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up of his church. (John xii. 49, 50. Rev. i. 1 ; v. 5.)

IV. Of ivhat the Temple loas huilt.

The materials with which the temple was built
were such as were in their own nature common to
that which was left behind ; things that naturally
were not fit, without art, to be laid on so holy a
house. And this shows that those of whom Christ
Jesus designs to build his church, are by nature
no better than otliers. But as the trees and stones
of which the temple was built, were first hewed
and squared before they were fit to be laid in that
house ; so sinners, of which the church is to^ be
built, must first be fitted by the Word and doctrine,
and then fitly laid in their place in the church.

For though, as to nature, there is no difference
betwixt those made use of to build God's house
with, yet by grace they differ from others ; even



as those trees ami stones tbatnro hewed and squared
for buililinc:, by art are made to differ from those
which abide in the wood or pit.

The Lord Jesus, therefore, while he seeketh
materials wherewith to build his house, he findeth
them, the clay of the same lump that he rejecteth
and leaves behind. " Are we better tlian they ?
No, in no wise." (Rom. iii 0.) Nay, I think if
any be best it is they which are left behind : " He
came not to call tlie righteous, but sinners to re-
pentance." (Mark ii. 17.) And indeed in this he
duth show both the greatness of his grace and
workmanship; his grace in taking such, and his
workmanship in that he malces them meet for his
holy habitation.

This the current of Scripture maketh manifest;
wherefore it is needless now to cite particulars :
only we must remember, that none are laid in this
building as they come out of the wood or pit ; but
as they first pass under the hand and rule of this
grf^nt Ic.'ldor of the temple of God.

V. ir/io iras to fill those trees, and to dig tJwse
stones, icith which Solomon built tlie Temple.

As the trees were to be felled, and stones to be
digged, so there was for that matter select work-
men appointed.

These were not of the sons of Jacob nor of the
house of Israel ; they were the servants of Hiram,
king of Tyre, and the Gibeonites; namely, their
children that made a league with Joshua, in the
day that God gave the land of Canaan to his
people. (Josh. ix. 21, 22. 1 Kings v. 1. 1 Chron.
xxviii. ; xxix.)

And these were types of our gospel ministers,
who are the men appointed by Jesus Christ to
make sinners, by their preaching, meet for the
house of God. Wherefore, as he was famous of
old who was strong to lift up his axe ui)on the
thick botighs, to Hquare wood for the building of
the temple, bo a minister of the gospel now is also
famous, if much used by Christ for the converting
of sinners to himself, that he may build him a
temple with them. (Ps. vii. 4 — 0. Rom. xvi. 7.)

I»ut why, may some say, do you make so homely
a comparirton V I answer, because I bolieve it is
true ; for it is grace, not gifts, that makes us sons,
nncl the beloved of (jod. Gifts make a minister;
and as a niin inter, one is but a servant to hew
wooil and draw water for the house of my God.
Yea Paul, though a son, yet counted himself not a
son liut a Hcrvant, jiurely aH he was a minister: a
•en'ant of (io«l, a Hcrvant of ( 'hrist, a servant of the
chunli, nnd your Hcr\ant for Jesus' sake. (Tit. i. 1.
Horn. i. 1, 2 Cor. iv. />.)

A man thon \n n Hon, as he is begotten and born
of God to hinjHclf, and a servant as he is gifted for
work in the house of his Father ; and though it
is truth, the servant may be a son, yet he is not a
son, because he is a servant. Nor doth it follow,
that because all sons may be servants, therefore all

servants are sons ; no, all the servants of God are
not sons ; and therefore when time shall come, he
that is only a servant here, shall certainly be put
out of the house, even out of that house himself
did help to build. " The servant abideth not iu
the house for ever," the servant, that is, he that is
only so. (Ezek. xlvi. 16, 17. John viii. 35.)

So then, as a son, thou art an Israelite ; as a
servant, a Gibeonite. The consideration of this
made Paul start ; he knew that gifts made him not
a son. (1 Cor. xii. 28—31 ; xiii. 1, 2.)

The sum then is, a man may be a servant and
a sou ; a servant, as he is employed by Christ in
his house for the good of others ; and a son, as he
is a partaker of the grace of adoption. But all
servants are not sons, and let this be for a caution,
and a call to ministers, to do all acts of service for
God, and in his house, with reverence and godly
fear : and with all humility let us desire to be
partakers ourselves of that grace we preach to
others. (1 Cor. ix. 25.)

This is a great saying, and written perhaps to
keep ministers humble : " And strangers shall
stand and feed your flocks, and the sons of the
alien shall be your ploughmen and your vine-
dressers." (Isa. Ixi. 5.) To be a ploughman here,
is to be a preacher ; and to be a vinedresser here,
is to be a preacher. (Luke ix. 59 — 62. 1 Cor. ix.
27. Matt. XX. 1—8; xxi. 28. 1 Cor. ix. 7.)
And if he does this work willingly, he has a re-
ward ; if not, a dispensation of the gospel was
committed to him, and that is all. (1 Cor. ix. 17.)

Vf. In what condition tlie timber and stones were,
when brought to be laid in the building of the

The timber and stones with which the temple
was built were squared and hewed at the wood or
pit; and so there made every way fit for that
work, even before they were brought to the place
where the house should be set up: " So that ne^i-
ther hammer, nor axe, nor any tool of iron was
heard in the house while it was in building."'
(1 Kings vi. 7.)

And this shows, as was said before, that the ma-
terials of which the house was built, were, before
the hand of the workman touched them, as unfit
to be laid in the building as Avas those that were leit
behind ; consequently that themselves, none other-
wise but by the art of others, were made fit to be
laid in this building.

To this our New Testament temple answers.
For those of the sons of Adam who are counted
worthy to be laid in this building, are not by
nature but by grace made meet for it ; not by
their own wisdom, but by the word of God.
Hence he saith, " I have hewed them by the pry-
})het8." And again, ministers are called God's
builders and labourers, even as to this work.
(IIos. vi. 5. 1 Cor. iii. 10. 2 Cor. vi. 1. Col. i. 28.)

No man will lay trees, as they come from the



wood, for beams and rafters in his house ; nor
stones, as digged, in the walls. No ; the trees
must be hewed and squared, and the stones sawn
and made fit, and so be laid in the house. Yea,
tliey must be so sawn and so squared, that in
coupling they may be joined exactly ; else the
building will not be good, nor the workmen have
credit of his doings.

Hence our gospel-church, of which the temple
was a type, is said to be fitly formed, and that
there is a fit supply of every joint for the securing
of the whole. (1 Pet. ii. 5.' Eph. ii. 20, 21 ; iv.
16. Col. ii. 19.) As they therefore build like
children, that build with wood, as it comes from
the wood or forest, and with stones as they come
from the pit, even so do they who pretend to build
God a house of unconverted sinners, unhewed,
unsquared, unpolished. Wherefore God's work-
men, according to God's advice, prepare their
work without, and make it fit for themselves in the
field, and afterwards build the house. (Prov. xxiv.

Let ministers, therefore, look to this, and take
heed, lest, instead of making their notions stoop
to the Word, they make the Scriptures stoop to
their notions.

VII. Of the foundation of the Teinj)Ie.

The foundation of the temple is that upon which
it stood, and it was twofold : First, the hiU
Moriah, and then those great stones upon which it
was erected. This hill Moriah, as was said befoi'e,
did more properly tyj^ify Christ. Hence Moriah
is called " The Mountain of the house," it being
the rock on whicli it was built. Those great
stones called foundation stones were types of the
prophets and apostles, (Matt. xvi. 18. Eph. ii.
20, 21. Heb. xi. 10 ;) wherefore these stones
were stones of the biggest size, stones of eight
cubits, and stones of ten cubits. (1 Kings vii. 10.)

Now, as the temple had this double foundation,
so we must consider it respectively and distinctly.
For Christ is the foundation one way, the prophets
and apostles a foundation another ; Christ is the
foundation personally and meritoriously, but the
prophets and apostles by doctrine ministerially.
The church, then, which is God's New Testament
temple, is said to be built on Christ the foundation;
so none other is the foundation but he. (1 Cor. iii.
11, 12.) But as it is said to be built upon the
apostles, so it is said to have twelve foundations,
and must have none but they. (Rev. xxi. 14.)

What is it, then ? Why we must be builded
upon Christ, as he is our priest, sacrifice, prophet,
king, and advocate ; and upon the other, as they
are infallible instructors and preachers of him ; not
that any may be an apostle that shall so esteem of
himself, nor that any other doctrine be adminis-
tered but what is the doctrine of the twelve, for
they are set forth as the chief and last. These are
also they, as Moses, which are to look over all the

building, and to see that all in this house be done
according to the pattern showed to them in the
mount. (Exod. xxxix. 43. John xx. 21 — 23.
1 Cor. iii. 9 ; iv. 9.)

Let us, then, keep these distinctions clear, and
not put an apostle in the room of Christ, nor
Christ in the place of one of those apostles. Let
none but Christ be the high-priest and sacrifice
for your souls to God ; and none but that doctrine
which is apostolical be to you as the mouth of
Christ for instruction to prepare you, and to pre-
pare materials for this temple of God, and to build
them upon this foundation.

VIII. Of the richness of the stones ichich were laid
for the foundations of the Temple.

These foundation stones, as they were great, so
they were costly stones; though, as I said, of
themselves, of no more worth than they of their
nature that were left behind. Their costliness,
therefore, lay in those additions which they re-
ceived from the king's charge.

First. In that labour which was bestowed upon
them in sawing, squaring, and carving. For the
servants, as they were cunning at this work, so
they bestowed much of their art and labour upon
them, by which they put them into excellent form,
and added to their bigness, glory, and beauty, fit
for stones upon which so goodly a fa,bric was to be

Second. These stones, as they were thus wrought
within and without, so, as it seems to me, they
were inlaid with other stones, more precious than
themselves : inlaid, I say, with stones of diver.s
colours ; according as it is written, " I will lay thy
foundations with sapphires." (Isa. liv. 11.) Not
that the foundations were sapphires, but they were
laid, inlaid with them ; or, as he saith in another
place : " They were adorned with goodly stones
and gifts." (Luke xxi. 5.)

This is still more amplified, where it is written
of the New Jerusalem, which is still the New Tes-
tament church on earth, and so the same in sub-
stance with what is now. " The foundations of
the wall of the city," saith he, "were garnished
with all manner of precious stones." (Rev. xxi. 19.)
True, these there are called, " the foundations of
the wall of the city," but it has respect to the
matter in hand, for that which is before called a
temple, for its comparative smallness, is here called
a city, for or because of its great increase : and
both the foundations of the wall of the city, as well
as of the temple, are " the twelve apostles of the
Lamb." (Rev. xxi. 14.) For these carvings and
inlayings, with all other beautifications, were types
of the extraordinary gifts and graces of the
apostles. Hence the Apostle calls such gifts signs
of apostleship. (Rom. xv. 19. 2 Cor. xii. 2L
Heb. ii. 4.) For as the foundation stones of the
temple were thus garnished, so were the apostles
beautified with a call, gifts, and graces peculiar to




theradelves. Hence he says, " First apostles," for
that they were first and chief in the church of
Christ. (1 Cor. xii. 28.)

Nor were these stones only laid for a foundation
for the temple ; for the great court, the inner
court, as alfk> the porch of the temple, had round
alHjut them three rows of these stones for their
foundation, (1 Kin,c:.s vii. 12;) signifying, as seems
to me. that the more outward and external part,
as well a^ that more internal worship to be per-
formed to (Jod, should be grounded upon aposto-
lical doctrine and appointments. (I Cor. iii. 10 — 12.
2 Thcss. ii. 15; iii. 6. Heb. vi. 1 — 5.)

IX. Wliich icivj the face or front of tlie Temple

stood. '

The temple was built with its face or front
towards the east, and that, perhaps, because the
glory of the God of Israel was to come from the
way of the east unto it, (Ezek. xliii. 1 — 5 ; xlvii.
1 ;) wherefore, in that its front stood towards the
east, it may be to show that the true gospel church
would have its eye to, and expectation from the
Lord. We look, said Paul, but whither ? " We
have our conversation," said he, " in heaven, from
whence our expectation is." (2 Cor. iv. 18. Phil,
iii. 2<>, 21. Ps. l.xii. 5.)

2. It was set also with its face towards the east,
to keep the people of God from committing of
idolatry ; to wit, from worshipping the host of
heaven, and the sun, whose rising is from the east.
For since the face of the temjJe stood towards the
east, and since the worshijtpers were to worship
at, or with their faces towards the temple, it follows,
that both in their going to and worshipping God
towards that place, their faces must be from, and
their backs towards, the sun. The thus building of
the temple, therefore, was a snare to idolatry, and
a proof of the zeal of those that were the true wor-
«hipi>er8 ; as also to this day the true gosj)el insti-
tuted worship of Jesus Clirist is. Hence he is
said to idohitors to be a snare and trap, but to the
godly a glory. (Isa. viii. 14; Ix. I'.l.)

.'}. Do but see how (iod catched the idolatrous
.lews by this means in their naughtiness : " And
he brought mo," said the jirophet, " into the inner
court of the Lord's house, and behokl at the tloor
of the tempk* of the Lord, even between the porch
and tiie altar, were about five and twenty men,
with their backs towards the temple of the Lord,
and their faces towards the cast." (Kzek. viii. Kl.)
It was, therefore, as I said, set with its face to-
wards the east to prevent false worshijjs, and de-
tect idolat'Ts.

4. From the oast also came the most blasting
winds, winds that are destructive to man and
beaats, to fruit and treca, and ships at sea. (Exod.

X. 13. .lob xxvii. 21. Ezek, xvii. 10; xix. 12,
I'b, xlviii, 7, Ezek, xxvii, 2(5,) I uny, the east
wind, or that which comes from thence, is the
most hurtful; yet, you see, the temple hath set

her face against it, to show that the true church
cannot be blasted or made turn back by any afflic-
tion. It is not east winds, nor none of their blast-
ings, that can make the temple turn about. Hence
he saith that Jacob's face will not wax pale. And
again, " I have made thy face strong against their
faces," and that " the gates of hell shall not pre-
vail against it." (Isa, xxix. 22, Ezek, iii, 8. Matt.
xvi. 18.)

5. It might be also built with its face towards
the east, to show that the true church looketh, as
afore I hinted, for her Lord and King from heaven,
knowing that at his coming he will bring healing
in his wings : for from the east he wiU appear
when he comes the second time without sin unto
salvation, of which the sun gives us a memento in
his rising there every morning : " For as the light-
ning cometh out of the east, and shineth unto the
west, so shall also the coming of the Son of man
be," (Mai, iv, 2, Heb, ix, 28, Col, iii, 3, 2 Pet.
iii, 11—14, Matt. xxiv. 27.)

6, Christ, as the north pole, draws those
touched with the loadstone of his word, with the
face of their souls towards him, to look for, and
hasten to his coming. And this also is signified
by the temple standing with its face towards the

X. Of the com-ts of the Temple.

I perceive that there were two courts belonging
to the temple. The first was called the outward
court, (Ezek, xl, 17; xlvi. 21.)

1, This was that into w^iich the people of neces-
sity first entered, when they w'ent to worship in
the temple ; consequently that was it, in and by
which the people did first show their desires to be
the worshippers of God, And this answer to
those badges and signs of love to religion that
people have in face or outward appearance. (Matt,
XXV, 27, 2 Cor, x, 7.)

2, In this, though here may sometimes be truth,
yet oftener lies and dissimulation ; wherefore com-
monly an outward appearance is set in opposition
to faith and truth, as the outward is in opposition to
the inner court, and outward to the inner man :
and that is, when it is by itself, for then it profits
nothing. (Horn, ii, 28, 1 Cor, xiii. 1 — 3. 2 Cor.
V. 12.)

3. Hence, though the outward court was some-
thing to the Jews, because by outward bodies they
were distinguished from the Gentiles, yet to us it
is little, for now he is not a Jew who is one only
outwardly. Therefore all the time of the beast's
reign, this court is given to be trodden underfoot;
for, as I said, outward show will avail nothing
when the beast comes to turn and toss up pro-
fessors with his horns, (Rev, xi. 10 — 12.)

4. But as there was an outward, so there was
an itmer court, a court that stood nearer to the
temple, and-8o to the true practical part of worship,
than that outward court did, (Ezek. x, 13 ; xlvi. 1,
1 Kings vi, 30,)



5. This inner court is that which is called " the
court of the priests," because it was it in which
they boiled the trespass-offerings, and in which
they prepared the sin-offering for the people.
(2 Cor. iv. 9. Ezek. xlvi, 20.)

6. This court, therefore, was the place of prac-
tice and of preparation to appear before God, which
is the first true token of a sincere and honest
mind. Wherefore here, and not in the outward
court, stood the great brazen altar, which was a
type of Christ, by whom alone true worshippers
make their approach with acceptance unto God.
Also here stood the great brazen scaffold, on which
the king kneeled when he prayed for the people, a
type of Christ's prayers for his when he was in the
world. (2 Chron. vi. 13. John xvii.)

7. Wherefore this court was a type of practical
worship, and so of our praying, hearing, and eating
before God. There belonged to this court several
gates, an east, a south, and a north gate ; and when
the people of the land went into this court to wor-
ship, they were not to go out at the gate by which
they came in, but out of the gate over against it,
to show that true Christians should persevere
right on, and not turn back, whatever they meet
with in the way. " He that entereth in by the
way of the north gate to worship, shall go out by
the way of the south gate : and he that entereth in
by the waj^ of the north gate, he shall not return by
the way of the gate whereby he came in, but shall
go forth over against it." (Ezek. xlvi. 9.)

8. These courts were places of great delight to
the Jews, as both feigned and sincere profession is
to those that practise therein. Wherefore when
the Jews did enter into these, they did use to do it
with praise and pipe, as do both hypocrites and
sincere ones. So then, when a man shall tread in
both these courts, and shall turn what he seems to
be into what he should be in reality, then, and
not till then, he treads them as he should. For
then he makes the outward court, and his treading
there, but a passage to that which is more inward
and sincere. But he that stays in the outward one,
is but such an one as pleases not God, for that
he wants the practice of what he professes with
his mouth,

XL Of the great brazen altar that stood in the
inner court of the Temple.

In the inner court stood the great brazen altar
which Solomon made. This is evident, for that
when he kneeled upon the scaffold there to pray,
he kneeled before this altar. (See Exod. xl. 6, 29.
2 Chron. vi. 13. 2 Kings xvi. 14. Joel ii. 17.)

2. This altar seems to be placed about the
middle of this court, over against the porch of the
house ; and between it and the temple was the
place where Zechariah was slain. This altar was
called the altar of burnt-offering, and therefore it
was a type of Christ in his dignity. For Christ's
body was our true burnt-offering, of which the
bodies of the sacrificed beasts were a type : now

that altar upon which his body was offered was
his divinity or Godhead ; for that, and that only,
could bear up that offering in the whole of its suf-
ferings, and that therefore, and that only, was to
receive the fat, the glory. Hence it is said. Ho
" through the Eternal Spirit, offered himself with-
out spot to God." (Heb. ix. 14.)

3. For Christ is priest, and sacrifice, and altar,
and all. And as a priest he offered, as a sacrifice
he suffered, and as God he supported his humanity,
in that suffering of all the pains it underwent.
(Gal i. 4; ii. 20. 1 Pet. iii. 18. Heb. ix. 14.)

4. It was then Christ's godhead, not the tree,
that was the altar of burnt-offering, or that by
which Christ offered himself an offering and a
sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling savour.

5. That it was not the tree, is evident, for that
could not sanctify the gift, to wit, his body ; but
Christ afiirmeth, that " the altar sanctifieth the
gift." And by so saying, he afiirmeth that the
altar on which he offered his offering was greater
than the offering itself (Matt, xxiii. 19.) Now
the body of Christ was the gift, for so he saith, " I
give my flesh for the life of the world." (John 6.)
But now, what thing is that which is greater than
his body, save the altar, his divinity, on which it
was offered. The tree, then, was not the altar
which sanctified this gift, to make it of virtue
enough to make reconciliation for iniquity. (John
vi. 51 ; xvii. 19. Hob. ix. 14. CoL i. 19—21.)
Now, since this altar of burnt-offering was thus
placed in the inner court, it teaches us several
things :

First. That those that come only into the out-
ward court, or that rest in a bare appearance of
Christianity, do not, by so doing, come to Jesus
Christ; for this altar stands not there. Hence
John takes notice only of the temple and this
altar, and them that worship therein, and leaves
out the outward court, and so them that come no
further. (Rev. xi. 1, 2.)

Second. This teaches us, also, that we are to
enter into that temple of God by blood. The altar,
this altar of burnt-offering, stood as men went into
the temple : they must go by it, yea, there they
must leave their offering, and so go in and worship,
even as a token that they came thither by sacrifice
and by blood.

Third. Upon this altar Solomon at the dedica-
tion of the temple offered thousands, both of oxen
and of sheep; to signify surely the abundant
worth and richness that would be in the blood of
Christ to save when it should be shed for us. For
his blood is spoken of with an " how much
more ? " " For if the blood of bulls and goats, and
the ashes of an heifer sprinkling the unclean, sanc-
tifieth to the purifying of the flesh, how much more
shall tlie blood of Christ, who through the eternal
Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge
your conscience from dead works, to serve the
living God 1 " (Heb. ix. 14. 2 Chron. vii. 5—3
Heb. X. 1,12.)



Let us, then, not dare to stop or stay in the
outward court, for there is not this altar. Nor let
U8 dare, when we come into this court, to be care-
IcM whether we look to this altar or no. For it
is by blood we must enter ; " for without shed-
ding of blood is no remission." Let us always,
then, when we come hither, wash our hands in
innocency, and so compass this holy altar ; for
that by Christ, who is the altar indeed, we are
reconciled to God. This is looking to Jesus ; this
b coming to God by him, of whom this altar and
the sacrifice thereon was a type.

XII. Of the pillars that were lief ore the porch of

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