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BOUGHT WITH THE INCOME OF THE

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THE GIFT OF

licnrg W. Sage

1891

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CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY




3 1924 097 555 258




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tine Cornell University Library.

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http://www.archive.org/cletails/cu31924097555258



ENGLISH COLONIES
IN AMERICA



THE COLONIES UNDER THE
HOUSE OF HANOVER



ENGLISH COLONIES
IN AMERICA



By J. A. DOYLE. M.A.

FELLOW OF ALL SOULS' COLLEGE, OXFORD

8vo. $3.50 per volume



VOL. I.— VIRGINIA, MARYLAND,
AND THE CAROLINAS.

VOL. II.— THE PURITAN COLO-
NIES, VOL. I

VOL. III.— THE PURITAN COLO-
NIES, VOL. II.

VOL. IV.— THE MIDDLE COLO-
NIES.

VOL. v.— THE COLONIES UNDER
THE HOUSE OF HANO VER.



HENRY HOLT AND COMPANY

Publishers New York




THE WAR WITH FRANCE



1755 - 1759

English. Miles



50 100



GEORGE PHFLIP & SON U?



THE LONOON GEOCRAPhiCflt 'HSHTtTE



'■ *J**rri?^r'- ■ j-T.L T^: ■ .



'



ENGLISH COLONIES
IN AMERICA

VOLUME V.

THE COLONIES UNDER THE HOUSE
OF HANO VER



BY

J. A. DOYLE, M.A.

fellow of all souls' college, oxfokd

authob of "vieginla, maryland, and the oabolinas,"
"the puritan colonies," etc.




NEW YORK
HENRY HOLT AND COMPANY

1907

ft



l35^(.8o



Copyright, 1907,

BY
HENRY HOLT AND COMPANY

Published January^ iqoy



THE QUINN-BOOEN COMPANY PRESS
RAHWAY, N, J.



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.

THE GENERAL CONDITION OF THE COLONIES AT THE ACCESSION OF THE
HOUSE OF HANOVER.

PAGE

Characteristics of the new epoch ...... i

Hostility to France creates the need for colonial unity

Unity arising out of administrative conditions .

Material condition of the colonies ...... 3

Maine ... .3

New Hampshire ... 3

Massachusetts ..... . 5

Outward appearance of Boston . . . .5

Social life at Boston ... . . .7

Amusements .... . . ' . 10

Economical development of New England 11

Expenditure on public purposes ... 13

Relations between town and country . . . 13

The town meeting ... 15

The smaller towns .... 16

Agriculture .... 17

Journey from Boston to Newport 17

Rhode Island .... 18

Connecticut ...... 20

Attempts at textile manufacture in New England . ■ 21

Population of New England . . -23

Long Island ... . 23

The middle colonies . . . 23

Nationalities in New York . 24

Aspect of New York city . 25

Commerce of New York 25

Social and industrial life 26

Village communities 28

The Hudson . . 30

New Jersey . . 30

Philadelphia .... 31

Population of the Middle colonies 32

Character of the Southern colonies . . -32



VI



CONTENTS.



Want of towns ...... • • 33

Differences between Maryland and Virginia . . . . yj

Slavery .... .... 38

Population ... -39

Colonel William Byrd . .... 39

North Carolina ....... 42

South Carolina . . ... 46

Population of the whole body of colonies . . 48

No sense of unity ......... 48

Obstacles to union . . ... 52

Livingstone's scheme of three provinces . . S3

Boundary disputes ......... S3

Dispute between Massachusetts and Connecticut . 54

James II.'s grants .... SS

Dispute between Maryland and Pennsylvania 56

Effect of James II.'s policy ....... 65

Commercial disputes between Virginia and the Carolinas . . 68

Differences of currency . . .... 68

Military dangers of disunion . 69

Virginia and North Carolina .... 70

Virginia and South Carolina 72

Difficulties about piracy . ..... 74

Schemes for colonial union .... 74

Improved communication . . • • • 75



CHAPTER II.



ADMINISTRATIVE DEVELOPMENT.

General character of the subject

Distribution of political forces

Need of a colonial department .

The colonial agent

Subjects of dispute

Fees and salaries

Fees in Maryland

In North Carolina .

Dispute about Governor's salary in Massachusetts

Appointment of Burnet ....

Dispute about a iixed salary ....

Anticipation of the Stamp Act dispute

Disputes about appointment of Attorney-General

Death of Burnet . . . .

Appointment of Belcher

Dispute continues ......



17
79
81
81
83
84
84
8S
86
88
89
93
94
.94
95
95



CONTENTS.



VH



Action of town meeting .

Importance of dispute

Disputes over Governor's salary in New York

Dispute over paper money

Lack of specie

Evils of paper money

Paper money in New Hampshire

Paper money in Massachusetts

Action of Shute

Deplorable state of finances

Action of Belcher

Scheme for a land bank .

Paper money in New Jersey

Absence of paper money in New York and Virginia

Paper money in North Carolina

In Maryland

In Pennsylvania

In Rhode Island

Action of Parliament

Restrictions on trade

The Navigation Acts

The Molasses Act

Smuggling

Nicholson's report .

Other evidence

Restrictions on productive industry

Colonial Governors

Appointment of judges

Bradley's report

Cosby in New York

The Zenger trial

Parties in New Jersey

Territorial disputes ....

Anarchy in New Jersey

Disaffection in Pennsylvania

In North Carolina .

Dispute about electoral districts

Johnstone's difficulties

Quarrel between the counties .

The dispute about electoral districts renewed

Memorandum presented by Stanhope

Views of the Board of Trade in 172 1

Bladen's proposals .

Keith's discourse

Clinton on a Stamp Act



PAGE

96

96

97

98

98

99

100

100

102

103

104

los

los

108

108

109

no

112
114

IIS
116
116
. 118
. 118
119-20
. 122
126
126
127
129
130
133
134
136
137
138
141
142
143
14s
145
147
148

iSi

152



vill CONTENTS.

CHAPTER III.

ECONOMICAL PROGRES

PAGE

General character of progress made .... 153.

Increase of population . . . . . 153-

Economical condition of Massachusetts . 154

The other New England colonies • iS7

New York ..... iS7

Economical and social condition of the Southern colonies 158

Charlestown ... . 160

Production of rice and indigo . 161

Roads in the south . . . 162

Extension westward . 162

Irish Presbyterians in Virginia . . 163

Westward extension in South Carolina . . 164

The cowpens . . ... 165.



CHAPTER IV.

RELIGION IN THE COLONIES.

Religion in New England during the seventeenth century . 166

In the Middle and Southern colonies . 167

Change from the seventeenth to the eighteenth century 167

Change in the position of Massachusetts and Connecticut 169

Foundation of Yale College . . . . 170

Ecclesiastical changes in Connecticut . . 171

Episcopalians in Connecticut . . 172

The Saybrook platform . . . 172

Secession from Independency to Episcopacy . 173

Concurrent endowment . . 174

Narrow attitude of Episcopalians 174

Episcopalians in Massachusetts 176

The Harvard dispute ... . 177

Concession to Episcopalians in Massachusetts 180

Jonathan Edwards . 180

Whitefield in America 181

Dispute with Garden 183

Whitefield in the Middle colonies . 186

In Massachusetts . . 187

In Connecticut . . . 18S

Gilbert Tennant . 189-
James Davenport . . ... 189

Repressive measures in Connecticut , . . . igo



CONTENTS. IX

PAGE

Attitude of the authorities at Yale College .... 190

Davenport excluded from the churches in Massachusetts . . 191

The "New Lights" and their opponents . . . 192.

Whitefield and his followers opposed to learning . . . 193.
Episcopacy profits by the movement . ... 193

Religion in New York . . . . 194

Talbot and Welton in New Jersey . . 19S-6

Episcopalianism in New Jersey ... . . 197

The Church and the Welsh settlers . . 198

Religious condition of Maryland and Virginia . . . 198

Difficulties about stipend in Maryland . . . . 203

In Virginia ... . 205

State of religion in North Carolina . . 205

The Church in South Carolina ... . 206

Influence of Whitefield in Virginia . 20S

Progress of Nonconformity in Virginia . . . 209

Samuel Davies' letter to the Bishop of London . 211

Lack of any central system of Anglican Church government 212

Episcopal jurisdiction in the colonies . . . 213

Opposition to an episcopate in the colonies . 216

Seeker's sermon . . . 217

Opposition by the Whig Ministry . 219

Bishop Butler ... . . 220

Attitude of Sherlock . . ... . 220-



CHAPTER V.

LITERARY AND INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE COLONIES.

Change from the seventeenth to the eighteenth century 222

New England . . . . . . 222

The New York writers . . . 224

Cadwallader Colden . . . . . 225

The Virginian writers, Beverley and Stith . 225

Thomas Godfrey .... . 227

Colonial journalism 228

The Boston newspapers . . 228

Battle between the government and the Courant 228

Benjamin Franklin and the Courant 230

Journalism in other colonies ... . 232

The magazine in the colonies . ... 233

The Almanac . . 234

Natural science in the colonies . . 235

Education in New England ....... 236



CONTENTS.



Harvard and Yale

Influence of the New England colleges
Ezra Stiles ......

Scheme for a college in Maryland
Colleges in New Jersey and Pennsylvania



PAGE

237
238

239
240

241



CHAPTER VI.

THE COLONISTS AND THE INFERIOR RACES.

Slavery in the colonies ...... . 243

Legislation about the negro in New England . . 244

The negro in New York . . . 246-7

The negro terror of 1741 . . 247

The negro in Pennsylvania . . 248

The negro in New Jersey . 249

The negro in the Southern States . . 249-50

The negro in Virginia . 250-2

Increase of sense of race distinction . 251

The negro in North Carolina 252

The negro in South Carolina . . 253

Negro insurrection .... . 254

Sexual relations between white and black 255-6

Moral aspect of slavery . . . 256-7

Neau's negro school .... . 258

Negro conversions in the South . . 259

Bishop Gibson's letters . . . 260

Import duty on negroes in South Carolina . . 261

Postlethwayte's pamphlet . 262

The settlers and the Indians . . 264

Changes among the Indian tribes . . . 265

Relations of New England to the Indians . 266

The Iroquois and the English . . . 266

New England and the French Indians . . 267

Sebastian Rasle ... . . 269

Conference at Georgetown ..... . 269

Protestant mission . . . 270

French intrigues with Indians . ... 270

Massachusetts and the Indians . . 271

Dispute between the Governor and the Assembly 271

Second conference at Georgetown . 272

Policy of Vaudreuil . . . 273

Expedition against Norridgewock .... 273

Further dispute between Shute and the Assembly . . 274



CONTENTS.



Reception of Iroquois chiefs at Boston

Shute's departure

Destruction of Norridgewock

Death of Rasle

Embassy from Boston to Canada

Further trouble with Indians

Lovewell's fight

The Middle colonies and the Indians

Importance of New York on the Indian question

English and French trade with the Indians

Merchants' petition in 1722

Report of the New York Council

Colden's memorial .

Burnet's Indian policy

French retaliation

Burnet's difficulties with the Assembly

Reversal of Burnet's policy

Pennsylvania and the Indians .

Keith and the Indians

Gordon and the Indians .

John Penn .....

Thomas and the Indians

The conference of 1742

The conference of 1743

Spotswood's dealings with the Indians

Dealings of Virginia with the Five Nations

Sir Alexander Cuming

General attitude of the colonists to the Indians

Lack of missionary zeal

The Moravian mission



27s
27s
276
276
277
277
277
279
281
282
283
283
284
28s
286
285
287
287
289
291
291
291
292
294
297
298
299
301
302
304



CHAPTER VII.



THE ETHNOLOGY OF THE COLONIES.



Influence of religious persecution

Welsh emigration into Pennsylvania and Delaware

Welsh in South Carolina

Celtic Irish to the colonies

Migration from Ulster . . . •

Ulster settlers in New England

In the Middle colonies ...

Quakers in Ireland

Quaker emigration from Ireland



30s
30s
306
307
207
308

312

312
313



Xll CONTENTS.

PAGE

Migration of Ulster Presbyterians . . . 314

Economical causes for emigration from Ulster . 314

Movements from Pennsylvania to the south-west . 315

Scotch settlers . . . 316

Huguenots in the colonies . y&

Germans in the Southern colonies . . 320

Swiss in South Carolina ■ 320

Germans in Pennsylvania . 321



CHAPTER Vni.

THE COLONIZATION OF GEORGIA.

The original conception of British colonization . . 322-

Contrast between the ideal and the real . 323

The settlement of Georgia . . 324

James Oglethorpe ... . . 325

His colonial policy 326

Sir Robert Montgomery's project 328

Inception of Oglethorpe's scheme . 330

Special interest of the history of Georgia 331

Details of the scheme . . . . . 333

Selection of emigrants 335

Arrival of the colonists 336

Settlement at Savannah . 336

Prosperous beginnings 337

Dealings with the natives 338

Oglethorpe visits Charlestown 339

Provision for the defense of Georgia . 339

Introduction of the Salzburgers 340

Oglethorpe returns to England . 341

The Highlanders in Georgia 343

Extension of the colony . 344

Organization of the colony 346

Discontent among the settlers 347

The Wesleys in Georgia . 348

The Salzburgers discontented . 350

Danger of Spanish invasion . . 351

DiflSculties with the Indians . -351

Oglethorpe's measures of defense . 352

Threatening attitude of the Spaniards . 353

A Spanish embassy at Frederica . . 355

Difficulties with the Carolina traders 358

Measures for the defense of Georgia . 360



CONTENTS. xiii

PAGE

Changes m the regulations 361

Demand for negroes . . . . . 361-2

John Wesley ... .,5,

Spanish intrigues . . ,60

Economical and administrative difficulties . . 369

Dismissal of Causton . ... -371

The soldiers mutiny . . 372

Dealings with the Indians . . ■ ■ ■ ZTi

Measures of defense against the Spaniards . 376

Negotiations with South Carolina . . . 377

Oglethorpe attacks the Spaniards . . -377

Further negotiations with South Carolina 378

Invasion of Florida . . . . . 379

Causes of Oglethorpe's failure . 382

Discontent at Savannah . . 383

Attacks on Oglethorpe . . 384

Whitefield in Georgia . 385

The orphanage . . 388

Whitefield advocates negro slavery . . . . 390

Difference between French and Spanish aggression . . 390
The southern Indians and the Five Nations .... 392

Oglethorpe and the Home Government . . . 392

Oglethorpe's military policy . . . 393

The Spanish invasion . . . 395

The Spanish defeat ... . . 396

Oglethorpe's counter-attack . . 398

Supineness of the British Government . 399

Oglethorpe's financial difficulties . 401

His work as a whole . 402

Introduction of slavery . 403

Thomas Bosomworth . . . 404

The new constitution . . 404

John Reynolds and his successors . . . 405



CHAPTER IX.

THE CONQUEST OF CANADA



How far it forms a part of colonial history

Part taken by the colonists

The Spanish war of 1740

Action of Pennsylvania .

Scheme for an attack on Louisburg

Governor Shirley ...



406
408
408
409
410
410



CONTENTS.



The Assembly consulted

Attack decided on . .

Preparations for attack

The command given to Pepperell

Naval help from England

The landing

Capture of the Vigilant

Feeble resistance by the garrison

The surrender

General effect of the conquest

Louisburg restored to France

Attack on Acadia thwarted

Warlike policy of Clarke and Clinton

Projected invasion of Canada

Dilatory policy of the British Government

Clinton thwarted by the people of New York

French naval attack expected .

Deaths of Danville and Destournel

Impressment of seamen at Boston

The Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle

Struggle for the Ohio valley

William Johnson ...

Change of attitude of the English colonies

Pennsylvania

Maryland

Virginia

Governor Dinwiddle

Washington's first mission

The Ohio Company

Supineness of Pennsylvania

Washington reaches Fort le Bceuf

Dinwiddie and the pistole fee

Dinwiddle's military policy

Fight at Great Meadows .

Camp at Great Meadows

The camp attacked by the French

Washington surrenders

Effect on the Indians

Prompt action by Dinwiddie

The Albany conference

Franklin's scheme for colonial union

Scheme of the British Government

Dinwiddie endeavors to secure joint action

Action of Pennsylvania .

Governor Glen ....



PAGE

411
412

413
414

415
416

417
417
417
418
418

419
419
421
421
422
422
423
423
426
426
426
427
427
428
428
429
430
430
431
432
433
434
435
437
437
438
438
439
439
440
441
442
443
443



CONTENTS.



XV



Shirley's letters . . ...


444


General Braddock . . . .


444-S


Council of war at Alexandria .


446


British forces insufficient


446


Braddock' s advance


448


The French and the Indians


450


The battle ... . .


451


Consequences of defeat


452


How far blame attached to Braddock


453


Dinwiddle's energy


454


Dunbar's retreat


455


Washington's conduct . . . .


455


Factious attitude of the Pennsylvanian Assembly


456


Obstinacy of the Assembly


457


Franklin's pamphlet ...


458


Operations on the New York frontier


460


Battle of Lake George ....


460


Results of the battle . . ...


462


Eviction of the Acadians


462


Shirley's plans for 1756 ....


463


Militia law in Pennsylvania


463


The Dagworthy dispute .... . .


464


War declared . ....


465


The campaign of 1756


465


Relief of Oswego ...


466


Fall of Oswego . . ...


466


Precedence of regular over colonial officers


467


Rogers and the American irregulars


468


Dispute in Pennsylvania about a money grant .


469


Pennsylvania and the embargo ....


469


The billeting question . . ...


470


Fall of Fort William Henry


470


The massacre


471


Feeling between colonists and British


472


Lord Howe


473


His death


474


British defeat at Ticonderoga


474


Colonial successes . ....


475


Capture of Louisburg


475


Forbes in the west .... ...


477


Dispute with Washington ....


477-8


Forbes and the Indians


479


Christian Post . ....


479


Capture of Quebec


480



XVI CONTENTS.

PAGE

Appendix I. (p. 23). The population of the colonies . . 483

Appendix II. (p. 138). . 48S

Appendix III. (p. 183). Whitefield and Garden . 485

Appendix IV. (p. 299). Sir Alexander Cuming . . 485

Appendix V. (p. 385). Attitude of the Highlanders in Georgia

towards slavery ......... 486

Appendix VI. (p. 406). Numbers of provincials and regulars

respectively employed against Canada . ... 486

Index . . ... 489

MAP
To illustrate the War with France . To face title page



THE COLONIES
UNDER THE HOUSE OF HANOVER.



CHAPTER I.



THE GENERAL CONDITION OF THE COLONIES AT THE
ACCESSION OF THE HOUSE OF HANOVER.

As was said at the end of the work which precedes this, the
accession of George I. forms a convenient landmark in colonial
Character- history. The more closely one studies history the
■the'new more fully is the conviction borne in on one that all
■epoch. 1 divisions into epochs and the like have in their na-

ture something arbitrary. Communities do not undergo sudden
changes any more than individuals do. As soon as minute in-
quiry begins, vestiges of the past, anticipations of the future,
meet one at every turn. Yet with the community, as with the
individual, the predominance of certain leading characteristics
at successive stages of growth gives enough distinctness to serve
as a basis for a convenient, though not a scientific, arrangement
■of facts. Speaking roughly, we may say that for the whole
body of English-speaking colonies on the Atlantic the end of the
•seventeenth century was the point at which the era of forma-
tion ended and the era of fruition and repose began.

Those colonies, which had been invested with forms repre-
■senting the views and wishes of individual thinkers," in the main
had worked themselves free from the limitations of their origin,
and had, in true English fashion, shaped for themselves con-
ditions not without compromise, at times illogical and defiant
of system, yet in practical conformity with the needs of the

1 The material for this chapter is so scattered that it is impossible to give
*l comprehensive summary of it. As will be seen, I have relied largely on the
various collections of printed records. On its own subject Mr. Weeden's
Economical and Social History of New England is a most valuable guide.

' E.g. Maryland and Pennsylvania.



2 THE GENERAL CONDITION OF THE COLONIES.

community. Each colony had been, half through conscious imi-
tation, half through instinct, putting on the recognized political,
forms of the parent country, each had in the process been ac-
quiring a vague and imperfect sense of sisterhood.

There was another change which had its root in the Revolu-
tion of 1688, but which only made its full force felt as the
Hostility eighteenth century advanced. Hostility between
creates the England and France had become a fixed and abiding
coilfniaf Condition in the political situation. The danger no^
unity. longer lay in isolated bands of marauding savages, ia

the pay of some exceptionally enterprising French Governor.
More and more, as the eighteenth century advanced, did it be-
come clear that it was a case of internecine strife, that the inevi-
table necessity for expansion made it impossible for England and
France to coexist in North America as equal Powers. And thus,,
avoid it as they would, the problem of combined resistance was
forced upon the colonists. It is hardly too much to say that the
need under which every colonial Governor lay, for calling forth
and organizing the resources of his colony for common defense,,
gave to colonial administration its one thread of unity.

The creation of these two conditions — similarity of political
machinery, unity of political purpose — brings with it a marked
Unity change in the character of colonial history. During

arising out ° j ^>

ofadminis- the Seventeenth century the main interest lies in the
conditions, internal history of each colony, the influences in all
cases of industrial conditions, in most cases of religion —
in one case, that of New York, of race — in developing
special modes of life and types of character. Such men
as Williams, Winthrop, and Penn not only interest us as.
offering problems in character, they concern us both as creating,
and embodying the tendencies of the communities to which they
belonged. But in the eighteenth century the main interest is
not internal but external. External pressure, exercised by the
mother country, becomes the main factor in colonial history,
and is met in some cases by persistent and unintelligent resist-
ance, in other cases by co-operation, occasionally strenuous, more
often carefully qualified and fenced in by conditions.

The result is an entire and important change in our point of
view. Henceforth we can regard the colonies as an organic
whole forming part of one administrative system. It is true



MATERIAL CONDITION OF THE COLONIES. 3

that this view needs much modification when we apply it in
practice. The unity which the attitude of the mother country
was forcing upon the colonies was but inchoate, and had but a
potential existence. It was a unity imperfectly perceived and
little desired by the colonies themselves. Pre-existent con-
ditions of diversity are still perpetually asserting themselves.
These diversities not only affect the internal life of each colony.
They also affect the administrative relations of the mother
country to her American dependencies. In some matters we
can deal with the colonies collectively or at least in groups. But
when we come to administrative disputes we still have to keep
the separate threads of colonial history distinct. The political
history of the colonies may be largely dealt with as made up of
successive administrative episodes, most of them conflicts, with a
common origin of principle, between the representatives of local
interests and the central authority.

Those conflicts turned largely on material issues. It may be
well, therefore, at the outset to have before one a clear view of
Material the external framework in which the life of the colo-
condmon j^j^g ^^^ ^^j.^ j^gj. ^^ picture to ourselves the suc-
coionies. cessive scenes which would have come before a
traveler who in or about 1720 was making his way from the
northern extremity of Maine to the further boundary of South
Carolina.

Along the coast of Maine he would be constantly confronted



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