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vol. X. supplement, p. 141, sec. xlviii.

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* Having thus sang, the butlers drew their swords and
simultaneoasly smote the bravoes to death.'

In this quotation we have a direct reference to
* mallet-headed swords ' and * stone-mallet ' swords. It
is therefore probable that the ancient Japanese in very
early times used stone clubs or swords.

In the Hakodate museum there is a kind of stone
mace or mallet-headed sword to be seen ; but whether
this article was intended for a sword, or was merely
an ensign of authority, cannot be positively affirmed.

Nor was Jimmu the only emperor who fought
against the 'earth-spiders,' as Sujin and Eeiko are
specially mentioned as having made successive wars of
extermination upon them. But who were these * earth-
spiders,' or, as we prefer to call them, * cave-dwellers ? '
Were they simply robber bands of barbarous Ainu ?
Or were they Koreans, or a people very closely allied to
the Koreans ? Professor Milne, in writing of the caves
found in Japan, says : * 'In many parts of Japan a
large number of caves have been discovered. In the
limestone districts and some of the old volcanic rocks
these appear to be natural. I explored several of these
caves in Shikoku, and also in other places. The only
results which I have obtained were geological. Artificial
caves near Kumagai, Odawara, and in other localities,
which have been examined by Mr. Henry von Siebold,
from the pottery they contained and other evidences

* See Trans, Asiatic 8oc. of Japdrit vol. viii. pt. 1. p. 76.

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which they yielded, showed that they were of Korean

Thus, then, we have grounds for concluding that in
ancient times there were Koreans residing in *the land
of the rising sun,' and that fhey lived in caves. In
the island of Yezo, however, there appear to be no caves
in which the ancient people dwelt, unless, indeed, a small
one in Otarunai be an exception. The single cave which
exists at that place gives one the idea of a tomb rather


than of a dwelling-place. In this cave there is an
inscription which no one has as yet, I believe, succeeded
in deciphering. There have been no similar inscriptions
discovered anywhere else in the empire, and the Ainu
inform me that they know of none, nor have they any
idea where the characters engraved upon the back of the
cave in Otarunai came from. They may have been
created with the rock for all they know, or some child
may have been exercising its skill in drawing.

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Wijth reference to these inscriptions, Professor Milne
says : * A rough sketch of the inscriptions which I saw
at Otaru is given in the accompanying plate. They
are wrought or cut upon the face of the cliflfs on the
north-western side of the bay. These cliffs are about
one hundred feet in height, and are capped with small
trees. The rock is a white, extremely soft, much de-
composed tufa. It is now being quarried as a build-
ing stone, and during the process a portion of the
inscription of which I have here given a rough copy
has been broken away. If the quarrying continues in
the direction it was taking when I visited the spot, it
is not at all unlikely that the whole of these inscrip-
tions will be very shortly destroyed. The characters
look as if they had been scraped or cut with some
incisive tool. I do not think it would be difficult to
make similar markings with a stone axe. The lines
forming the characters are usually about one inch
broad and half an inch deep. They occupy a strip of
rock about eight feet long, and they are situated about
three or four feet from the ground. Above them the
cliflf considerably overhangs, and its form is very
suggestive of its having been once more or less cave-
like. So far as I could learn, the Japanese are quite
unable to recognise any characters, and they regard
them as being the work of the Ainos (Ainu). I may
remark that several of the characters are like the
runic m. It has been suggested that they have a

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resemblance to old Chinese. A second suggestion was
that they were drawings to 'indicate the insignia of
rank carried by priests. A third idea was that they
were phallic. A fourth, that they were rough repre-
sentations of men and animals, the runic 771 being a
bird; a fifth, that they were the handicraft of some
gentleman desirous of imposing upon the credulity of
wandering archsBologists.'

After due consideration of the evidences in existence
of prehistoric times in Japan, we are, I believe, safe in
concluding that, besides the aboriginal Korean inhabit-
ants of Japan, there was at least one other race, if
not two, also living here with them, possibly before
them. Particularly is this true of the northern part
of the empire. The Nihongi sets our minds at rest
on this point. That book tells us that the most re-
doubtable of the barbarians were the Ainu, so that
there must have been people other than the Ainu
with whom to compare them. We read that the Ainu
of those early times were savages, for they are said
to have lived together promiscuously, dwelling in caves
during winter and in huts in the summer; to have
clothed themselves with fur; to have drunk blood; to
have flown up the mountains like birds, and rushed
through the grass like animals. They never remem-
bered favours, but always revenged injuries. They
carried arrows in their long hair and swords hidden in
their clothing ; they made raids upon the Japanese, and

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carried oflf some into captivity. Thus, if the ' Chronicles '
speak the truth, the aborigines were a savage race, and
very difficult to subdue.

Whether the people referred to in the above passage
were Ainu, or some other race akin to them, we


cannot now say. But that there was another race in
Japan previous to, or contemporary with the Ainu — a
race whom the Ainu found here, fought and drove
out, just as the Japanese fought, conquered and drove
out the Ainu — seems pretty clear from the pit dwell-

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ings and kitchen middens which are to be found here
and there, and from the traditions of the Ainu. This
race the Japanese have called kohito, i.e. 'dwarfs,' in
contradistinction to the Ainu, whom they named Ehisu
and Yezo'jin, but whom the Ainu designated Koropok-
guru, i.e. * pit-dwellers.'

Now, in speaking of Yezo particularly, it is a well-
known fact that there are in many places upon this
island a great number of round pits about three feet
deep, by ten to twelve feet in diameter, though a few may
be seen measuring as much as eighteen feet across. It


appears that these pits were once the dwelling-places of
human beings, for near them in rubbish heaps, upon the
banks of some, and in others, many pieces of old pottery
and numbers of stone axes, griuding stones, spear- and
arrow-heads, as well as some fragments of bone, and
portions of deer's horns, may be found by digging a
few inches beneath the surface of the earth. From the
general shape of these pits or holes we may assume that
the huts were built over them something after the pattern
of the snow houses of the Esquimaux. Ainu traditions

(7 2

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say that they were built somewhat conically, that they
consisted of poles stuck into the earth upon the banks
of the pits, and that these poles were made to bend
over till they met in the centre, where the ends were
tied together with bark string, or creeping plants.
Over the poles were laid bark and grass, and upon
this earth was placed, to keep out the wet and cold.
Inside the hut the inhabitants had as many as five or
six clear spaces left for fires, amongst which they slept.
They are also said to have clothed themselves with the
skins of animals.

If all this be true, we may conclude that Yezo was
once much colder than it is at the present time. How-
ever, I do not think that these Koropok-giirus had so
many fire-places in their huts, for in all those which I
have dug out, or had dug out for me, but one place for
fire was discovered, and that was near the centre. But,
after all, it may be asked, is it not quite possible that
these pit-dwellers may have been Ainu? It certainly
is possible, though I do not think they were quite the
same race as that existing to-day in Yezo. One Ainu
did, it is true, once inform me that in ancient times their
forefathers built huts over round holes dug in the earth,
but that they changed this method of house-building
upon coming into contact with the Japanese ; • and the
Ainu of SaghaUen profess to be the descendants of
these pit-dwellers. However, Ainu huts of the present
day do not resemble either the Japanese house or the

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Esquimaux dwelling. Every other Ainu to whom I
have spoken on the subject either emphatically denies
that their ancestors lived in holes, or confesses absolute
ignorance on the subject. In fact, though living in the
very midst of these pits, some of them are quite ignorant
of their existence; while others look upon them as
natural phenomena; but none of them trouble their
heads about the matter.

There seems to be good reason for beheving that the
pit-dwellers were shorter in stature than either the
Japanese or Ainu ; for whilst the Japanese tell us they
were hyhiio (dwarfs), the Ainu say they were only about
three or four feet in height, that they were of a red
colour, and that their arms were very long in proportion
to their bodies. Some have gone so far as to say that
they were only about an inch in height. They were so
small that if caught in a shower of rain or attacked by
an enemy, they would stand beneath a burdock leaf for
shelter, or flee thither to hide.

An Ainu once attempted to derive their name, iiLoropo/c-
gwrUy from koroko-ni (burdock). This is on a par with
calling the Ainu by the name Aino or Ainos, and saying
that because Aino means ' mongrel,' or * half-breed,'
therefore the Ainu are half animal, half human; or
that because Ainu sounds something like the Japanese
word inu (dog), therefore the Ainu are dogs. Koropok-
guru, however, is not derived from the word for * burdock,'
but has a distinct meaning of its own, and that is, * people

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residing below/ or * pit-dwellers ' ; the full name is

The Ainu say their forefathers destroyed this race
of dwarfs in warfare. We are also informed by the
Ainu that the Koropok-gurus used flint or stone knives,
scrapers, and other implements, and that they were
acquainted with the art of making pottery. This we
may well believe, seeing that so many specimens of
pottery have been disinterred. The Ainu say that they
themselves never knew how to make pottery, and I have
never yet seen anything of the kind manufactured by
them. As for arrow-heads of stone, an Ainu once in-
formed me that a few generations ago his race made and
used them, but that they had since adopted the bamboo,
because it is so much easier to work and is better
adapted for carrying poison. Other Ainu deny this,
and say they have never heard of the existence of such
things as stone arrow-heads.

The question still remains, Who, after all, were
these * dwarfs ' of the Japanese, and Koropok-guru of the
Ainu ? And who really used the stone implements ?
I am of opinion, but it is only an opinion, that these
round holes, stone implements, and pottery are the re-
mains of a race of people who existed in Japan and
Yezo previous to, and by the side of the- Ainu ; though
it is possible that the Ainu, in spite of all they say,
might have used these implements, and have dwelt in
. such houses as the holes indicate. The Ainu may, as

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their traditions say, have exterminated in warfare this
race, as far as Yezo is concerned ; but I am of opinion
that these pit-dwellers were closely allied to the Ainu
in descent, and that the remains of them may now be
seen in Shikotan and other islands of the Kurile group.



The inhabitants of Shikotan are much shorter in stature
thap the Ainu of Yezo; they are not so good-looking,
and are said to be a very improvident race. The Ainu
look upon the Kurile islanders as the remnants of the
Koropok-gurus ; but this is mere opinion, and to be
adopted or rejected at pleasure. That they are ' pit-

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dwellers ' is quite certain, for they live in pits at the
present day.

These * pit-dwellers * of Yezo were once very nume-
rous on that island. At Kotoni, near Sapporo, there
are many round holes, and not far from them, in a
swamp, is a kind of fort. The fort is not a very im-
posing or formidable-looking affair. It is merely a small
piece of dry land, with a wall of earth around it, and
defended with a ditch full of water. In order to reach
this fort, one has to wade through two or three feet of
mud for about a hundred yards. I made one journey
to it, but it was not worth the time and trouble. About
Kushiro also there is a very large number of Koropok-
gurus' holes, showing that there must once have been a
very large settlement about that place. Here also there
is a kind of fort, castle, or watch-tower. It is about forty
feet in height, and is in some places nearly perpendicular,
and has a ditch around its higher section. Upon its
summit there is a round hole like those over which the
ancients are said to have built their huts.

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It is very curious that the Ainu have handed down to
their posterity no names of heroes. They have, how-
ever, preserved to us the names of certain tribes, or
rather, they point to districts in which certain of their
brave warriors are said to have lived. Thus they speak
of the inhabitants of a place named Uremh-pet, which
is situated in the Ishkari mountains, as being a very
warhke and brave people. This tribe, it appears, had
their stronghold in the mountains, and have therefore
been named Kim-un-gwu, i.e. * mountaineers.' These
people are said to have been a particularly hardy and
big-bodied race of men. Another party of fighting men
are said to have lived at Tunni-pok, an unknown place ;
another tribe is said to have lived at Assuru, towards
the source of the Kushiro riven Then we have another
people who lived at Samatuye, also unidentified; and
these are said to have been conquered by the Poi-yaumbe,
which probably means * the brave Ainu.'

We may quote in this connection a legend of a fight

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between the * brave Ainu * and the men of * Samatuye.'
It is a curious specimen of Ainu folk-lore. It is called


* We three, my younger sister, my elder brother and
I, were always together. One night I was quite unable
to sleep, but whether what I now relate was seen, a
dream, or whether it really took place, I do not

* Now, I saw upon the tops of the mountains which
lie towards the source of our river, a great herd of bucks
feeding by themselves. At the head of this great herd
there was a very large speckled buck ; even its horns
were speckled. At the head of a herd of female deer
there was a speckled doe skipping about in front of its
fellows. So I sat up in my bed, buckled my belt, winding
it once round my body, and tied my hat-strings under
my chin ; I then fastened my leggings, made of grass,
to my legs, slipped on my best boots, stuck my favourite
sword in my girdle, took my quiver sling in my hand,
seized my bow, which was made of yew and ornamented
with cherry bark, by the middle, and sallied forth.

* The dust upon the road by the riverside was flying
about ; I was taken up by the wind, and really seemed
to go along upon the clouds. Now, my elder brother
and younger sister were coming along behind me. As
we went along, in truth, we saw that the mountains

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were covered with great herds of bucks and does ; the
bucks had a speckled male at theu: head, even its horns
were speckled, there was also a speckled female deer
skipping about at the head of the does.

* On coming near them I took an arrow out of my
quiver and shot into the very thickest of the herd, so


that the mountains became covered with the multitude
of those which had tasted poison (i.e. which had been
hit with poisoned arrows). And my elder brother
shooting into the thickest of the herd of does, killed so
many that the mountain was completely covered with
their bodies ; within a very short time the whole herd
both of bucks and does were slain.

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' How was it that that which but a short time since
was a deer became a man ? That I cannot tell.

pt should be noted here that the Ainu now, for the
first time, discovers the deer to be human beings. They
had hitherto appeared in the shape of animals, but they
now assume their proper form, and were found to be
enemies come to pick a quarrel and fight. The Ainu
say that in ancient times their ancestors could assume
the bodily shape of any animals they chose, and change
again into their normal condition at will.]

' With angry word he (i.e. the leader of the enemy)
said to me, " Because you are a brave Ainu (Poi-yaumbe),
and your fame has spread over many lands, you have
come hither with the purpose of picking a quarrel with
me. Thus, then, you see that you have slain my friends,
and you doubtless think to defeat me, but however
brave you may be, I think you will probably find that
you are mistaken."

[These words contain the challenge to fight. Here
we see that the speckled buck, now turned into a man,
accuses the Ainu of slaying his comrades. He seeks
some grounds of quarrel, and attempts to shift the real
cause of the war from his own shoulders to those of
the Ainu, when, in truth, he himself had invaded the

* When he had spoken so much, this lordly person
drew his sword with a flash and struck at me with
powerful strokes ; in return I also flashed out my sword,

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but when I hit at him with mighty blows there was no
corresponding crashing somid. It was extremely diffi-
cult to come upon him ; it was as though the wind
caught the point of my sword. Though this was the
case, though it was difficult to strike him, and though I
did not realise that I was struck, yet much blood spurted
forth from my body. That abominable, bad man was
also bleeding profusely.

* Whilst things were going on in this way, my elder
brother and younger sister met with the speckled doe
(who had now become a woman), and both attacked it
with drawn swords. With great fear they fought ; and
when I looked, I saw that my elder brother was cut in
twain ; as he fell, he put out his hands and raised him-
self from the earth. I then drew my sword and cut
him twice or thrice, so that he became a living man

[The Ainu say that in ancient times, when fighting,
their ancestors could raise the dead to life and heal their
wounds by striking them with their swords. Truly this
is a very curious idea, nevertheless the Ainu believe
in it.]

' Then riding upon a sound like thunder he quickly
ascended to the skies and again engaged in the fight.

[Thus the ancients could carry on their battles in
the air.]

*I now heard a sound as of another person being
slain somewhere; it was my younger sister who was

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killed. With a great sound she rode upon the setting
sun (i.e. she died with a groan).

[This is a figurative mode of expressing death.
Death is called * a riding upon ' or * into the setting
sun ' ; life is called * a riding upon ' or * into ' or * a
shining Uke the sun.']

' Upon this the bad foreign woman boasted that she
had slain my younger sister and thrown her to the earth.
Then the two, the woman and man, fell upon me with
all their might and main, but I struck the bad woman
twice or thrice so that she rode upon the sun (i.e. she
died) ; she went to the sun a living soul. Then the bad,
malignant man, being left alone, spake thus :

* " Because you are a brave Ainu and the fame of your
bravery has spread over many lands, and because you
have done this, know ye that the place where I lie is
called Samatuye,

[Samatuye really means * to be cut in twain,' but it
is said to be the name of a place or country. Its site is

* " The two, my younger brother and sister, are the
defenders of my house, and they are exceedingly brave.
Thus then, if I am slain by you, my younger brother
will avenge my death and you will live no longer. You
must be carefuL"

' Now, I made a cut at that bad, maUgnant man,
but he returned the blow, and I swooned. Whether the
swoon lasted for a long space or a short, I know not.

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But when I opened my eyes I found my right hand
stretched out above me and striking hither and thither
with the sword, and with my left I was seizing the grass
and tearing it up by the roots. So I came to myself,
and I wondered where Samatuye could be, and why it
was so called. I thought that name was given to the
place to frighten me, and I considered that if I did not
pay it a visit I should be laughed at when I returned
home, and feel humiliated. Therefore I looked up and
discovered the track by which this multitude of persons
had come ; I ascended to the path and passed very
many towns and villages. And I travelled along this
path for three days and three nights, in all six days, till
I came down upon the sea-shore. Here I saw many
towns and villages.

[The Ainu say that in ancient times their ancestors
could travel through the air, and could carry on warfare
far above the earth. Hence this hero travels through
the air. He follows up the path till he comes to the
sea-shore, upon whose side there are many cities or

* Here was a very tall mountain whose top extended
into the skies ; upon its summit was a beautiful house,
and above this circled a great cloud of fog.

[Here our hero again ascends to the path in the air.]

* I descended by the side of the house, and stealthily
walking along with noiseless steps, peeped in between the
cracks of the door (this door was simply a mat made4)f

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rushes and hung in the doorway), and listened. I saw
something like a very little man sitting cross-legged at
the head of the fire-place staring into the fire, and I
saw something like a little woman sitting on the left-
hand side of the fire-place.

* Here again was a woman who in beauty equalled my
younger sister [he falls in love with her]. Now, the
little man spake thus :

* " Oh, my younger sister, listen to me, for I have a
word to say. The weather is clouding over, and I am
filled with anticipation. You know, you have been a
prophetess from a child. Just prophesy to me, for I
desire to hear of the future." Thus spake the little

[The little man seeks to know the cause of his anti-
cipation of evil, so he asks his sister, who was a pro-
phetess, to prophesy and explain the reason to him.]

* Then the little woman gave two great yawns and

[To yawn means here, to fall into a trance or to go
to sleep. Ainu wizards or prophets always lie down and
close their eyes when they prophesy.]

* " My elder brother, my little elder brother, listen to
me, for I have a word to say. Wherefore is my brother
thus in anticipation ? I hear news from a distant land ;
there is news coming from above the mountains of
Tomi-san-pet [Tomisanpet is the name of a river in
Yezo]. The brave Ainu have been attacked by my

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elder brother without cause, but a single man has anni-
hilated my brother and his men. Whilst the battle
proceeds a little kesorap [kesorap is the name of some
kind of bird ; it may be a peacock, or an eagle, or a
bird of paradise, the Ainu do not know which. Here,
however, the Ainu hero is intended] colhes flying across

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