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sured as unmilitary, and the responsibility of its
failure thrown upon the former ; even the glo-
rious final success on the Thames, which won
him the Presidential Chair in 1840. General
Cullum ascribes to the pusillai imity, inefficiency
and blunders of Proctor. Wood fell later in
the campaifi^ while gallantly leading a column
in a sortie from Fort Erie.

With the Eastern campaign of 18 13 there is
a sketch of Brigadier-General Joseph G. Swift,
in which the operations of the army of the center
and right are described; and m succeeding
chapters the campaign of 18 14, the siege and
defence of Lake Erie, the Chesapeake and
Louisiana Campaign, all of which the student of
military strategy may study to advantage. Sim-
ple maps greaUy aid in the understanding of the
author's theories and criticisms. To his military
peers General Cullum must look for adequate
appreciation of his criticisms. But the general
reader will be amply rewarded by a careful
study of its pages. There is no higher authority
than their writer.

LIFE, LETTERS AND JOURNALS OF

George Ticknor. Ninth edition, a vols.

Svo, pp. 524 — 533. James R. Osgood & Co.

Boston, 1878.

The interest of these volumes is sufficiently
shown by the striking fact that, although they
were only first given to the public in the early
part of 1876, the ninth edition has already been
reached, while the English demand has been
supplied by a separate issue, printed at London.
They were greeted with pleasure on the Conti-
nent, as well as in England, and were the occa-
sion of numerous critical reviews, which united
in praise of the charm of the autobiography
and writings of the genial, accomplished and
scholarly gentleman, whose experiences in the
life of letters they faithfully record, and of sat-
isfaction with the frank, not unfriendly character
of his criticisms of the phases of European so-
ciety which opened to his close vision. In our
August number (I., 550) attention was particu-
larly called to the admirable reviews of the
London edition, which came out consecutively
in the April and May numbers of the Revue des
deux Mondes, in which Mr. R. Blerzy, under the
title of Les M^moires d'un Humaniste Am^ri-
cain, recited Mr. Ticknor's youth and early
travels ; Eu "ope, from 1835 to 1838 (as seen by
him) ; and the old age of a Federalist. These
pages give an independent judgment, from the
European point of view, of this distinguished
gentleman, whose name will be more surdy



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perpetuated by these admirable volumes than
even by the classical and exhaustive history of
Spanish literature, which makes him familiar to
all lovers of belles lettres.

The first ten chapters of the memoirs are
from the pen of Mr. George S. Hillard, and
the form and proportions of the work are of his
casting, but his illness led to the assumption of
the task by Mrs. Ticknor and Miss Anna
Ticknor, his eldest daughter. How truthfully,
yet modestly, the pious duty has been performed,
the public taste, that final and only true arbiter,
has already pronounced. The purpose of his
life is shown to have been in thorough accord
with the fundamental principle of the ancient
philosophic schools — the acquisition of knowl-
edge in order to impart it ; the subordination of
even personal gratification of the highest ex-
cellence to that of greatest usefulness.

To the student the account of his University
life at Gdttingen, and the admirable manner xn
which he found time to mingle in the society of
the most celebrated persons, travel somewhat,
yet pursue a broad line of studies, and
amass copious notes for future use, will prove of
exceptional interest ; while the general reader
will enjoy the tender simplicity of his familiar
correspondence, and his keen appreciation of
men and things, at one of the most interesting
stages of the panorama of the century. In the
course of his long career he made the personal
acquaintance of many of the celebrities of Eng-
land and the Continent. Before he went abroad
he had at twenty-three been complimented with
the seat of honor at the table of President Mad-
ison. In England he was the familiar guest of
Roscoe, Sir Humphrey Davy, Byron, GiflFord,
Campbell and the publisher Murray. In Ger-
many he was the intimate of Blumenbach, and
Wolf, ' the corypheus of German philologists/
and the first Greek scholar of his day. In his
Journal of this' period he gives an account of
his visit to Goetne, which is striking in its nat-
uralness. It was at this time, i8i6, that he
was offered the Professorship of French and
Spanish literature at Harvard, which he ac-
cepted, and after three years of careful prepara-
tion entered upon its duties on the loth August,
1 8 19. Before his return, however, his travels
and studies led him through France, Italy and
Spain, and his journal, which records inter-
views with Schlegel, Madame de Stael, Hum-
boldt, Pozzo di Borgo, the * evil star of the First
Napoleon,' Chateaubriand, and Lafayette, whom
he visited at Chateau La Grange. In Rome he
was presented to Pope Pius VII., for whom he
had the highest respect, because of his resist-
ance to "the Bonaparte/' whom he hated with
the ardor of a true Federalist. Here also he met
Bnnsen and Niebuhr, who * ' filled him with ad-
miration and astonishment" by his immense
leaming and memory.



The beauties of Southern Spain give occtr
sion for descriptions of scenery and architecture,
which are exquisite gems of precision and nice
discrimination of language. Here he drew
large draughts of inspiration for his future task.
On his way north to take his leave of Europe he
met Talle3rrand in Paris, and records an inter-
esting conversation, in which Washington, Ham-
ilton and Burr were mentioned. In London he
saw Lords Holland, Brougham and Mackintosh;
in Scotland, Scott, Southey and Wordsworth.
On his return to America he was twenty-eight
years of age. He immediately devoted himself
to his duties, and upon the collection and ar-
rangement of his library, which became not
only a famous factor in American literature, but
the familiar resort of men of letters of both
continents. For fifteen years he continued his
active life as a professor, when, partly dissatis-
fied with the narrow management of Harvard,
and immediately urged by the ill health of his
daughter, the admirable lady whose inherited
taste and culture are shown in these volumes, he
resigned his charge, and again visited Europe.

The record of his second voyage is as delight-
ful as that of the first. It is more interesting,
as presenting the change which had taken place
in the European world between Waterloo and
the days of July. The restoration had disap-
peared. The King of the French sat on the
throne of the King of France. After fifteen
years of reaction the Revolution had resumed its
sway, and France had moved one step forward
towards the freedom asserted in 1789. After
nearly two years* absence, Mr. Ticknor returned
in 1838 to the United States.

Great as were his services as an instructor, it
was well that he resigned his professorship. Free
from other engagements, he now set resolutely
to work at his History of Spanish Literature, in
which he had the advice of Prescott and the aid
of Irving, who, as minister at Madrid, gave him
peculiar facilities. The work appeared simul-
taneously in London and New York, in 1849,
and passed through four editions. A Spani^
foundation was made and the work received with
unqualified praise. It secured him a not un-
eoual place in the triumvirate, Irving, Prescott,
Ticknor, which has made, in styles as different
as they are felicitous, the history and literature
of Spain familiar themes to English ears. Later
in life Mr. Ticknor took great interest in the
Boston Public Library, which he determined to
make a free library. He made to it extensive
gifts of special collections of books and devoted
fourteen years to its service, during which he
made a third visit to Europe on its business. He
again found a new order of things; Napoleon the
Third was on the throne he had ** surprised," but
of this there is small mention. He returned to
America from this liis last visit in 1857. The
next year he lost his dearest and most congenial



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friend in Presoott, whose life he wrote. The
•clearness of his perception was shown by his
foresight as to the resnlts of secession. He saw
that nothing but war was possible after Sumter,
and foreseen the result of the war. Beyond the
war he saw nothing but " the blackness of thick
<iarkness resting on the South/' but he spared no
effort, personal or public, to mitigate the fury of
popular passion. To the close of his life he re-
tained his interest in letters and literary men,
and died with contentment and cheerfulness on
the 26th of January, 1871, ii his eighty-first year.
His Spanish and Portuguese works he left by
will to the Boston Public Library.

EARLY CHAPTERS OF CAYUGA HIS-
TORY. Jesuit Missions in Goi-o-Gousn,
1656-1684. Also an account of the Sulpitian
missions among the emigrant Cayugas about
Quinte Bay in 1668. By Charles Hawley,
with an introduction by John Gilmary Shea.
8yo,pp. 106. IvisoN & Perry, Auburn, N.
Y., 1879.

Mr. Hawley, the accomplished president of
the Cayuga Historical Society, recites the con-
tents of this pamphlet to be substantially as fol-
lows : Such extracts were made from the Re^
lotions of the Jesuit fathers as described their
labors among the Cayugas, whose Canton,
known to the French as Goi-o-Gouen, lay largely
within the present county of Cayuga. Transla-
tions of these extracts were made, which first ap-
peared in a series of articles in the Auburn
Daily Advertiser; the history of the mis-
sion being carried to 1672, which was as far as
the Relations accessible to Mr. Hawley extended.
These articles were collected in a pamphlet.

A second rolume was then unoertaken with
co-operation of Dr. John Gilmary Shea, whose
funiliarity with the entire range of subject is
well known. From the material in his posses-
sion translations were made, and the history of
the Cayuga mission carried down to its close.
The proof sheets of the entire work have had
hisintelligent supervision, and the introduction is
from his pen. The work is prefaced by a chart pre-
pared 1^ Gen. John S. Clark, showing the location
of the Iroquois Five Nations and mission sites,
1656-1684, and numerous notes have been con-
tributed by this eentleman, who is an enthusias-
tic investigator ot the archseologic remains of this
peculiarly interesting section of our country.

The introduction of Mr. Shea supplies a yidna^
ble bibliographical account of the Relations them-
selves. These Relations, so often quoted, are
almost the only original deposits of information
concerning the Jesuit missions which were apart
of the French scheme of American civilization
and empire. They form a series of small vol-



umes issned in Ffince from X632 to 1672, on the
annual arrival at her ports of the ships from
Canada with American produce and the report
of the Superior of the missions. They were
cheaply printed, in some cases in several editions,
and widely circulated. They led to the estab-
lishments m Canada of the Sulpitians, the Ursu-
line and Hospital nuns. A strong opposition
arising to the Jesuits, with Count de Frontenac
atits nead, the Recollects were introduced to
replace the Jesuits, and Indian missions under
Sulpitians and secular priests encouraged.

The Jesuit Relations thus dropped out of sight
and were almost unknown except from the use
made of them by Du Creux or Charlevoix.
With the foundation of American libraries, the
Relations found their way to notice. Ban-
croft and Murray first drew attention to them.
Of one volume a single copy only was known.
It was secured by Faribault fon the Parliament.
Library in Quebec, but destroyed with the col-
lection by a mob. Fortunately Mr. James
Lenox had caused an accurate transcript to be
made of it, from which it was reprinted with
two others, the most rare in the series. A bibli-
ographical account of the whole collection was
prepared by Dr. O'Callaghan, and printed in the
Proceedings of the New York Historical Society.
Since then the Canadian government has re*
printed the whole series in three volumes,
accessible to all.

This is the pioneer attempt to determine ac-
curately, with careful maps, the precise sites of
the missions. All honor to Cayuga for leading
the way in this important work.

The first of the chapters, entitled Jesuit Mis-
sions among the Cayugas, begins with an ac-
count of the first effort made to reach the
Iroquois by a mission in 1656. It originated
apparently in a plot laid by the Iroquois in 1653
to induce the Hurons, whom they subdued and
drew in to their protection from the French, to
make common cause with them. Nevertheless
it was resolved to accept the proposal of the
Iroquois to send a mission to them, and Father
Le Morne, a veteran Huron missionary, was
despatched to Onondaga in 1654. He was warmly
and hospitably received. In 1655 others fol-
lowed, and in 1656, although treachery was
feared, two sloops left Quebec for Onondaga
widi the mission on board, which was confided
to the care of Father Ren^ Menard, whose
Relation makes the second chapter.

In the third is an account of the escape of the
fifty-three colonists from the fortified house in
Lake Ganentaa, and their safe arrival at Mon-
treal. This mission was not reestablished
until 1669, when it was successfully undertaken
by Father de Carheil at the instance of Gara-
contie, the Chief of the Ononda^^as. The Ca-
yuga mission was specially patronized by Saon-
chiogwa, the Chief of the Cantons, who wu



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second only in inflaence to Garacentie among the
Iroquois. The letters of Carheil are full of
details. He was delighted with Cayuga, less
pleased with the Mohawk Valley. Oneida and
Onondaga, as well as Seneca, he found little
adapted for the chase, but more than a thousand
deer were killed every year near Cayuga.

The Relation bears testimony on every page
to the earnest zeal of the Jesuits ; their eager
desire to save souls ; their ambition to be sacri-
ficed as martyrs. Curiously but naturally
enough, their persistence in baptism of the
moribund savages led to the belief that they
were the occasion of death, which had often
serious consequences.

The extraordinary powers and conversation
of the great Huron chief, the Rat, who alone
was a match for Frontenac in wit and repartee,
are alluded to.

The next division relates the history of the
Sulpitian mission at Quinte Bay from Dollier
de Casson's History of Montreal, first published
by the Montreal Historical Society in 1869, and
translated by Dr. Shea for the present work.
The mission was organized in 1668. The Jesuits
were replaced at Kente by the Sulpitians in 1675.

THE FRENCH REVOLUTIONARY
Epoch. Being a history of France from the
beginning of the first French revolution to
the end of the second empire. By Henri
Van Laun. 2 vols., 8vo, pp., 503-554. D.
Applbton & Co., New York, 1879.
In these volumes Mr. Van Laun, who is well
known to the English reading public as the
translator of Taine's masterful History of Eng-
lish Literature, presents a concise account of the
most eventful period in the history of France, a
period which includes the rise and fall of two re-
publics and two monarchies, one absolute, the
other constitutional, and of two empires, leaving
the govemmentin 1878 in the hands to which it
passed in 1789 — the hands of the people. The
writer does not claim to have made original in-
vestigation. He relies chiefly on the Histoire des
Fran9ais, by M. M. Lavallee and Loch, the his-
toric sketches of de Goncourt and Quinet, the
works of Carlyle, the introduction being drawn
from the original and admirable work of Taine
on the Ancien Regime.

The suggestive titles of the books of the first
volume arc. The Gathering of the Storm, The
Republic, The Directory, and The Consulate.
The style is the energetic style of which Carlyle
set the example. The paragraphs are pictures,
the sentences bmsh-dashes, strong in color and
crisp in form. In his chapter on the Con-
sulate the course of Bonaparte is treated with
fairness, the difficulties of his position are ex-
plained, and the gradual evolution of the first



empire, as a logical sequence of the political c
dition of France, divided at home and threat-
ened from withoutas explained. Here for the first
time we find the admission that the imperial-
ism of Napoleon was the choice of France, and
that she opposed him with pride, as the military
incarnation of the revolution, to the feudal sys-
tem against which it was in perpetual revolt.

The second volume gives an account of the
Empire, of the Restoration, the Reign of Louis
Philippe, and the Second Republic. The
new emperor was acknowledged by all the sov-
ereigns of Europe except three. The King of
Spain was the first, tne King of Prussia the
second to acknowledge the new government, the
latter with almost obsequious flattery.

In his assumption of the Imperial dignity
Van Laun considers that the Emperor was self
deceived. He credits him, however, witli a
sincere regard for the interests of France, and
also with a desire for the maintenance of peace.
All the wars of Europe were charged npon the in-
ordinate ambition of Napoleon, but a fair examin-
ation will show that he was rarely the aggressive
party ; unless that his existence as an emperor
was a perpetual aggression. Here was the one fault
of his career : Had he not formed a dynasty he
would, till the last, have been able to command
the assistance of the entire republican element
of the continent, and perhaps to have changed
the polical condition of all Europe.

The fall of the restoration is properly ascribed
to the innate obstinacy of the Bourbons ; that of
the constitutional monarchy to the incapacity
of the ministry. The two great causes were the
contempt in which Louis Philippe was held for
his parsimony, and the natural disgust of France
with the secondary place to which she had fallen
through his vacillating and weak foreign policy.
The second republic was doomed to fail. In-
deed, permanent government seemed imposssible
anywhere. There was a great financial crisis
all over Europe. And the social question was
in every man's mouth. Industry languished
everywhere, and the relations between capital
and labor had divided society, indeed all Europe^
into two camps. The struggle came, and
socialism, which had appealed to the sword, fell
by the sword.

How Louis Napoleon took advantage of the
favorable moment, stabbed in the dark the Re-
public he had sworn to defend, and revived
the Empire, is concisely told. It is with some
surprise, however, that we note the omission
by this keen observer of the one import-
ant fact in Napoleon's reign; that which gave to
it all of its brilliancy. The discovery of gold in
California, in 1848, inaugurated a new era in
modem society. With the enormous increase of
the specie basis credit was again expanded, con-
fidence restored and enterprise and industries of
every kind received an impulse which carried



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the empire with it on an irresistible wave. It
was the gold of California and not the star of
Napoleon that cast over the second empire the
glitter of prosperity, and brought to it the name
of the Golden Age. The history closes with
the deposition of the emperor and the restoration
of the Republic — may it live forever !

It has never been our fortune to read a history
of France so calm, so fair, so dispassionate as
this of Van Laun.

ADDRESS DELIVERED BEFORE THE
South Carolina Historical Society on
their Twenty-second Anniversary, May 25,
i877ibyj. J. Pringle Smith. 8vo, pp. 35,
App. vii. Lucas & Richardson, Charleston,
S. C.

With admiration for the chaste classic style
of this address and respect for the critical scholar-
ship which every line reveals, we must neverthe-
less express a regret that it was ever delivered,
or rather that the sentiments which prompt it
still exist in the hearts of the people of the
Southern States. It opens with a statement to
which the most incessant repetition can not im-
part one particle of truth. * * Sixteen years ago, " it
says, this State (South Carolina), with ten others,
withdrew from the Federal union, seeking safety,
peace and happiness under a government within
their own borders, so organized as to them
seemed most likely to effect these objects. War
was waged to force them again into the Union."
The converse of this is the truth. The nation
called " the United-States," to preserve safety,
peace and happiness, and the government its
people had chosen, determined to permit no
strange foreign government to be formed within
her limits. Ten States, led by South Carolina,
waged war against the United States to estab-
lish such a foreign government within the terri-
tory of the Nation. They were defeated. With
a magnanimity of which there is no example in
history — a mistaken magnanimity, it may be —
the nation restored to the rebellious States the
rights they had forfeited. If Mr. Smith truly
expresses the sentiment of the Southerners, which
we doubt, there is future strife in store for
the country, and every lover of free institutions
will regret that the ten States were territorially
reorganized, and the name of South Carolina had
not been stricken from the roll of the Union.

Able as the reasoning of Mr. Smith is, it is
after all but a reopening of the old argument
which Webster closed on the floorof the Senate,
and which it was supposed that Lee surrendered
with his sword at Appomatox Court House. If
this were not the result, the issue must be tried
again. Sentiment will not be permitted to con-
trol the next settlement. We prefer to believe
that Mr. Smith does not truly represent the
opinions of the Southern people.



THE GENEALOGIES AND ESTATES OF
Charlestown, in the County of Middle-
sex, AND Commonwealth of Massachu-
setts, 1629-1818. By Thomas Bellows
Wyman. 2 vols.. Royal Svo, A-J and K-Z,
pp. II 73. David Clapp & Son, Boston,

1879.

In the May number (III. 327) announcement
was made of the intended publication of the
long researches of the late lamented Thomas
Bellows Wyman in the genealogies of old Mid-
dlesex. The work is now given to the public in
two superb volumes, edited with punctilious
care, in the most approved method of arrange-
ment, alphabetically and synthetically, and is
admirably printed by the competent publishers.

The first volume is prefaced by a steel en-
graved portrait of the quaint and charming
author ; the second by a ** Plan of Charlestown
peninsula, in the State of Massachusetts, from
accurate surveys by Peter Tufts, Junior, Esqr.,
1818."

By the nuncupative will of Mr. Wyman, Mr.
Henry H. Edes was designated to carry forward
to completion the printmg of the work in the
earliest stages of which the author was arrested
by the hand of Death. The familiarity of the
editor with the author's plan, his intimate
knowledge of his peculiar habits of thought and
idiomatic expression, have enabled him to ap-
proximate most closely to the purpose of his
friend. This is apparent to all those who had
occasion to call to ueir aid Mr. Wyman's pro-
fessional services as a searcher and cop3rist of
genealogical materiaL We have under our eye
a collection of this material made by him some
years ago in genealogical investigation, and
speak from personal knowledge.

The excellent critics of the Boston papers,
whose associations give them peculiar advan-
tages of local observation and knowledge — Mr.
Charles W. Tuttle in the Daily Advertiser, and
Mr. George E. Ellis in the Evening Transcript
— ^unite in unqualified praise of the "great
work " of Mr. Wyman, and the admirable man-
ner in which it has been carried to completion
by Mr. Edes. It would be mere superogation
in any one less qualified than they to add one
word to their encomiums.

The work has been fostered by the authorities
of the city of Charlestown, in the honor of which
it will stand as a monument when brass shall
have been broken and marble crumbled into
dust.

A memoir of Mr. Wyman is announced to
appear shortly in the New England Historical
and Genealogical Register. It is greatly to be
regretted that it is not included in these



Online LibraryJohn Austin StevensThe Magazine of American history with notes and queries → online text (page 48 of 53)