John Almon.

The American journal of science and arts online

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mo-carboniferous beds in Kansas, and have been found in the
Upper Coal-measures of Iowa, by Dr. White.

Avicula pinnaformis Geinitz, ib., fig. 13. From specimens of
this shell shown to me by Dr. White from -the same horizon in
Iowa, I am sure it is specifically distinct from the so-called A,
pinntBformis, and there can be little doubt that it even belongs to
the distinct genus Pinna.

Gervillia parva M. & H. Geinitz, ib., 14. This dififers from
the Bakevellia parva M. & H. in having a broad shallow depres-
sion extending to the anterior basal margin from the umbonal
region, farther back than that defining the anterior ear from the

* The species Hauyni^ will haye to take the name PtevdomonotiM Hawni, and the
niiiMis shell, supposed to be a variety of the same but probably disliiict, may be
called P. nnuata, (See HI GeoL Report, ii, pi 27, % 12-18.)

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Review of Qeinitx on the rocks and fossils of Nebrtiska, 183

swell of the umbo in A parva. It is an interesting fact, how*
ever, that there is a little shell, of which we have specimens for
comparison, in the Nova Scotia beds, referred by the highest
authorities to the Sub-carboniferous, agreeing with it in this
character as well as apparently exactly in all other respects.

Oervillia longa Geinitz, ib., ii, fig. 15. A good species, but its
position in the genus Gervi/lia is very doubtful. It occurs in
Iowa, in a bed referred by Dr. White to the upper part of the
Lower Coal-measures, with other fossils of that horizon.

G, {Avicula) sulcata Geinitz, ib., fig. 16. Also a good species.

Pecten neglectus Geinitz, ib., fig. 17. Appears to be a good
species, but should be called Aviculopecten neglectus.

Pecten Missouriensisi Shumard. Geinitz, ib., fig. 18. This
is certainly not the Aviculopecten Missouriensis of Shumard,
which is not known from any horizon above the St. Louis lime-
stone of the Sub-carboniferous series. It is the shell called P.
occidentalis by Dr. Shumard, and afterward named P. Cleave-
landicus by Prof. Swallow. It is one of the most widely dis-
tributed of our Coal-measure shells throughout the West, and
ranges up through the Permo-carboniferous beds into the Per-
mian of Kansas. No form nearly allied to it has ever been found
in the western Sub-carboniferous rocks, but specimens now be-
fore me from rocks in Nova Scotia, so referred by the most reli-
able authorities, seem to be undistinguishable from it.

Pecten Hawni Geinitz, ib., fig. 19. • This seems to be quite
similar to Pecten Broadheadii of Swallow, described from the
Missouri Coal-measures. If distinct from that species it should
be called Aviculopecten Hawni, unless it may possess internal
characters showing it to be the type of an unaescribed genus.
Dr. White finds it in the upper beas of the Lower Coal-measures .
of central Iowa.

Rhynchonelta angulata Linn. Geinitz, ib., tab. iii, fig. l-A. As
it has already been shown that the shell figured under this name
is not a Rhynchonelta at all, little need be said in regard to its

?>ecijic relations to the European true Rhynchonelta angulata.
hope, however, that I shall be excused for adding here, that
the practice of positively identifying species from widely distant
parts of the eftrth upon such merely superficial points of general
resemblance, and thus complicating and vitiating all conclusions
respecting the geographical and geological range of species, can-
not be too carefully avoided.

Camarcphoria globulina Phillips. Geinitz, ib.j fig. 5. Of this
shell I have numerous examples from the same position, as well
as from other horizons of the Upper Coal-measures of Missouri,
Eiinsas, Nebraska and Iowa. It has generally been referred to
Rhynchonelta Uta of Marcou, who has himself identified it with
that species. On comparison with authentic European examples



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184 Review of Geiniiz on the rocks and fossils of Nebraska.

of Camarophoria globulina of Phillips, it is foQDd to be very *
similar in external characters, bat there is an insurmountable
difficulty in the way of referring it to that species, — that is, be-
cause sections across the beaks, as well as internal casts, show it
to be a trvje Rhynchonella 7

Retzia Mormonii Marcou (sp.). Greinitz., ib., fig. 6. This is
the species described by Dr. Shumard from the Coal-measures
as R punctuliferaj and his name probably has priority. It is
a very common Coal-measure and Permo-carboniferous form
in the west. Prof. Marcou mentions finding it at Nebraska
City associated in bed C of his section with the other species re-
ferred by him and Prof. Greinitz to the Dyas ;* though Prof
Geinitz does not mention it among the Dyas fossils at all, but
refers it to the Carboniferous, giving Plattsmouth as the locality.
Prof Geinitz makes the California R, compressa a synonym of
this, but the reasons for doing so are not very apparent, the two
shells being quite diiSerent; he might with more propriety make
the R, Mormonii a synonym of the European species R. radialis
Phillips.

Atkyris suhtillta Hall, a form generally referred to A, piano-
sulcata Phillips, Spirifer planoconvexus Shumard, S. cameratus
Morton, and Strepiorhynchus crenistria (properly Hemipronites
crenistria)j the so-called Orthisina Missouriana, figured or men-
tioned by Prof. Geinitz from beds he refers in part to the Dyas,
and in part to the Carboniferous, all occur together, with the
Rhynchonella Uta, Relzia Mormonii^ and all of the Producti
mentioned by him, as well as Fusulina cylindrical in the same
or alternating beds of the Coal-measures and Permo-carbonifer-
ous beds in Kansas, while Athyris suhtilita ranges up into the
highest beds containing Permian types.

Prof. Geinitz makes Mr. Davidson^s East Indian Spirifer Moo-
sakhaliensis a synonym of ^\ cameratus Morton. In this, how-
ever, he is certainly mistaken. Out of all the thousands of
specimens of S. cameratus found in our western Coal-measure
and Permo-carboniferous rocks, not one shows the distinct regu-
lar concentric lamellaB seen on that species, while there are other
differences not to be overlooked.

Spirifer laminosus McCoy. Geinifz, ib., fig. 19. , This is posi-
tively not S. laminosus McCoy, but merely a variety of Spirifer-
ina Kentucensis, of Shumard. It agrees with <S. laminosus in
no specific character excepting the possession of regular laminse
of growth, iS. laminosus having a high flat area like a Cyrtia (to
which group Prof. McCoy referred it), and a broad rounded mesial
fold and sinus without longitudinal plications. One of McCoy's
figures of a distorted specimen seems to show a plication in the
sinus, but it is only necessary to consult Mr. Davidson's excel-

* See Bull. Soc. Geol. France, t zxi, p. 187, 1864.



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lUpiew of Geiniix on the rocks and fossils of Nebraska. 185

lent figares and deaeription of this species in his Monograph of
the British Carboniferous Brachiopoda, or Pro£ McCoy's de-
scription in his British Paleozoic fossils, to be convinced that the
two shells are totally distinct Indeed they probably belong to
distinct subgenera or genera, as the fi^. Kentuckensis seems to be
punctate like Spiriferina.

He is probably right in making Prof Swallow's so-called Or-
thisina missouriana a synonym of Plicatula strialo-costeUa Cox,
which I had done some years since. Dr. White and Mr. St John,
however, have ascertained that it posesses some very extraordi-
nary intermal characters, showing it to be typical of a new genus.
Although this shell closely resembles Mr. Davidson's East In-
dian Streptorhynchus peciinifera^ with which Prof Geinitz thinks
it identical, they must be specifically distinct, if Mr. Davidson's
figure represents the striae correctly as running parallel to the
plications to the front margin, instead of converging toward the
top of the plications near the front

If Prof Geinitz is correct in identifying the shell he refers,
without figure or description, to Productus horrescens with P.
Rogersii^ it is the same described by Dr. Owen under the name
P, Nebrascensis. Dr. Owen's figure gives a very incorrect idea
of this shell, and would never b^ recognized as even represent-
ing an allied form, but the locality from which he obtamed his
specimens and his comparisons with P. Humboldtii d'Orbigny,
led to the belief that his type was the same as the Rogersii. In
order to settle this (^[uestion I borrowed Dr. Owen's typical speci-
mens, labelled by himself, from his brother, Prof Bichard Owen,
and found it to be the common Coal-measure shell generallj^
known in the west as P. Rogersii. Out of thousands of speci-
mens of this species, showing the hinge and interior of both
valves, examined under all conditions and of all ages, not one
has ever been seen showing any traces whatever of the cardi-
nal area and hinge-teeth of Strophalosia. In short it is a true
Productus closely allied to P. scabriculus.

Productus cora, P. semireticidatus^ P. costatus^ P.punctatuSj &c.,
mentioned but not figured by Prof Geinitz, are doubtless the
same Coal-measure forms usually so referred in the west, and
ranging in part up into the Permo-carboniferous. That he fig-
ures under the name P. Flemingii^ is the same Coal-measure
and Permo-carboniferous shell described by Dr. Norwood as
P. Prattenianus (as indicated by Prof Geinitz^, which is also
closely allied to P. csquicosUUus Shumard, though it is certainlv
not the P. (kdhounianus Swallow, nor P. Flemingii^ as Prof (r.
thinks. The other shell he figures under the name P. Koninck-
tanus de Yerneuil, looks exceedingly unlike the figures of the
type of that species, being more probably only a larger individ-
ual of the same he figures as P. FUmingii.

Am. Jour. Soi.^Segokd Sebiss, Vol. XLIV, No. 1S1.-^pt., 1867.
24



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186 Review of Geinilx on the rocks and fossils of Nebraska.

Productus Oancrinide Vem. Geinitz, ib., iv, fig. 6. Whatever
relations the shell here figured bears to German specimens iclei>-
tified with P. Oancrini, it certainly differs from the original Bos-
sian type of that species, both in its proportions and in . the
prominence of its beak. At any rate I know it to range far
down in the Coal-measare rocks of Kansas, below the horizon
of the beds referred by Marcoa and Prof. Geinitz to the Moan*
tain limestone.

Productus Orhignianus de Koninck. Geinitz, ib., figs. 8 to 11.
Prof. Geinitz seems to be right in regarding this form as the
same as P. spkndens and P. Wabashensis N. & P. But Mr. Da*
yidson, however, who ought to know, refers both of these, from
specimens sent him from the typical localities, to the Carbonifer-
ous species P. longispinus Sowerbv. The shell figured by Pro£
Geinitz is widely distributed and very abundant in our Goal-
measures, and in Kansas ranges up into the Permo-carboniferous.

Producius horridus Sow. Geinitz, ib., fig. 7. There is no
room whatever, to doubt but this is a young individual of the
last mentioned species. That shell varies much in the distinct-
ness of its cost89, which are sometimes almost entirely obsolete
on even adult shells, and in young examples like this they
are often not indicated at all, as may be seen by examining the
the umbo of mature specimens. If P. horridus was known to
occur in these rocks, it might be thought possible that this might
be its young, but under existing circumstances, (that species
being unknown in America), it would certainly require a con-
siderable stretoh of imagination, to see in this little shell a spe-
cies which at maturity attains nearly one hundred times its size.*

ChoneUs mucronata M. & W. Geinitz, ib., tab. iv, figa. 12, 14.
This is correctly identified ; and his G. glabra (ib., figs. 15 to 18)
seems to be a good species. Both of these species, however,
range far below this horizon in Elansas and Neoraska, even be-
low the horizon of the beds referred by Professors Maroou and
Geinitz to the Subcarboniferous.

Cyathocrinus ramosus Schlot Geinitz, ib., fig. 19. Is fix>m a
European specimen, and given for comparison with the next^ to
which, however, it has no near relations. 0. ramosus has not
yet been found in any of our rocks.

Oyathocrinus infkxus Geinitz, ib., fig. 20. This species was
long since described by Dr. Shumard from the Goal-measures of
Missouri, under the name Poteriocrinus hemisphericus (Acad. Soi.
St Louis, i, p. 221). It is widely distributed in the western
Goal-measures. Several specimens of it are in the Illinois col-
lection firom different localities in that stete ; and it is now known

* Since this was written, I have had an opportunity to examine extenslTe eoUee-
taoDS obtained by the Nebraska geological surrey in charge of Dr. Havdeo, at Ne-
braska City and all the surrounding country, and can tMortpontitfdy that the little
shell here figured is the young of that referred by Prof. Oefnita to P, Orbipdamu,



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Review o/Geinitz on the rocks and fossils of Nebraska. 187

to occur at Omaha, in the beds referred b^ Prof. Marcou to the
Mountain limestone. The separate crinoid plate (fig. 27) given
by Prof. Geinitz on the same plate, is a first radial piece of the
same species as the above, or of JErisocrinus^ it being impossible
to distmguish this part of these Orinoids when found detached.
The fiff. 28 of same plate, evidently represents the subradial
piece of the C. hemisphericus from the anal side, being truncated
above for the reception of the first anal piece and strongly in-
curved below. The columns figured on this plate as Actinocri-
nus ? probably belong to the same crinoid, or to ZMcrinus mu-
crospinus McChesney, the spines of which are figured there er-
roneously as those of an Actinocrinus, As alr^v stated, no
Actinoerinus has yet been found in this country above the St.
Louis Limestone.

JSocidaris Hallianus Geinitz, ib., tab. v, fig. 1, is probably a
good species, and correctly referred. The corals figured on the
same plate and referred to Cyathaxonia^ are very like Ccml-meas-
ure species of the West One of them may be the same de*
scribed by McChesney firom the Coal-measures of Illinois under
the name C. proUfera. The FuauUna fieared on the same plate
as F. cylindriea and F. deprsssa^ range tnrough our whole CoaJ*
measures, of Iowa, Missouri, Elansas and Nebraska, and j&r up
into the JPermo-carboniferous of Kansas.''^

As the so-called FenesteUa eleganiissima Eich., F. plebeja Mo-
Coy, F. virgosa Eich., and Polypora papillata McCoy, figured on
plate V, are all identified from firagments showing but the non-
poriferous side, such identifications are of course not to be re-
lied upon in determining the age of rocks.

Polypora marginata McCoy. Geinitz, ib., fig. 11. The porife-
rous sur£EU» of this looks very unlike McCoy's species.

Polypora biarmica von Keyserline. Geinitz, ib., fig. 18. If
the figures of this, and the form described by Count Keyser-
ling are even nearlv correct, they are clearly distinct

ck/nocladia virgiuacea Phillips. Geinitz, ib., 14. Prof. Geinitz
has correctly identified this with the type for which Prof. Swal-
low proposed the name & biserialis. It differs, however, clearly
from the S. virgtdacea^ in having a row of little short spines (not
mere granules) along the middle of each longitudinal branch,
between the two rows of pores, and particularly in having but
two rows of pores, instead of from three to five. Prof. G^initz's
figure shows the nonporiferous side, but his artist (who deserves
great credit for his accuracy) has well represented the impres-
sions of the row of little spines along the middle of the porif-
erous side, in impressions left in the matrix.

(To be ooDtinne^)

* Since this was written, I have this fossil in abiinclanoe, and many of onr other
oommoD Coal-measure forms, from Nebraska City, obtained abov€ the boriaon of the
Tery bods from which the so-called Dyassic fossils were obtained.



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2 68 3f . McDonald on an app<trahu for washing preeipitMttL

Art. XYIL — Deaeription of an apparatuafor coUedmg and wair
ing preeipiiates in test hies; by M. McDokald, Pro£ Ghea.
Ya, Military Institute.

The apparatus is shown in the figure in side eleTatkm. a is
a bracket of hard wood or other suitable material, and serro
as a support to the test tubes. It is firmly attached to the np^
right D which carries the inverted syphon tube G, G', O". It has
a shoulder at i which abuts against the fixed support c and pre-
vents oscillation.

Upon the bracket A rests the disk s of porous biscuit ware,
and upon this, several thicknesses of filtering paper. The test
tube T is adjusted as shown in the figure,
and held firmly in place by a clamp (which
is not shown). There is an orifice through
the center of A and E through which passes
the shorter branch of the inverted syphon
tube G, G', G". This is drawn to a capil-
lary bore at G", and serves to introduce
distilled water into the interior of the test
tube for the purpose of washing the pre-
cipitate. The apparatus is supported upon .
the stand bo, ana has a motion of rotation
around the axis P.

The disks of filtering paper have a di-
ameter slightlv less than tne diameter of
the disk e; tneir centers are perforated
with holes a little less in diameter than the
syphon tube at the point F.

To use the instrument, several thick-
nesses of filtering paper are slipped over
G" and pressed evenly down upon e. The
apparatus is then inverted in its frame, the test tube oontaining
the precipitate adjusted and secured in position. by the clamps
and then restored to the position shown in the figure.

The syphon tube is then connected with the delivery tube dT
a wash bottle and a jet of distilled water thrown into the inte-
rior of the test tube.

Usually this jet may be projected against the bottom of die
tube with sufficient force to wash all the precipitate down upon
the filter. The test tube should fit very closely upon the sup-
port, or the pressure will force liquid and precipitate thioi^
together.

Modifications .of the apparatus for special purposes will read-
ily suggest themselves, and any one of ordinary inganoi^ maj
construct one for himself.




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/. p. Cooke^ Jr,^ on Lecture Experiments. 189

Abt. XVJlL — On certain Lecture Experimente, and on a new
farm of Eudiometer ; by Josiah P. Cooke, Jr.

Thb laws of oombinatioii by volume fill such an important
plaoe in our modem chemical philosophy that simple methods
of illostrating these fundamental principles in the lecture room
are eagerly sought by every teacher of the science. The many
new and interesting experiments devised for this purnose by
FtoL HofmaoD, first described in the Journal of the Chemical
Society of London (Ser. II, vol. iii, page 156), and subsequently
made still more widely known through his admirable " Intro-
duction to Modern Chemistry/' leave little to be desired so far
as regards accuracy of results or elegance of illustration. But
these experiments require for the most part a delicacv of man-
ipulation^ which is incompatible with the hurry of tne lecture
room, and a skill in glass-olowiog which can rarely be attained
or commanded by our American teachers. Hence while seek-
ing the same end as Professor Hofmann, but with less ample
appliances, the autluv has devised for his own lecture-room
methods of illustrating the same principles, which require less
delicate apparatus and less careful attention, although as analyt-
ical methods they j;nav not always be as accurate as those of
this eminent German chemist Following also the recommend-
ation of Prof. Hofmann in the article just referred to, the author
publishes his methods with ihe hope that they may serve to bring
the illustrations of these fundamental laws of chemistry within
the reach of the great body of teachers in this country.

Many of the methods described in this paper are alone ren-
dered possible by the application of vulcanizea rubber stoppers
in the construction of the required apparatus. Hitherto tnese
have not been made of good quality m this country, and those
imported from Europe were very costly, and could only be ob-
tained of a few invariable sizes. At the suggestion of the au-
thor, the '* Boston Belting Co." now manufacture an excellent
article, which thej call "stopper cord,'' consisting of conical
rolls of very elastic rubber, aoout 4 feet in length and varying
in diameter from one-half an inch at one end, to an inch and a
half at the other.''^ From these rolls, stoppers of any required
size between the limits named may be cut with an ordinary knife
and bored with a common brass cork-borer. It is only necessary
to moisten the tools with water in order to prevent the adhesion
of the rubber. Stoppers of this material are absolutely air-tight

* Aftflf a good deal of exDerienoe, rolls of the siaet named above have been
found to be toe most uniTereahy applicable, but tbev can be made to order of any
desired dimeoskm and at a cost not ezoeediog one dollar a pound. See fig. 5, where
one of these rolls is shown in the fore-ground of the wood cat.



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190



/. P. Cooke^ Jt.^ o» Leetuxt Experiments.



eren against a foil atmospheric prewure, provided that the but-
ttice of adhesioD to the glasB neck ia at least half an indi in
length.

Another material of prime importance in these experiments
is sodiam amalgam, which is most conveniently nsed when con-
taining so large an amount of sodiam as to form a hard solid.
It is best prepared by gently heating a few ounces of metallic
mercory in a shallow iron dish and Uien cautionsly adding one-
twentieth of its weight of sodinnu The &rBt half of the sodiam
should be added in very small portions at a time as the action
at the beginning is exceedingly violent, bat soon moderates, and
at last the melt^ amalgam most be stirred with an iron spatola
in order to incorporate thoroughly the materials. As soon as
cold the solid amalgam readily separates from thedish, and
should then at once be broken up into small fragments and pre-
served in a well 8topi)ered bottle.

The four great typical compounds of modem chemistry are
HCl, H,0, H,N and H^C. Excepting the last, for which we
have no new methods, we will now describe our methods of il-
lustrating the composition of each of these in turn.

HydrMdoric acid. — ^The points to be illustrated in the case of

this gas are all indicated by the equation [ H |+[ CI [z=| H CI
or by the molecular expression



HH + ClCl = HCl



HCl



The first &ct that HCl consists of hydrogen and chlorine
gases we prove \>y the electrolysis of strong liauid hydrochloric
acid, havmg previously shown in the course or the lecture how
HCl is obtained from common salt, and that the liquid acid is
merely a solution of the gas in water. The de- i.

composing cell, which we use in this experiment,
is represented in outline by fig. 1, which is
drawn to a scale of ^, so that both its construc-
tion and dimensions require no detailed descrip-
tion. The two small open glass cylinders are
fitted by grinding with emery to the two tubu-
latures of the cell, and when the instrument is
not in use are closed above with ground glass stop-
pers. When mounted for use the cell is filled with
strong hydrochloric acid to within an inch of the
upper mouths of the cylinders, and the glass
stoppers are replaced by rubber stoppers, through
which pass the gas delivery tubes ana the conduct-
ifig wires connecting with the electrodes, which are
two strips of platinum foil four inches long by





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/• p. Cooke^ Jr.^ on Lecture ExperimerUs.



101





one inch wida The platinum condncting wires are welded* to

the strips of foil and secured in- the rubber stop- s.

pers as represented in detail by fig. 2. Into the

lower end of a short piece of glass tube, which

passes tightlj through the rubber, the platinum

wire connecting with the foil is secured by melting

the glass around it, while the upper end is left

open to receive the copper conducting wires irom

the battery, and the connection is made perfect b^

placing a few drops of mercury in the tuoe. This

simple form of oonnecting*cup is easily made and

very convenient

Ab the conducting power of hydrochloric acid is ver^ good,
three Bunsen cells of the ordinarv size have ample intensity and
give a rapid evolution of gas. The hydrogen gas is conducted
into a tall but narrow glass iar mounted in the usual way over
a small pneumatic trough, while the chlorine is collected oy dis-



Online LibraryJohn AlmonThe American journal of science and arts → online text (page 73 of 102)