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perfectly permanent compound than that obtained by the most perfect
action of the acid mixture.

(8.) But all ordinary products of manufacture contain small propor-
tions of organic (nitrogenized) impurities of comparatively unstable prop-
erties which have been formed by the action of nitric acid upon foreign
matters retained by the cotton fiber, and which are not cempletely sepa-
rated by the ordinary, or even a more searchiuff process of purification.

It is the presence of this class of impurity m gun-cotton which first
gives rise to the development of free acid when the substance is exposed
to the action of heat ; and it is the acid thus generated whidi eventui^y
exerts a destructive action upon the cellulose-prod ucts, and thus estal>-
lishes decomposition which heat materially accelerates. If this small
quantity of acid developed from the impurity in question be neutralized
as it becomes nascent, no injurious action upon the gun-cotton rssults,
and a great promoting cause of the decomposition of gun-cotton by heat
is removed. This result is readily obtained by uniformly distributing
through gun-cotton a small proportion of a carbonate,^ — the sodic carbon-
ate, applied in the form of solution, being best adapted to this purpose.

(9.) The introduction into the finislM gun-cotton of one per cent of
sodic carbonate affords to the material the power of resisting any serioos
change, even when exposed to such elevated temperatures as would in-
duce some decomposition in the perfectly pure cellulose-products. That
proportion affords, therefore, security to gun-cotton against any destruo-
tive effects of the highest temperatures to which it is likely to be exposed
even under very exceptional climatic conditions. The only influences
which the addition of that amount of carbonate to gun-cotton might
exert upon its properties as an explosive would consist in a trifling addi-
tion to the small amount of smoke attending its combustion, and in a
slight retardation of its explosion, neither of which could be regarded as
results detrimental to the probable value of the material.

(10.) Water acts as a most perfect protection to gun-cotton (except
when it i» exposed for long periods to sunlight), even under extremely
severe conditions of exposure to heat. An atmosphere saturated with



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Miscellaneous Intelligence. 291

aqa«ous Tapor suffices to protect it from change at elevated temperatures ;
and wet or damp gnn-cotton may be exposed for long periods in confined
spaces to 100* G. without sustaining any change.

Actual immersion in water is not necessary for the most perfect preser-
vation of gun-cotton ; the material, if only damp to the touch, sustains
not the smallest chance, even if closely packed in large quantities. The
organic impurities which doubtless give rise to the very slight develop-
ment of acid observed when gun-cotton is closely packed in the dry con-
dition, appear to be equally protected by the water ; for damp or wet
gun-cotton, which has been preserved for three years, has not exhibited
the fJEiintest acidity. If as much water as possible be expelled from wet
gnnHX>tton by the centrifugal extractor, it is obtained in a condition in
which, though only damp to the touch, it is perfectly non-explosive ; the
water thus left in the material is sufficient to act as a perfect protection,
and consequently also to guard against all risk of accident It is there-
fore in this condition that all reserved stores of the substance should be
preserved, or that it should be transported in large quantities to very
distant places. If the proper proportion of sodic carbonate be dissolved
in the water with which the gun-cotton is originally saturated for the
purpose of obtaining it in this non-explosive form, the material, whenever
it is dried for conversion into cartridges, or employment in other ways,
will contain the alkaline matter required for its safe storage and use in
the dry condition in all dimates.

2. Sdmtific fatty for ^ttifca.— A sdentifio party left San Francisco
July 2l8t on the steam cutter Lincoln for Alaska. This party has been
organized under the direction of Prof. Peirce, Superintendent of the
U. S. Coast Survey, and is conducted by George Davidson, Assistant
U. S. Coast Survey, as chief. With him are associated A. T. Mosman,
Astronomer ; Geo. Farquhar, hydrographer ; with whom is associated
I. Forney, as aid; — Hamel, engineer; Dr. Albert Kellogg, botanist;
W. G. W. Harford, Conchologist ; T. k. Blake, Geologist, and John
Tidal, observer. The first business will be a geographical reconnoissance
of the Coast — San Francisco Bulletin.

3. American Association for the Advancement of Science. — ^The meet-
ing of the Association at Burlington is just now dosing as we put the
last pages of this number to the press. We have to defer a notice of
the pnxseedings to our November number.

OBITUARY.

JiRBMiAH Dat. — Jeremiah Day, the venerable ex-President of Yale
College, died at his residence in this eity, on Thursday evening, August 22.

President Day had reached, on the dd of the present month, the age
of ninety-four years. His death will naturally occasion little surprise ;
yet the announcement of it will afiect the hearts of thousands of pupils
and friends who have long looked up to him with profound veneration
and esteem.

He was bom in New Preston, Conn., August 8, 1778. He first en-
tered Tale Collie in 1789, seventy-eieht years ago. Owing to ill health,
he was absent from College for a considerable time, and did not graduate
until 1795, the year when Dr. Dwight became president The first
official act of this eminent man was to preside at the Commencement at



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2M MUceUaneaus IrUettigence.

which the class of which President Day was a member was graduated
Mr. Day succeeded Dr. Dwight as teacher of the school which the latter
had conducted at Greenfield, and remained there until his election as
tutor in Williams College. In 1798 he became tutor at Yale, and while
holding this office pursued theological studies and preached as a candi-
date for the ministry. In 1801 he was elected to the professorship of
Mathematics and Natural Philosophy. His health at this period was
feeble, and neither he nor his friends anticipated for him a long contin-
uance of life. He was able, however, to enter on the duties of his new
station in 1803, which he continued to discharge until 1817, when, on
the decease of Dr. Dwight he was chosen president, and continued in this
office until his resignation in 1846. He fulfilled the duties of the pres-
idency with distinguished success and with the entire approbation of the
college and of the publia He remained a member of the corporation
until the last commencement, when, in consequence of his ^^ diminishing
powers of life," — to quote his own apt phraseology — he severed this last
link of official connection with the college which he had served so long
and faithfully. President Day was the author of a series of mathemat-
ical text-books which have passed through numerous editions. He also
published two metaphysical treatises on the subject of the Will, besides
various papers in the New Englander and other periodicals. In 1810 he
published a brief paper, in the Memoirs of the Connecticut Academy of
Sciences, on the origin of meteorites, called out by the recent fall (in
1807) of the meteorite of Weston, in which he took the ground, that
they were cometary bodies of the solar system.

President Day possessed a strong understanding, and was more remark-
able for the balance and symmetry of his powers than for the extra-
ordinary development of any one of them. He was an exact thinker
and a dear reasoner. His great moral and religious excellence has been
universally recognized from his youth up. None who knew President
Day will feel that there is any exaggeration in applying to him the
sentence : ** Mark the perfect man and behold the upright, for the end of
that man is peace."

He was the last survivor of the colleagues whom President Dwight
■elected and drew around him, and whose united labors first gave celeb-
rity to Yale College. Einffsiey, Silliman, and now Day, the oldest of
the Uiree, are gone ; but they deserve to be perpetually honored by all
who feel an interest in the institution to which their labors were devoted.

r.

E. J. PiCKSTT. — ^fidwin Judson Pickett was bom near Rochester, N. Y.,
in 18S0, and from early childhood that city was bis home. Graduating
from the University of Rochester in 1866, he afterward devoted his life
to teaohinr and to the study of the natural sciences, geology finally be-
ooming his favorite pursuit In 1861, he received an appointment in
the Institute at Mexico, N. Y., and in 1864, was appointed to the Pro-
fessorship of Natural Science in the People's College at Havana, N. Y.
After the failure of that institution, he took charge of a flourishing
Collegiate Institute at Attiea, Ind., and continued in the work until con-
sumption, which had long before undermined his health, compelled him
to seek his home and there await its iingering terraiBatioii. He died on
the 13th of October, 1866.



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Miscellaneous Bibliography. 298

Mr. Pickett was of an exceedingly modest and retiring disposition, and
did not seek society ; but none who met him could fail to love him. An
enthusiast in science, an indefatigable worker in whatever he put his
hand to, and also an earnest Christian, his loss is a great one. With so
few devotees, and so much work to be done, science can ill afford to
spare one such. b.

Faradat. — The telegraph brings the announcement that the eminent
philosopher, Faraday, died on the 27th of August, in his 7dd year.

VI. MISOELLAKKOUS BIBLIOGRAPHY.

1. Annals of th4 Astronomical Observatory of Harvard College, Vol.
II, Part II, and Vol. V. Cambridge, 1861. 4to, pp. 268, 216.— Part
i of vol. II (Observations on Saturn) was published in 1867. Part 11,
just issued, contains a Zone Catalogue of 4484 stars situated between
0^ 20' and 0^ 4(y north declination, observed during the years 1854-56,
with the Cambridge equatorial. A similar catalogue of 660 stars (be*
tween 0^ 0' and 0^ 20' N. dec.) constitutes Part 11 of vol. i, where may
be found the introductory matter pertaining to both series of zone ob-
servations. Two other like series still remain unpublished. These cata^
logues extend to stars of the Idth magnitude, and afford ample evidence
of the ability and zeal with which the two JBonds, father and son, were
accustomed to employ the great telescope which constitutes the principal
instrument of the Cambridge Observatory.

The other volume jqst issued, the fifth of the series, gives the results
of the latest labors of Prof. G. P. Bond — ^his elaborate observations on
the great nebula in Orion. These observations were undertaken in 1 857,
but being interrupted, in 1868, by the work due to the great comet of
that year, and by other causes, were resumed after the publication of the
volume on the comet, and prosecuted as the &iling strength of Mr. Bond
would permit, nearly to the time of his death, in 1865. The splendid
engraving of the nebula, which accompanies thh volume, was executed
under his eye, and the impressions taken in 1864. The observations
were also reduced, for the most part, before the death of Mr. Bond, and
the materials left in such a state of forwardness that, with the careful
editorship of Prof. Safford, so long associated with Prof. Bond in the
observatory, the work is now presented to astronomers, if not in as com-
plete a form as it would have been had the life of the author been longer
spared, yet in such a shape as to render it a noble contribution to astro-
nomical science, and greatly enhance the already high reputation of its
lamented author.

The volume is in the style of that on Donati*s Comet, and the en-
gravings are by the same artist Besides the engraving, already referred
to, from the drawing of Profl G. P. Bond, it contains another represent-
ing the nebula as seen by Prof. W. C. Bond, with the same telescope, in
1848, and also two charts of the stars in and near the nebula, as laid
down by the same author. The principal work of Prof. G. P. Bond con-
aisted in determining, by differential observations, the positions with
reference to ^Ononis of all stars visible with the Cambridge equatorial
within an area extending 1^ 30' on each side of this star in declination,



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394 Miscellaneous Bibliography,

tnd 2*° 15' each way in right asoension. This area of 3*86 square de-
grees embraces 1000 stars, or 298 to a square degree.

The different sections of the volume exhibit in detail the observationa
for the positions of these stars, a discussion of the observations by the
Method of Least Squares, the resulting catalogue of positions referred to
d Ononis, a comparison of this catalogue with others, particularly Otto
Struve's, Sir J. Herschel's, and Liapunoff's, the notes of Prot Bond ac-
oompanyinff the observations, his original observations on the physical
characteristics of the nebula, and a reprint, from the Proceedings of the
American Academy, of his paper on its spirality, together with two ap-
pendices, one relating to the observations of the elder Bond, and the
other to the errors of the equatorial as affecting the micrometrical rneas*
vrements. WiUi the discussions and explanatory notes of the editor,
this volume presents materials of inestimable value to future observers of
this nebula, and will contribute largely toward enabling them to settle
the various questions relating to changes of form and brightness in this
object, and to the variability of the stars in and near it. The latter
question is discussed to some extent in the present volume.

Astronomers will await with interest the results of the observations
on this and other nebula, which it is understood Prof. Safford is engaged
in making with the great 18^ inch refractor of the Dearborn Observatory
at Chicago, of which institution he is the Director.

HiB work of editing the volume before us was completed while he was
actinff director of the Cambridge Observatory, in the interval between
the death of Prof. Bond and the accession of the present incumbent,
Prof. Winlock.

2. The Chemical Newe^ and Journal of Physical Science. American
edition. New York, W. A. Townsend A Adams. July and August, 1867.
pp. 48 and 60. — ^The English edition of the Chemical News is well
known and justly appreciated in this country. When the republicatiott
of it in New York was announced, at a moderate subscription price, we
felt that the publishers were doing the cause of science a real service.
We have now before us the July and the August numbers. They
follow closely their English original, with the important exception that
the reprint, instead of appearing weekly, is issued monthly, having four
of the English weekly numbers in one. Moreover, instead of giving
the numbers consecutively and separately, the articles from each have
been rearranged under their respective heads. The July number con-
tains Nos. 387, 388, 389, 390, issued in London Maj^ 3, 10, 17 and 24;
the August number, Nos. 391, 392, 393, 394, 395, issued May 31, June
7, 14, 21, 28 ; making a difference in time of two months. Again the
partB issued are announced as Vol. I, Nos. 1 and 2, with no mention that
they are really a portion of Volume XV, beginning near its middle. It is
therefore quite impossible to tell in which of the weekly numbers, any
given article was printed ; and it is also impossible to find an article in
either edition, by a single reference to the other. A reprint should be
in every case an exact fac^simile of the original. The publishers stole
in a letter to the Editors of this Journal, that the preservation of the
English dates and paging wiH *' doubtless be hereafter introduced,*' and
«re hope that for the Mnefit of science it may be at once done.



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i



Miscellaneous Bibliography. 295

3. A Tnaiise on Astronomy, Spherical and Physical, with Astronom-
ical Problems, and Solar, Lunar, and other Astronomical tables, for the
use of Colleges and Scientific Schools ; by Wiluam A. Nortok, M.A.,
Pro£ of Civil E^neering in Yale College. Fourth edit, revised, re-
modelled and enlarged. 444 pp. text, with 114 pp. additional of tables,
and numerous wood-cuts. New York^ 1867 (John Wiley A Son). —
Professor Norton, as his title page and more fully his preface states, has
entirely remodelled his Astronomy, and adapted it thereby to the present
state of the science. The chapters on astronomical instruments, comets,
the physical constitution of the sun, zodiacal light, and others have been
rewritten, and the text generallv has been enlarged by the addition of
more extended descriptions of astronomical facts, and an account of
recent deductions with regard to the physical constitution of the heavenly
bodies, and brief expositions of physical theories bearing on the subject,
while the more difficult investigations of astronomical formulas occurring
in the text of the former edition, have been transferred to the appendix.
The work is an excellent college text book, and is rendered especially
convenient for the practical astronomer by the mathematical tables, 06
in number, with which it closes.

4. Elements of Chemistry^ Theoretical and Practical ; by Wiluam
Allen Millsr, M.D., LL.D., Treas. and V. President Roy. Soc, V. P.
Chem. Soc., etc. Part II, Inorganic Chemistry. From the dd London
edition. 806 pp., 8vo, with numerous wood-i^uts. New York, (John
Wiley dc Son). — Messrs. Wiley <fe Son are doing good service to American
science in the republication of the excellent work on Chemistry by Prof.
Miller. There is no better one in the English language. Professor
Miller has combined in his treatise the practical with the theoretical in a
way that renders it useful and popular beyond the limits of the ordinary
chemical class and lecture room. The volume is handsomely printed,
and well illustrated.

6. A Popular Treatise on Oems in reference to their scientific valuei,
a guide for the teacher of Natural Sciences, tlie Lapidary, Jeweller, and
Amateur, d:c. ; by Dr. L. Feuchtwanqer. 3d edit, 504 pp., 12mo.
New York, 1867. — Dr. Feuchtwanger's treatise on gems is a popular
work, containing much information of interest to science, the jeweller's
art, and the wearers of jewels. It is illustrated by numerous plates,
aome of them colored, and very naturally so.

6. Annual of the National Academy of Sciences for 1866. 154 pp.
12mo. — ^This volume contains an excellent biographical notice of James
Melville Gillis of the Washington Observatory, by B. A. Gould ; a second
of Benjamin Silliman, by A. Caswell ; and a third, not unexceptionable,
of Edward Hitchcock, by J. P. Lesley.

7. Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural History, Volume I, Part
II. — The following are the contents of this volume. — Page 131, Osteology
of the Colymbus torquatus, with notes on its myology, with a plate ; £.
Oouxs. — ^p. 173, Zoological relations of the first-discovered traces of Fossil
Neuropterous Insects in North America, with remarks on the difierence
of structure in the wings of living Neuroptera, witli a plate ; S. H.
ScuDDBR. — p. 193, On the parallelism between the different stages of
life in the individual and those in the entire group of the Molluscous



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296 Miscettaneous Bibliography .

order TetrabraDchiata ; A. Hyatt. — p. 210, On the glacial phenomena
of Labrador and Maine, with a view of the recent invertebrate Fauna of
Labrador; A. S. Packard.

8. TroMoctions of the American Entomoioffieal Society^ Vol. I, No. 1,
120 pp., 8vo, with two colored plates. Philadelphia. — TTiis first number
contains (1) Descriptions of American Lepidoptera No. 1, by A. R. Grots
and C. T. Kobinson ; (2) Catalogue of the described Tenthadinidse and
Urocerid» of N. America, by Edward Norton ; (3) Notes on the Pom-
pilida of N. America, with descriptions of New Species, by & T. Oresson.

PEOonDnios Ansa. Aoad. Abtb and Sol, Boston, 1866, Vol VIL~^99, On sn
improred apparatus for the determlDation of vapor densities ; 0, M, Warren^ — ^p.
108, Biographical notice of Jared Sparks. — p. 186, Comparative qualities of abet
and guns; x>. TteadweU,'^^ 148, Enumeration of Hawuian Plants; JET. Mamn.

Ahnals Lva Nat. Hist, of Nkw 7ork, Oct. Dec. 1866, Vol. YIII, Noa. 18, U.—
p. 861, Lepidopterological Gontribntioni ; A, R, Chrote d: O.T Robifuon, - ^ 887,
Notes on the nat. hist of the scorpion ; R, Hill, — p. 894, On some species of W. I.
maritime shells in the cabinet of Amherst College ; J7. JTr^ftt.— p. 899, On the clas-
sification of the Appredoros gibbosus of LeSueor, and Soolopsis sajanus of J. Gil-
Uams ; T, A, Telkatnpf—p, 400, Descriptions of six new species of birds of the
families Hurundinidn, FormicaridiB, Tyrannidie and Trochilida ; (7. If, Lawrence.

Prooibdings Esskx iMHTmm, Vol V, June, 1867. — p. 57, Fermeyer^s Researches,
ete^ on Silk from Spiders ; translated by B. G, Wilder, — p. 79, List of birds observed
near Hamilton, C. W.— Part II of Naturalist's Directoiy, North America and the
West Indies; Botany.

pROOBSDiMGS AoAD. Nat. Soi. OF Philaoslphia, 1867> No. 2— Pace SS, Struc-
ture of Lopezia; T. Meehaii — p. 84, Mammalogical notices; /. JET. SUtdt.—p. 89,
On Euclastes, a genus of extinct CheloniidsB ; B. D, Cope. — p. 42, Dicecious forms
of Yitis vinifera ; T, Meehan, — New spedes of Texan M yriapoda ; ff. C. Wood, —
p. 44, Two new minerals from Chester Co., Pa.; /. Lea, — p. 46, A third study of
the Icteridffi ; /. Cauin, — p. 76, Notes of Micropus leucopterus of Say C^The Ohmdi
Bug"), with an account of the great epidemic disease of 1866 among Insects; H,
Skimer.

PAOGiSDnros Boston Soa Nat. Hist., Vol. XI.-— P. 88, On a sculptured stone
from L. Utopia, N. Brunswick ; £, BicknelL-^p, 89, List of the Birds of StDomin-
go, with descriptions of some new species or varieties; ff, BryanL^fk 117, On
some Fossil insects from the Tertiary of Qreen river, Colorado; 8. H, Scudder.^
p. 118, On monstrosities observed in wings of Lepidopterous Insects, and how they
may be produced; L, TrouveloL-^p. 120, On a Fungoid parasite or Caterpilhur
Fungus, m>m the Philippine Islands; 8, Kneeland.'-'p, 126, Habits of Migratory
fishes; T.Lyman,

PaOOBIDINOS OF TBI EnTOMOLOOIOAL SoOIRT OW PHILADBLPHIA, Yol. VI, 1866-7.

—Page 1, Lepidopteroloncal notes. No. 2; GroU ds Robtneon.—pp. 81, 189, On
the Pselaphidw; JS. Brendel, — pp. 89, 868, Fossorial Hymenoptera of N. America;
A. 8, Packard,'-'^ 106. Prof. Dana and his Entomological speculations; B. 2>.
TTo/tA.— p. 122, Coloradian Butterflies; T, Reakirt - pp. 162, 886, New N. A. For-
micidn; S. B, Buekley.-^pp, 178, 287, On the Zygienidfie of Cuba; A, R. OroU, -
p. 196, On certain N. A. species of Satyrus; W, H. JEdwarde.—p. 200, On certain
Diurnal Lepidoptera of the U. S. and British Amer.« No. 6 ; W. If, Bdwardt,^
New species of Cbrysophanus ; //. Behr, — p. 209, On certain Entomological specu-
lations—a Review; A. S. Packard.— p. 219, Two new N. A. Gecidomyiffi; Oeteti
8aeken.^p. 221, Notes on Thyridopteryx epbemerseformis ; B, Glement.'^p, 228,
On the insects of the Galls of certain Willows; B. J). WaUh.-^pp, 289, 296, Hab-
its of a few Califomian Coleoptera ; on Usechus lacerta; on Rhadodera tnberculata;
and observations on Phodaga alticeps; G, IT, Horn,— p. 861, New species of Tri-
gonalys ; E. T. Cres8on. - p. 446, Description of new species of N. A. Brachycerous
Diptera; A,R. GroU,



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THE

AMERICAN

JOURML OF SCIENCE AND ARTS.

[SECOND SERIES.]



Art. XXXU,— Address of George Bentham, Esq., F.K.S.,
President^ read at the Anniversary meeting of the Linnean Society
on Friday, May 24, 1867.

In my address of 1865 I attempted a general sketch of the
more important Transactions of Scientific Societies or Scientific
Journals in which papers on Zoology or Botany are being pub-
lished, passing over, however, for want of time and space, tnose
in the English language, beyond a mere mention of their titles.
I have been since requested to resume tho subject, in so far as
the North American publications are concerned ; and I the more
readily avail myself of this opportunity of doing so, as there
are some points in regard to their proceedings on which it may
be useful to institute a comparison with those of European in-
stitutions. In this review, however, I meet with one difficulty ;



Online LibraryJohn AlmonThe American journal of science and arts → online text (page 85 of 102)