gene, in Amphiffene ;

ufe, in Staurotide ;

ime, in Analcime ;

cle^ in Amphibole ;

ome, in Amome, Harmotome ; »

ose, in Ortnose ;

ote, in Actinote, Epidote ;

yre, inDipyre;

ype, in Mesotype.
And the true mineralogical termination tfe he admitted only in
the few following: Axinite, Meionite, Pycnite, Stilbite, Gram<
xnatite.

Haiiy had oommanded so great and so general admiration
by his brilliant discoveries in crvstallo^phy, and by the bene-
fits which he had thus conferrea on mineralogical science, that



Digitized by



Google



/. D. Dana on System in Mintralogical Nomenclature. 149*

his names with their innovations were for the most part imme-
diately accepted even beyond the limits of France, although a
naml>er of mem were substitutes for those of other authors.^
Some of Werner's names were among the rejected ; and a break
was thus occasioned between German and IVench mineralogy,
which will not be wholly removed until the rule of priority,
properly restricted, shall be allowed to have sway.

Beudant suooeeded BAiiy, and had the same want of system
in his ideas of nomenclature. Finding occasion to name vari-

* The subttitutei amone the above names in the Ist edition of Hauj's Ci78tal-
log^raphy (1801) are thefolbwing;

Amphibole, lor EorMm^ of last centuiy and earlier.

Orthoee, for Ftld^par,

Pjiozene, for AugiU of Wemer, lUid VoUanite of Delam^therie. [DelamStherie
was a contemporarr of Haiiy at Paris, the author in 1*792 of an edition of Monges's
Mamtd du Minh'MOffiHe (after Bei^g^ann's Seiagraphia) ; in 1797, of an ambitions
apecalative work entitled Thiorie dt la Terrt, the first two Tolnmes of which consia*
ted of a Treatise on Mineralogy ; in 1811, 1818, of Legoru dt MifUraloffUt in 2 toU.,
and for a nnmber of years principal editor of the JoumcU de Phytique. He gave
offense to Haiiy by some of his early poblications. Hatty's mineral jSndase is de-
scribed in fiill by belam^therie in the J^fwmal d$ Phynqui for 1792 (some years in
advance of Haiiy's descciption of it,) without crediting the name or anything else
to Haiiy : but five years later, in his Theorie de la Terre, he inserts the spedea with
fnll credit to Haiiy.!

Crmoi^iane, for Oht^iober^of Werner.

Idocrase, for Vstuvian of Werner.

Pleonaste, for Ceylanite of Delam^therie.

Disthene, for Kyanite (Cyanite) of Werner.

Anatase, for Octaksd/nU of de Sanssore, and OitamiU of Dehundtherie.

Sphene, for ^aniU of Elaproth.

Nepheline, for Sommite of Delam^therieu

Triphane» for SpodtaneniS of d'Andrada.



Online LibraryJohn AlmonThe American journal of science and arts → online text (page 68 of 102)