John Blair Samuel Griswold Goodrich.

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have perished, had not the tribune De'cius, with 409 tnen^
made a diversion in his favour. De'cius advanced |(o seize
a hiH in the midst of the enemy. This bold attempt cpst tb^
life of every one of his sddiers. De'cius alone escaped, hn%
he preserved the army of ^e consul.

In the war with the Lat'ins, at this tin^ a distinct natioft
again, Ti'tus Manlius, who was consul, gave a most r^nark-
able instance of well meant, but mistaken severity. He had
ordered the Rodman soldiers not to quit their ranks, without
permission, on pain of death. A son of the consul hi^meiied,
with his detachment, to meet a troop of Lat'ins, headed by

Me'tius scoffingly addressed the Ro'mans, and at last
dared their young commaiMier to fight him. The son, foige^
fill of the orders of his father, or regardless of them, in his
indignation, sprang fc^ward to the encounter, and soon con-
quered the Lat^in. Then gathering togeitlier the antid of Ih6
fidlen foe, he ran to his feUier's tent, and throwing ihem aft
his feet, told his story.

But tragical was the issue. The consul turned from him^
and ordering the troops to be assembled, thus addressed him
in their presence.

" Ti'tus Manlius I you this day dared to disobey the cgnf^

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356—446 B.C. 137

mand of your consul, and the orders of your father ; you have
thus done an injury to discipline and military government,
iuphI must, by your death, expiate your fault. Your courage
Jias endeared you to me, but I must be just ; and if you have
a drop of my blood in your veins, you will not refuse to die,
when justice demands it. Go, lictor, and tie him to the stake."
The astonished young man showed his noble spirit to the
last, and as oahnly knek down beneath the axe, as he had
bravdy wielded his sword against the enemies of his coun-
try. The whole Rodman armies mourned his early death.
How unnatural were even the virtues of the Rodmans, in
many instances !

Sect. 9. The war with the Sam'nites con-
tinued with occasional euspensions, but was des-
tined to end only with their ruin. The Rodmans
were generally successful in their battles, though^
in one instance, a Rodman arnjy experienced a
signal mortification, in being obliged to pass
under the yoke.

The Taren^tines, having become the allies of
the Sam^pites, shared their fate. The San*'-
nites were completely subdued, 272 years B. C,
ahhough, in the mean time, the Rodmans had on
hand a war with some other states, as will be
soon mentioned.

Dorhig the war with the Sam'nites, their general, Pon'tiuSf
decoyed the Ro'dlans into a defile, tn which they were wholly
in thie power of their enemies. Rejecting the advice of his
father, which was either to put them all to death, or honorably
to free them, he chose a middle course, and determined to
disgrace them.

For that purpose, he obliged the Ro'man soldiers, with
their officers leadhig the way, to pass half naked under the
yoke— a sort of gallows made of three spears, two being fixed
firmly in the ground, and one laid across on the top of the
others. This was considered an insufferable disgrace.

The Ro'mans keenly felt the indignity, and not having
their power in the least crippled by this means, only became
the mofe impatient to subdue their rivate. They had soon

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138 ANCIENT HaT(>ftlr—#£]UOD Vlll.

an opportimitar of infiietiBg upoA tlie Saat^Bifeefr a simflar
odknii, and of oUiging them at iMigdi to m» for pMet.

Sect. 10. The Ro^mam had a gkon comeii-
tion with the Tus^caM, 312 B. C. During twp-
successive years, they were defeated, — ia the
last by Fm^biu^ Bm the moat lOMiortaMt war,
about this time, was that in Whtch'tneywdre en-
gaged with Pyr^rhuSy king of Epi^rus

The aid of this celebrated general bad beeo
sought by the Taren^tines, as allies with die
Bam^nites, in their unitod contest with Rome.
He landed in It^aly with 30,000 men^ and a
train of elephants, and commenced an attack on
the Rodmans.

After various turns of fortune, he was at last
totally defeated, with thq loss of 26,000 meb,
and returned with baste to his dominions^ From
this time, the hostile states^ left to bear alone the
weight of the Rodman power, were no longer
formidable, and aU IValy submitted to RamSf
about 270 yea/n B^ C*

Pyr^hua was born to be a warrior } but warriors make
themselves miserable. When he was pr^aring to comt^y
with the invitatkma of the Taren^tises, C^eas, a wise aad
good man, aahiii hiM' what weve fak iateffliaini aad^eaqiecta-
tiM»? *

'^ To eonquer Rome, and then all It^aiy will be omrs^**
said Pyr'rhus.

" >Iim1 what will jou^do moAr^ Loid !"

'* Next, I will conquer It'aly."

" And what aftmrtii^r

'' We wai subdue Car^thage, liaoedo/nia^ all Af rka, sad

\ " And w)ie» wa hai« conquered aU we can, what fthoU we

'' Do i th«fe we will sit dowA, and spead our time 9 emu-

''Ab^mylordr said tbe resKmaUe Citt^aas, "^ what fNre-
yents oar being in peace mmI eMofert ntw ?"

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3&6 - I46 B. c, 139

Having arrived in It'aly, he apeedily conquered the Ro'-
man9> ui^er their coniiul lavinlus. This victory was thought
to have been gained by the effect produced by the elephants '
of Pyr'rhus's army, the Rodman horses taking fright at the
sight of these huge animals. Pyr'rhus was surprised at the
vdiant and skilful conduct of the Rodmans, for, at that time,
all pecqile, except themselves, were considered barbarians,
rude and unknowing.

After the first battle, observing the noble and stem coun-
tenances of his enemies, as they lay dead on the field, Pyr'*-
rhus, awed into respect, cried out, in the true spirit of military
ambiticm^ '' O with what ease could I conquer the world, had
I the Rodmans for soldiers^ and had they me for their king !"
He gained a second victory, but after that he found himself
losing ground daily, and was glad to leave It'aly before he
wa^ entirely conquered. The peq>le of Sicily had sent to
him for assistance : thither he went.

In Sic'ily, he also experienced a change of fortune, at first

prosperous, and then adverse. So that he once more returned

' to It'aly, being dmost driven from Syr'acuse by the Cartha-

ge'nians. The Ro'mans fell before him again ; but at last,

. they terribly defeated him, and he was obliged to return with

haste to his owi) country.

An anecdote, illustrating the generosity of the Ro'mans
and of Pyr^hus, and shewing that this was the age of Rod-
man virtue, is worth recording. One of the physicians of
Pyr'rhus told the Rodmans that he would poison his master,
if they would give him a large reward. Fabric'ius, the Ro'-
man general, was shocked at this treachery, and directly
mhmed Pyr'rfaus of it, sending away the physician with
scorn ; '* for," said the general, " we should be honourable
'. even to our enemies." Pyr^rhus would not be outdone in
generosity, and expressed his gratitude by sending to Rome
all his prisoners wi^iofut ransom, and by desiring to negociate
a peace.

The different stiites of It'aly now soon k)st their indepen-
deiKe ; but after their conquest, they did not all bear the same
relation to Rome. Their privileges were unequal, varying
according to tiie different ternm granted to the conquered,
and afterwiurds modified acccmling to their fidelity to the
parent state. Sense were enthrely subjected to the Ro'man
laws ; others were allowed to live under the original institu-
tions ; and some were tributary, and others allies.

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Sect. 1 1. The success of the war with Pyr^-
rhus,gave the Rodmans reputation abroad. They
now seemed to themselves to be equal to any
enterprise. They had long been jealous of the
growing power of Car^thagCy and easily found
a pretext for declaring war against that repub-
lic. It was alleged that Car^thage had ren-
dered assistance to the enemies of Rome.

Thus commenced what is commonly called
ihe first Punic War, 264 years B. C Jt lasted
23 years. The Rodmans were in general victo-
rious, though they were once, under Reg'uluSf
severely beaten before the gates of Car^thage.
Their first attempts in naval warfare were made
during tliis contention. They were highly suc-
cessful in them, although the Uarthage'nians had
been long celebrated for their enterprise iind
courage on the ocean.

The Rodmans won several naval battles, and
took the strongest of the Sicilian towns, Sic'ily
being the principal scene of the war. The iU
success of the Carthage^nians, reduced them to
the necessity of making peace on very humili-
ating terms. They were required to quit Sic'ily,
return all the prisoners they had taken, and pay
3,200 talents of silver.

The Mam'ertines, who inhabited a small section of the
island of Sic'ily, had put themselves under the protection of
Rome, with a view to ward off impending ruin, with which
the Carthage'nians threatened them, as allies of Hi'ero, king
of Syr'acuse. THe Rodmans, too proud to dignify the Mam'-
ertines with the name of allies, instead of profes^ng to assist
them, boldly declared war against Car'thage, alleging a$ a ^
reason, the assistance not long before rendered by CaP^age
to the southern parts of It^aly, against the Rodmans.

Su^ was the frivolous pretext for this sanguinary war. It
was the object, both of Car'thage and Rome respectively, to

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356 — 140 B. c. 141

rediic«i Sic'ily entirely to its sway. The Carthage'niaiis had
already possessed themselves of a considerable part of it.
The Syiaeu'sans at first having confederated with the Car-
thafe^nian^, at length turned against them.

J^igen^tum was taken £rom the Carthage'nians^ after a
long siege ; and a fleet of the IWn)an9» the first they ever
possessed^ and which they had equipped in a few weeks, de-
feated that of Car'thage, in a most signal manner. A second
naval engagement soon fdlowed, attended with like success,
the Carthage'nians, under Han'no and Hamil'car, losing 60
ships of war.

These victories so much encouraged the Rodmans, that
they boldly crossed the .Mediterra^nean sea, and landing in
Africa, took the small town of Clyp'ea. Reg'ulus, the
leader, was ordered to remain there, and continue, as pro-
consul, to command the troops ; but he earnestly requested
' to return home, as he had a small estate of seven acres which
rfiquired his care.

A person was directed to perform this service, and then
Reg'ulus, satisfied that his wife and children would have
fi)od, willingly devoted himself to his public duties. The
Carths^'niai^s had procured forces from Spar'ta under Xan-
tip'pus, and tl^us suj^pcNrted, defeated the Ro'manS| and took
R^g^ulus pgtisoner.

Reg'ul^s havii^ been kept in prison several years was then
fi^nt to Rome to propose peace^ and an exchange of prison-
ers. He was first obliged to ^ke an oath that he would
reHirik to Car'thage^ if he did not succeed in his proposals.
Wh^n tjiis poble Ro^maoi n^ade Us appearance anuNig his
countrymen, they were all touched, by his misfortunes, and
were willing to purchase his freedom, by granting the request
of his enemies.

But he would not allow his country to sufier for his sake,
and, though he knew that torture and death awaited him itt
Car'thage, he besought the Ro'mans to send hin^ back, and
to refiise the Carthage'nians their prisoners. The senate,
with the utmost pain, consented to this disinterested advice ;
and, in spite of the tears of his wife, the embraces of his
children, and the entreaties of his friends, Reg'ulus returned
to Car'thage.

The sequel may be easily conjectured. As soon as the
Carthage'nians saw him come back with a denial, they put
hun to every kind of suffering t)iey cowld invent — ^to the

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most barbarous tortures, all of which he bore with patient
silence. He died as heroically as he had lived.

After various successes on both sides, the Rodmans gained
two naval battles, and thus so effectually crippled the strength
of the Carthage'nians on their own element, that they sought
a peace by great sacrifices. The island of Sic'ily was now
declared a Ro'man province, though Syv'acuse maintaified
her independent government.

Sect. 12. A peace of twenty three years'
continuance subsisted between Rome and Car'^
thage, during which time, the Rodmans bad two
short contentions — first with the lUyr^ian^, and
next with the Gauls. Over both of these natioas
the Rodman arms triumphed. The temple of
Ja^nus, which was never shut during a time of
war, was now shut for the second time, since
the foundation of the city, 235 B. C. The Rod-
mans, at this era, began to cultivate the arts oi
peace, and to acquire a taste for literature.

The war with the Ulyr'ians was owing to depreikttions
con^mitted by th^n, on the trading subjects of Rcune. Re-
dress being refused, the consuls marched against them, and
most of the Illyr'ian towns were obliged to surrender. The
war with the Gauls was occasioned by the irruption of these
barbarians upon If aly. The Ro'mans opposed them, with
such success, that they lost two kings, and in one battle
alone ^,000 men killed and 10,000 taken prisoners.

Sect. 13. The peace between the Rodmans
and Carthage^'niai^ was rather a matter of poli-
cy than of inclination. The Carthage'nians
particularly had ittiproved the time in preparing
for revenge. Th^y began the aggression in
the second Pu^nic waVy by laying siege to Sa-
gun^tum, a city of Spain, in alliance with Rome.
Their leader in this war was the celebrated
Hdn'nihaly son of HamiVcar, under whom the
first Pu^nic war was principally conducted. The

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356 — 14fcB. c. 143

son inherited the father's enmity to the Rod-
mans, and was greatly superior to him in talents.

The war commenced 2Mi years B. C, and
lasted 17 years. It was at first highly favoura-
ble to the Carthage^nianS; and Rome was
thrown into imminent dainger, and great distress
by the victories of Han^nibal, who had carried
the war into lively. But the Rodman fortune
began at length to prevail, and Han^nibal was
recalled to save Car^thage itself, inasmuch as
Sdp'io the Rodman general, who triumphed in
Spain, had passed over into Africa, and spread
terror to the gates of Car'thage,

Han^nibal and Scip'io met at Za^ma; but
the battle of that place decided the fate of the
war, and the Carthage^nians sued for peace,
which they obtained only by abandoning Spain,
Sic^ily and all the islands — by surrendering all
their prisoners, and nearly the whole of their
fleet, by paying 10,000 talents, and by engaging
to undertake no war without the consent of

Of Han'nibal it is recorded, that when only nine years of
age, at the instance of his father, he took a solemn oath at
the altar, declaring himself the eternal enemy of the Ro'-
mans ; and never had they so terrible a foe. Like most
other great soldiers, he was capable of bearing fatigue and
hardship, heat and cold, good and bad fortune in the extreme,
with entire equanimity, and without shrinking.

He was simple in dress, rigid in self-government — he^ate,
drank and slept only so much as to support his body,^and

five him strength to perform the intentions of his great mind.

f, however, we are to believe the accounts of his enemies,
he was not without striking moral defects — being cruel,
negligent of his truth and honour, and a scorner of the reli-
gion of his country.

Han'nibal crossing the sea from Africa to Eu'rope, and

aking Sagun'tum in Spain, marched through Spain, and


Digitized by



over the Pyren'nean hilb into OanF, ddog the coast of that
country, and over the k>^y Alps crowned with snow to It'c^
ly — a land journey of 1000 milesk Such an exploit had
never been done before. The difficulties of the way would
have disheartened any other man. In addition to this he
passed through various barbarous tribes^ with most of wliom
he was obliged to fight for a passage ; the^Gaub amcmg the
rest attempting to oppose his progress.

He arrived in It'aly with only 20,000 foot and 6000 horse.
When he began this wondernil enterprise he was only M
years old. ^eral Rodman generab of approved talent and
valour opposed him ; yet he wason the point of making him*
self master of proud Rome. In the first engagement near
the Tici'nus, the Rodmans were defeated, and ^y lost two
other important battles at the Tre^bict and the lake Tkras^

Advancing to Can'n<B^ the Garthage^nians were opposed
by the whole force of Rome ; but in vain. Their fine army
under their consuls was totally routed. Var'ro gave orders
for the battle against the wi^ ofhis colleague Pmi^lus j^Em¥*
ius ; but the encounter once b^[un i^dl^ius fought with
the utmost skill and bravery, and died ccMrered with wounds^

Just before his death he was found sitting on a stone,
feint and streaming with blood. The sddier who discover-
ed him, besought him to mount his horse, and put himself
under his protectk^n. " No^" said Emil'ius with gralitade,
" I will not clog you with my sinking firame ; go hasten to
Rome, and tell the senate of this day's disaster, and bid them
fortify the city, for the enemy is approaching it. I will die
with my slaughtered soldiers, that I may neither suffer the
indignation of Rome myself, nor be called upon to give tes-
timony against my colleague, to prove my own innocence*"

It is an opinion generally entertained, though by no means
certain, that if Han^nibal had marched directly to Rome,
after the battle of Can'nse the fate of the republic would have
been inevitable. But this he did not see fit to attempt
The tide of success now began to turn against him. Win-
tering his troops in the luxurious city of Ctxp'ua^ they lost
much of their virtue.

The Ro'raans concentrated all their strength ; even the
slaves armed in the common cause, and victory once more
attended the. standards of Rome. Han'nibal retreated be^
fore the brave MarceHlus* The forces of the king of Mac^e-

V Google

3ft6~14e^. c. 145

ikm, wbolnd joined^e Cartbige'm&ns, were also defeated
^ thi& joiMture.

While FdbivSy who was now opposed to Han'nibal, con*
ducted the war prosperously; by always avoiding a general
engageioeflEtt the yottnger Scipio accomplished the entire
rednctioa of Spain. As^drubi^ was sent into It^aly after a
iong dda|r, to ih^ assistance of his brother Han^nibal, but
was defeated by the consul Glau'diua, and slain in battle.
• Scip'io, hamg triumphed in ^ain, passed over into Af*
nca^ whem Yob path was marked with terror and victory.
This peliey he had faomtfelf «ugge8«ed to the Rodman senate,
«i the only ptobable means of driving the Carthage'nians
from It'aly. Accordkig to his expectations, when Car^thage
perceived the danger to which itself was exposed, Han'nibal
waa recalled to protect his native land. He had been absent
16 years.

deip^io was an antagonist worthy of Han'nibal. When
he was very young, he saved the life of his &ther in a battle ;
and ^ler the fatel overthrow at Canons, hearing of some
young men who thought of abandoning their country, he
tnnk a few other resolute spirits, suddenly entered the room
wbere they were delaber«ting, and fiercely drew his sword and
eoekdmed, *' whoever is against Rome, this sword is against
him." The young men intimidated by his resolution, or
in^ired by his spirit^ took a vow with him and his compan-
ions, to fight fer theif country whilst a dt(^ of blood remain-
ed in their ireins*

The meeting at Za'ma, in Africa, between Han'nibal and
Scip'io, the two greatest warriors in the world, was highly
interesting. They gazed on each other with mutual awe
Old admiration. Han'nibdin vain strove to procure hon-
ourable terms of peace. The youthful Rodman, however,
answered him with pride and disdam ; and the armies pre^
pared for battle^

The contest was dreadfiil ; but the superior vigour of the
Rodmans, notwithstanding the skill of the Garthage'nians,
prevailed. The latter lost 40,000 men in killed and in pri-
soners, and were thus obliged to conclude a fatal peace.
Car'thage was nearly ruined. As to Hannibal he survived
this battle several years ; but being hated and hunted by
the Ro'mans from place to place, he committed the uiijus-
t^able act of suicide so common in ancient times.

** Let us relieve the Ro'mansof their fears/' said he, " by

Digitized by



146 ANCIENT maTomr-^^F^iaoD wax.

domg the existeaee of a fi^eble old man," He died at 70
years of age, at the court of Pru'sias, king of Bithyn'ia.
The second Punic war ended with the battle at Za'ma^ B. C.

Sbct. 14. The Ro^tstaa domuiioii now. n^
idly extended; Other victories over other ene-
mies attended the arms of the republic. PkiNp
king of JVfoc^ecbn was defeated by the Rodmans
unc^r Flamin^s in Thessaly, 197 years B, C.
The Oauls received some signal overthrows.

The war with Phil'ip is called the first Macedo'nian war,
and was terminated by the request of Philip for peace, which
the senate granted the second year of the contest. The
second Macedo'nian war which terminated the monarchy,
as also that which put a period to Gre'cian liberty, have
already been narrated in the history of Macedo'nia and

* Sect. 15. Five years afterwards, or 192
years B* C, commenced the St/r^iantmrfUnde^
AnWochm^ the &reat. This ended in his en-
tire defeat, and in the cession to the Rodmans
of all A^sia Mi'nor* The pretext of this war
wa^i that Anti^ochus had made encroachments
on the Gre^cian states, who were then called
the allies of Rt)me. These successes, by pour-
ing wealth into Rome, began to corriipt the sim-
plicity of the ancient manners.

Sect. 16. The history of Sic^ily is consid*
erably included in that of Rome and other na-
tions, but a few particulars may deserve a sepa-
rate notice. In. early times the government was
a monarchy, but it afterwards became a repub-
lic, and continued such, except at Syr^a6use»
the monarchy of which, after 60 years, was
re-established in the person oi Diony^im \i&e

Digitized by


356—146 %. c. 141

The SiciHans were frequently engaged in
wars with the Carthage^niansy and the latter, in
the course of time, possessed themselves of a
cnmsideraUe part (^ the isknd. It was the
scene and the object of the first Pu'nic war ; and
in the leecond, the whde of it was brought un-
der the sway of Rome^ by the consul Marcel*
lus, 212 y«ars B.C.

This important iriaad in the Meditena'nean dea, the
granary of It^aly, was settled in an early age of the world,
thoagh the exact period is unknown. The PhcBnic^ians had
Aent colonies tluther before the Tro'jan war. The Greekfi
at later periods made con»derable settlements in the island.
The Corin'thians founded Syr'acuse, which became the most
renowned of the Greek ciUes of Sic'ily.

The regal government exercised in the various parts of
^ idaad, Imving become excesmvdy tyrannical, was the
cause of its being abolished in all the cities held there by the
Greeks. Dionys'ius, however, a person of mean birth, but
great talents, found the means of reviving the monarchy at
Syr'acuse, and though thrice expelled on account of his
tyranny, he reassumed the sc^itre, which he transmitted to
hi» son Dionys'ius the Younger.

This weak and detestable tyrant had been well educated
by the great Pla'to ; but he soon forgot all the good that had
been taught him. He so provoked his virtuous brother-in-law
Di'on^ (whcmi the jealousy of the nobles had banished,) by
marrying Di'on's wife to one of his courtiers, that the latter
led an army to Syr'acuse, drove the tyrant from his throne,
and recovered his wife. In the hands of Di'on the govern-
ment was administered with much moderation and ability ;
but this excellent sovereign was at last cruelly murdered, i

At his death Dionys'ius again ascended the throne^ and
was -again driven from it ; ana after all his various fortunes,
it is said he became a school-master at Cor'inth. The brave
and humane Timo'leon^ a Greek, was the person who accom-
plished the second banishment of this tyrant. Tiino'leon
was sent for to assist the Syr'acusans against the Carthage'-
nians, and havmg defeated them, he entered^yr'acuse in

Dionys'ius, being unfit to rule, surrendered himself and
bis citadel into his hands, and was dent to C<Mr'inth. Timo'-

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leon again defeated the Caithage'niaiis under As'drubal

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