annotated in another chapter of this work. In the fall of 1884 the dam
was completed and in 1885 the water was first used for irrigation. Red-
lands thus becoming assured of an abundant water supply.
The Redlands school district was set ofif from Crafton and Lugonia
February 5, 1884, and A. G. Saunders, Philo R. Brown and Orson Van
Leuven were named as trustees. The school was opened May 14, in
the Cockshutt House, and Miss Rosa Belle Robbins (later Mrs. Canter-
bury) was the first teacher, her class being composed of fourteen pupils.
The people were not satisfied with the school arrangements, however,
and March 21, 1885, $1,000 bonds were voted for the erection of a school
building. A lot at Cypress and Cajon streets was purchased and a school
building was put up, but this was soon found inadequate, and September
18, 1887, $15,000 was voted for another building, the front portion of
the Kingsbury School, which was ready for occupancy in the fall of 1888.
The first business building of Redlands was built in July, 1885, a
brick structure put up by Robert Chestnut, a brick manufacturer, for
the use of Tipton & Carter as a butcher shop, being first occupied
July 28th. The brick used was made on Burns' ranch, at Crafton. It
was razed in 1898.
At this time, an important contributing factor to the growth of Red-
lands was the location of what was known as the Chicago Colony, in
the eastern part of the community. In February, 1886, the Chicago-
California Colonization Company was formed at Chicago, and after
investigating various settlements throughout Los Angeles, Santa Barbara,
Ventura and Tulare counties, the committee appointed by this company
reported favorably on Redlands, where the company purchased what was
known as the Somers tract upon which water was then being piped from
Bear Valley Reservoir. The Illinoisans thus brought to Redlands proved
a most valuable acquisition to the population and at once took an active
part in the life of the community.
The rail rate war and the subsequent boom served to increase Red-
land's population in 1886 and the new community decided that it must
have a railway. Accordingly negotiations were opened with the Cali-
fornia Southern road, which demanded, before making a move, that a
clear right of way be provided between San Bernardino and Redlands.
Unprecedented public spirit served to meet the railway's demands and
the right of way was secured in 1887, but the company did not start
its line immediately and it was not completed to Redlands until Feb-
ruary, 1888. In the meantime, the Southern Pacific had put in a siding
at Brookside, about three miles from the business part of the settlement.
SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 203
In January, 1887, the Redlands, Lugonia & Crafton Domestic Water
Company was formed with a capital stock of $125,000, and at once began
preparations to deliver water for domestic purposes.
The Town of Redlands. On March 10, 1887, the plat of the Town
of Redlands was filed and within a short time after the first auction of
lots, March 30, 200 had been disposed of at $200 each and 200 more at
$250 each. Realizing the value of newspaper publicity, one of the first
steps of the promoters of the town had been the formation of a news-
paper publishing company. The first issue of the Citrograph, the publi-
cation of this company, edited by Scipio Craig, appeared July 16, 1887,
and in this issue is found the following: "Today, three months after
the town-site was a bare plain just as nature made it, there are two-
story brick buildings erected and in course of construction as follows:
The Union Bank of Redlands, northeast corner State and Orange ; the
R. J. Waters Building, northwest corner State and Orange ; the Shepherd
Building, southeast corner State and Orange; the J. F. Drake Building;
the Shepherd Building on State Street ; the Solner & Darling Build-
ing, corner State and Fifth ; the J. F. Welch Building, on State Street,
west of Orange; the Y. M. C. A. Building, on State Street, east
of Orange ; the Citrograph Building, southwest corner State and
Fifth ; and the Stimmel & Lissenden Building, on State Street, west
of Orange. This is what has been done in three months. It sounds like
a page from Arabian Nights' entertainment, but it is not anything very
strange in South California. The rush to this favored clime is something
unprecedented and from all that can be learned, the rush will be quad-
rupled this fall. This is no ephemeral boom, but simply a hegira of
cyclone-stricken, frost-bitten denizens of the East who desire to spend the
remainder of their days in peace, prosperity and quietude. They can
get here what the balance of the world cannot offer : an incomparable
climate, the purest of water, good society and schools, and all the elements
of civilization, beside nothing ephemeral about our growth but a solid
sub-stratum of producing prosperity. And it will be years before there
will be any change except from good to better and from better to best.
There have also been a number of frame buildings erected, not in, but
adjoining the main business portion of the town. There is now in the
hands of the architects and to be erected as soon as the material can
be gotten together a three-story hotel on State Street, west of Orange,
and we hear of several other business blocks soon to be erected."
In December, the Citrograph states further: "There are five res-
taurants in the town вАФ all doing a rushing business. Doctor Sloan is
putting up a $20,000 hotel. * * * The Masons have made plans for
a handsome Masonic Hall. They have already bought the land and will
rush their plans on to completion. In the residence portion of the town,
seven new dwellings were completed last week and there are a number
of others just completed. There are now two brickyards running to
their fullest capacity to keep up with the demand."
The foregoing will give some idea of how the town was growing,
a growth that led in 1887 to the discussion of the question of incorpora-
tion, for which many good reasons were urged, the question probably being
precipitated by the discovery of scale in one orange grove. It was pro-
posed that Redlands, Lugonia, Brookside and a part, at least, of Crafton
should unite and form a city of the first class, but for a time it seemed
that the proposition would fall through because of the seemingly incon-
sequential argument over the choice of a name. However, January 18,
1888, the first incorporation meeting was held and a committee of nine
SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 205
\\"as appointed to take the matter under advisement. In February this
committee reported in favor of incorporation, but the matter dragged
along until September, 1888, when a petition was prepared and sub-
mitted to the board of supervisors for permission to call an election and
vote upon the incorporation question. This was at once granted, and
November 26th, by a vote of 218 to 68, the City of Redlands came into
The City of Redlands. ^\'hile the increase of the city in population
and wealth was not as rapid, proportionately, as in the boom years of
1887 and 1888, still the municipality made marked advancement, as the
following figures will show : In 1889 the amount expended in building
and improvements was $224,000 : in 1891, $503,650: and in 1893. $613,687,
which included $70,058 expended for public improvements. In 1898,
$370,700 was expended, and in 1902 the cost of buildings and improve-
ments, including the Mill Creek power house, exceeded $1,000,000, accord-
ing to an estimate made by the Redlands Review.
When the present town-site of Redlands was decided upon. B. S.
Stephenson put up a small building before the survey, to be used as a
jew-elry shop. This was the second business building of the settlement,
the first being the butcher shop formerly noted. F. L. Ball, a dealer in
groceries, hardware, agricultural implements, etc., advertised his estab-
lishment on Citrus Avenue, April 13, 1887, in the San Bernardino Times.
and in the same issue Judson & Brown had a card advertising Redlands,
"The Pasadena of San Bernardino County." That year was marked by
the openirtg of numerous business houses, including the livery stable of
Chauncey L. Hayes, in a brick building on West State Street ; the pioneer
tin shop and plumbing establishment of R. C. Shepherd, in a small build-
ing on Citrus Avenue, later removed to his own building on State Street
and enlarged to include hardware ; the hardware store of James F. Drake,
in his new block on State Street, near Orange; the Pioneer Lumber
Company, with E. A. Tuttle as manager ; the drug store of L. M. Johnston,
subsequently sold to Doctor Riggs, later owned by Riggs & Spoor, and
still later by W. L. Spoor ; the general store of B. O. Johnson, at State
and Orange streets ; Pratt & Seymour's planing mill and agency for the
West Coast Redwood Company ; the grocery of J. B. Glover, in the
Wilson Block. Lugonia. and the book store of Mrs. Jennie L. Jones, in
the Otis Building on West State Street. During the same year the
Citrograph began publication July 16th, and was followed September 3d
by the Southern Californian. The Citizens Stage Line, running a bus
between Brookside Station. Redlands, Lugonia and Crafton, was put into
operation, and in December an omnibus line was started between the
business section and residence tract. The Terracina tract, the Barton
Land & Water Company tract and the Mound City and Gladys tracts
were placed upon the market.
The year 1888 kept up with the rapid pace set by the previous year,
and was featured January 1st by the granting of the first street car
franchise, for the line on Cajon Street. The track of the California
Southern, or "Valley" road was completed January 16th, on which date
the first freight arrived, and regular train service began February 13th.
After much discussion, the postofiice was opened January 26th, with
J. B. Campbell as postmaster, and in the following September the Lugonia
postoffice was discontinued. The Domestic Water Company began service
February 1st. The first "down-town" hotel, the Sloan House, was opened
February 20th, and the W^indsor, or Redlands House, built by the Red-
lands Hotel Association, began business March 30th. In June the motor
206 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES
line began regular service. The year was also featured by the organiza-
tion of the first hose company and of the Redlands Orchestra.
In January, 1889, the Smiley Brothers, of whom more will be said
later, arrived at Redlands and began making purchases of land on the
hills. January 2d the Redlands Fruit Growers' Association was formed,
and January 9th the Western Union service was started, although this
company's early service was unsatisfactory, it being necessary to send
messages from Redlands to the county seat by way of Los Angeles.
The ladies of the Willing Workers' Improvement Association furnished
the city with its first street signs in February, and these were put into
place, giving the community quite a metropolitan appearance. In April
the Redlands Orange Grove & Water Company was incorporated to plant
some 200 acres of land to oranges, and orange shipments first became
a feature during this year, the record being forty-one cars. In Decem-
ber the Chamblin Warehouse, a large brick structure erected as a pack-
ing house, was completed, and the same month the Haight Fruit Com-
pany, the first Redlands fruit company in the field, began shipping.
The city recorder's office was opened February 15, 1890, with J. P.
Squires, judge, and March 5th an ordinance was passed fixing the liquor
license at $50 per quarter, an act that opened up a lively campaign on
the liquor question and brought to a formation, March 19th, the first
Temperance League. The Eagle Dry Goods House, the first distinctive
dry goods establishment of the town, was opened May 29th, with S. Lelean
as proprietor. In June, the Bear Valley high-service line was first used,
and in August the Alessandro Irrigation District was formed and work
begun on the Alessandro pipe-line, while December 1.3th the Bear \'alley
Irrigation Company was incorporated and took over all the property
of the Bear Valley Land & Water Company.
The first water was turned into the Alessandro pipe-line .\pril 27. 1891.
and May 9th the Redland Heights Water Company was organized.
According to the census of 1890, the city now had a population of 1,904,
and was served by three banking institutions, when, June 15th, the
Savings Bank of Redlands, a branch of the First National Bank, began
business. The Bank of East San Bernardino Valley, which had been
organized at Lugonia in 1887, was moved to the corner of State and
Orange streets in June, 1888, and changed its title to First National
Bank. The Union Bank of Redlands was founded May 1, 1887. and
occupied its own brick building at the corner of Orange and State
streets, which was enlarged as business grew. More ground was secured
in 1898 and a three-story structure was built, and in 1904 this institution
was converted into a national bank, taking over the Union Bank of
Savings and becoming known as the Redlands National Bank. On
November 1, 1891, the Star Grocery was purcliased by J. J. Suess. who
later became mayor of Redlands. and in December the Enterprise Grocery
Company was organized. Ort December 1st the steel pipe works began
operations. Among the buildings erected during the year were the
Smiley residences, the Academy of Music Block, the Otis and Edwards
blocks and the Chamblin Block, while the Mentone Hotel was also com-
pleted and opened.
After having been closed for some time, the Terracina Hotel was
re-opened January 15, 1892, and March 5th service began on the Terra-
cina street car line, which ran out Olive Street. The first train service
was put on the "belt line" of the Santa Fe System, January 17th, this
later being made a part of the famous "kite-shape" track. Another new
hostelry opened its doors when M. S. Lane inaugurated the Raker House.
Regular service over a broad gauge track on the Southern Pacific into
SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 207
Redlands began March 14th. On July 27th the franchise was granted to
the Electric Light & Power Company, which was incorporated October
6th, and work was at once begun on the power house in Mill Creek
Canon and on the plant for the Union Ice Company. Other improvements
included the beginning of work on the storm drains, for which bonds
to the amount of $100,000 had been voted ; the passage of the street
paving ordinance and work commenced there under its provisions, and
the building of the Y. M. C. A. home and the Union High School build-
ing. Daily Facts, which succeeded a weekly paper of the same name, made
its first appearance October 21st.
Another publication made its appearance at Redlands, February ?i.
1893, this being the Leader, proprietored by Doyle & Kasson. The
Orange Growers' Association, which was later to become an important
factor in the handling and marketing of fruit, was organized May 12th,
and August 1st Gregory's Packing House was completed, to be followed
December 1st by the completion of the Earl Fruit Company's packing
house. By this time the orange shipments had become a recognized factor
of importance in the wealth of the city. The city was first lighted by
electricity August 5th, the Public Library Association was formed Novem-
ber 23d, and December 12th a Chamber of Commerce was formed to take
the place of the Board of Trade, which had lapsed. During this year
much excitement was caused by the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act.
A few Chinese, mostly house servants, had remained at Redlands, and
when an anti-Chinese riot was threatened in this city, the newly-formed
National Guard was called out and patrolled the streets all night of
August 30th. The matter was quieted down, and nothing came of it save
the arrest of a few Chinese at a later date.
The Library Association having purchased $1,000 worth of books,
on February 22, 1894, a public presentation and reception was held, and
March 1st the Public Library was first opened to the public. During
March some excitement and bitterness was caused when it was dis-
covered that certain communities which had suffered from the "freeze"
were labeling their oranges "Redlands." In June the first graduating
class received their diplomas from the high school. In July the Cycle
Club was organized, and in the fall a Merchants' Carnival, which attracted
a good deal of attention, was held in the Academy of Music for the
benefit of the club. On July 7th the Leader became a daily paper, the
second to be issued in the city, and September 19th, the Cricket appeared,
but both of these papers had short lives.
Events of local importance during 1895 included the completion
of arrangements for the building of the Casa Loma and the practical
con.struction of that building during the j'ear; the completion of the
Y. M. C. A. Building and the holding of its first exercises March 4th;
the winning of the Redlands Band of first prize in the contest of the
bands of Southern California at Redondo, and the raising of a liberty pole,
140 feet high, in the Triangle, by the Junior Order of United American
The Casa Loma was opened to guests January 7, 1896, this being the
occasion for an elaborate banquet. In April Albert K. Smiley pur-
chased sixteen acres in the heart of the city for a public park, which
is now Smiley Park, and at the same time laid out Fredalba Park. The
year was featured by considerable oil excitement, for "our Oil Fields"
were believed to be located in San Timoteo Canon, and at least sixteen
different companies were formed to prospect for oil. In December, the
Southern California Power Company was formed.
208 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES
As the result of long planning and working on the part of the Cham-
ber of Commerce and the public-spirited citizens of Redlands, the Red-
lands Presenting Company was incorporated in 1897, a large bonus was
raised for the purpose of securing a cannery and the work on the build-
ings was commenced. The Redlands-Highland Road was completed at a
cost of $3,500, raised by the county supervisors, the city and by sub-
scription. The first issue of the Redlands Daily Record was issued
The fifteenth session of the Woman's Parliament of Southern Cali-
fornia was opened at Redlands. April 25, 1898, and during the same
month the Smiley Library was presented to the city. Much excitement
was caused May 5th, when Company G was mustered into the service
for the Spanish-American war and started for San Francisco, and May
14th a branch of the Red Cross Society was formed. The home company
was mustered out of the service December 2d and returned to Redlands.
In April, the Redlands Electric Light & Power Company and the Southern
California Power Company, were sold to and consolidated with the Edison
Electric Company, of Los Angeles, and in December the Santa Ana
Canon Power House was completed.
An innovation was inaugurated July 1, 1899, when the city began
sprinkling its streets with oil. The erection of the Redlands Electric
Light & Power Company Building was begun in August, and in Decem-
ber street cars were first operated by electricity. Various new buildings
and improvements marked 1899, as they had the previous year.
The Redlands Gas Company was organized June 2, 1900, and work
was at once commenced on the plant on West Central Street. Service
of gas was begun in 1901 and in 1903 the capacity of the plant was
nearly doubled. During 1901, 297 buildings were erected at Redlands
and the value of improvements reached the figure of $957,237.
On April 12, 1902, a special election was held to vote for bonds,
$50,000 for street improvements, and $20,000 for a city hall, the former
being carried. Among the new buildings of the year were the new fire
house, the Creighton, Abbey and Lombard blocks, the Hornby Block,
the Christian Church and a large addition to the Catholic Church. Power
House No. 3 of the Edison Electric Company was completed at a cost of
$200,000, and the same company made city line extensions to the amount
of $9,000 and county extensions to the amount of $17,000.
The first car over the San Bernardino Valley Traction line was
operated between San Bernardino and Redlands, March 10, 1903, and
regular service commenced soon thereafter. The Home Telephone Com-
pany, which had obtained a franchise the previous year, began active
operations and erected a handsome two-story brick office building. A
large sum of public money was spent in civic improvements and the year
was another in which building operations were extensive.
The season closing in June, 1904, was the banner orange shipping
year, as over 3,000 cars of citrus fruit were shipped out from the Red-
lands district, more than 500 cars in excess of any previous year's ship-
ment. A feature of the year was the materialization of the long talked of
Opera House. Through the efforts of the Chamber of Commerce and
prominent citizens, H. C. Wyatt, of Los Angeles, proposed to furnish
$15,000 and build a suitable theater if the citizens would raise $20,000
to put into the building. As a result a handsome mission style structure
was erected on the corner of Colton Avenue and Orange Street, an
entertainment palace seating 1,200 people.
SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 209
Education. In 1885 the little board schoolhouse at Lugonia replaced
by the four lower rooms of the later Lugonia school building, and these
supplied the needs of the community until 1894, when four upper rooms
were added. Continued increasing growth of the community necessitated
further facilities, and the Longfellow School was erected, a structure of
eight rooms, as well as the Stillman Building, containing four well-
equipped rooms. Lugonia employed two teachers in 1889, at which
time there were fifty-nine pupils. Charles E. Taylor was made super-
vising principal in 1892, and held that office until 1895. when he was
succeeded by Allan B. Morton, the latter serving during 1895 and 1896.
D. C. Reed then took charge of the Lugonia schools. By 1903 twelve
teachers were employed and the attendance of pupils had grown to 600.
In 1885 there had been erected at Redlands a one-room school house,
but in 1887 this was found inadequate, and bonds of $15,000 were accord-
ingly voted for the erection of a two-story brick building of four rooms.
The school was opened in 1888, on the same site as the old building, with
three teachers and an attendance of 140 pupils. In 1891 it was found
necessary to add the southern extension of the building, $15,000 more
being voted to add four rooms, and the school was named the Kingsbury,
in honor of the Rev. C. A. Kingsbury, who was one of the early trustees
of the district. In 1896 more rooms were required and $4,000 was voted
for the two-room building at the corner of Citrus Avenue and Church
Street. In 1898 the first four rooms of the Lowell school building were
erected at a cost of $6,000, and in 1900 the building was completed by
the putting up of four additional rooms. During the summer of 1902
the manual training building of two rooms was erected on the Kings-
bury grounds, but when the schools opened in the fall, it was found neces-
sary to house two departments in this building and still confine the bench
work to the old and limited quarters of the "old" schoolhouse. On
March 20, 1903, the citizens of Redlands voted $25,000 for another
school building, to be known as the McKinley, and to be located on
the corner of Olive Avenue and Center Street. The principals who have
had charge of the Redlands schools liave been: H. Patten. 1888-94;
H. Corleton, 1894-95; F. A. Wagner, 1895-1902; A. Harvey Collins,
1902-05. In 1903 there were 1,877 census children, and the value of the
school property was placed at $106,300.
In 1886, the people of the San Bernardino Valley, feeling that some
arrangement should be made for the higher education of their children,
entered into an agreement with Rev. J. G. Hale, stipulating that he
should erect buildings suitable for a school and maintain a school four
years, in consideration of the payment of the interest, at the rate of
9 per cent, on the sum of $4,000 by the subscribers. In compliance with
this agreement, in the fall of that year there was opened on Lugonia
Terrace, a school for the higher education of pupils of both sexes. Later
the school was removed to the Wilson Block, where it was under the